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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2017, 06:21
reena.phogat wrote:
bay010 wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


The answer is C. But I am not able to discern as to how the part after ',and' is an Independent clause. The phrase 'was completed a decade later' does not have a subject. How is it a independent clause?

2 verbs can exist in a clause if they are connected with AND and OR. Then their subject will same
Otherwise SV pair must be equal to number of clauses in sentence.
Here 2nd clause must have SV pair...But subject is not there so to correct it either we can add a subject or we can connect 2 verbs with and if their subject is same...

Sent from my XT1068 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app

I get your point. But when you join two verbs you use only 'and' and when you join to independent clauses/thoughts you use ',and'. Please correct me if I am wrong. Thanks :)
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New post 03 Mar 2017, 07:05
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C. Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

One note is that the parallel- markers should join two equal things, either clauses, phrases or just words such as nouns etc, etc. In this case, "began in A.D. 69", a predicate is joined with "was completed " another predicate. So it is okay IMO. In addition, in two part symmetries, if the subject of the first part logically holds good for the second part too, then an ellipsis is permitted as parallel enough
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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, ----lacking conjunction between the two predicates

B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and -----This is a fragment with the first part lacking a verb
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and --- Correct choice.

D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it --- The first part is a fragment and the second part is fused with the first part without a punctuation mark.

E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and ----- The first part before 'and ' is a fragment.
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New post 18 Jul 2017, 07:08
Dear,
I read through all the explanations of this post and do agree that C is the most suitable answer. But as per chapter 10 of SC Manhattan (page 197), we do not use a comma before "and" to separate two verbs that have the same subject. Clearly, C uses "comma + and" to separate two verbs. Could you pls explain why? Thank you:D
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New post 19 Jul 2017, 03:04
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duckcanfly wrote:
Dear,
I read through all the explanations of this post and do agree that C is the most suitable answer. But as per chapter 10 of SC Manhattan (page 197), we do not use a comma before "and" to separate two verbs that have the same subject. Clearly, C uses "comma + and" to separate two verbs. Could you pls explain why? Thank you:D


Hi duckcanfly ,

Welcome to GMATClub. :)

I understand your point. But whenever we want to use any additional information within a sentence, we use two commas such that if you remove the stuff between those two commas, your sentence must hold the meaning.

Let's understand this in this sentence.

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

Did you find the meaning now? I have two phrases used here. I can eliminate them and conclude the final sentence as follows:

Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D. 69 and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

I hope that makes sense. :)
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jun 2018, 02:37
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

(B) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and - B is a past participle -- so part before and is a fragment

(D) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it - same as B and Construction of the RC during the reign of Vespasian it -- incorrect

In B and D , does "officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" modify the entire noun phrase Construction of the Roman Colosseum or only the Roman Colosseum ?

AjiteshArun , GMATNinja , mikemcgarry , egmat , sayantanc2k, RonPurewal , DmitryFarber , MagooshExpert , ccooley , GMATNinjaTwo , other experts -- please enlighten.
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New post 03 Jun 2018, 04:26
Skywalker18 wrote:
In B and D , does "officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" modify the entire noun phrase Construction of the Roman Colosseum or only the Roman Colosseum ?
It can refer to either. For example:

Big technology companies in Silicon Valley, once seen as XYZ...

Here the modifier could introduce information about either Silicon Valley
Big technology companies in Silicon Valley, once seen as a major hub for the aerospace industry...

or Big technology companies in Silicon Valley
Big technology companies in Silicon Valley, once seen as the best employers in the country...

However, this is perfectly acceptable in English, and even a which would have the same problem.
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New post 16 Sep 2018, 04:12
Hi,
There are two uses for comma and
1.to connect to independent clause
2.to connect list having more than two element
Both cases are not applicable for this case.
So how C is correct answer?

GMATNinja could you please explain how C is correct?
Thanks
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Sep 2018, 19:10
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abhinashgc wrote:
Hi,
There are two uses for comma and
1.to connect to independent clause
2.to connect list having more than two element
Both cases are not applicable for this case.
So how C is correct answer?

GMATNinja could you please explain how C is correct?
Thanks
Abhinash

Good question! The two scenarios you've listed are the most common acceptable uses of "comma + and," but virtually any "rule" involving commas is going to be complicated by modifiers.

Consider a silly example, "After deliberating for several hours, Ginger decided to invite both The Professor and Gilligan to her island rave." Notice that "and" is connecting two names or objects, and there's no good reason to use a comma here. So far so good.

But watch what happens if we insert some descriptive information about our aforementioned rave-goers. "After deliberating for several hours, Ginger decided to invite both the Professor, who was harvesting pineapple, and Gilligan, who was trying to cut open a pineapple with a plastic spoon, to her island rave." The phrase in red is non-essential information describing "The Professor," and so is set off by commas. So it's completely fine to end up with a "comma + and" construction here.

It's the exact same logic in (C): "began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian," is nonessential information describing "Flavian Amphitheater," and so it's set off by commas.

Takeaways: 1) commas can always be used to insert nonessential modifiers into a sentence, and 2) pineapple is tasty.

I hope that helps!
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New post 17 Sep 2018, 19:24
GMATNinja wrote:
abhinashgc wrote:
Hi,
There are two uses for comma and
1.to connect to independent clause
2.to connect list having more than two element
Both cases are not applicable for this case.
So how C is correct answer?

GMATNinja could you please explain how C is correct?
Thanks
Abhinash

Good question! The two scenarios you've listed are the most common acceptable uses of "comma + and," but virtually any "rule" involving commas is going to be complicated by modifiers.

Consider a silly example, "After deliberating for several hours, Ginger decided to invite both The Professor and Gilligan to her island rave." Notice that "and" is connecting two names or objects, and there's no good reason to use a comma here. So far so good.

But watch what happens if we insert some descriptive information about our aforementioned rave-goers. "After deliberating for several hours, Ginger decided to invite both the Professor, who was harvesting pineapple, and Gilligan, who was trying to cut open a pineapple with a plastic spoon, to her island rave." The phrase in red is non-essential information describing "The Professor," and so is set off by commas. So it's completely fine to end up with a "comma + and" construction here.

It's the exact same logic in (C): "began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian," is nonessential information describing "Flavian Amphitheater," and so it's set off by commas.

Takeaways: 1) commas can always be used to insert nonessential modifiers into a sentence, and 2) pineapple is tasty.

I hope that helps!
Thanks a lot,I have rejected option based on two uses of comma earlier.Now it’s clear!!
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New post 23 Sep 2018, 13:03
Problem with original sentence is coordinating conjunction which is missing,hence the option C is correct.
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New post 17 Nov 2018, 12:09
I get that overall C is better than B because of "which" but I'm a bit irritated that I'm the only one who wasn't sure whether the colosseum is still known as the Flavian Amphitheater because if yes, C would have a meaning error
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New post 19 Mar 2019, 12:03
Hello Everyone!

Let's tackle this question, one issue at a time, and narrow it down to the correct answer quickly! To begin, here is the original question with any major differences between the options highlighted in orange:

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

(A) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
(B) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
(C) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
(D) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
(E) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

After a quick glance over the options, there are a few things we can focus on to narrow down our options:

1. which was officially known / officially known (verb tense & meaning)
2. began / begun / and begun / which was begun (verb tense & modifiers)
3. the varied endings (Does it need "and" or "it" at the end?)


Let's start with #1 on our list because it will eliminate 2-3 options rather quickly. While it may seem like these two phrases could be used interchangeably, there is a slight difference in how we handle modifiers that begin with "which" and ones that don't:

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater...
The word "which" here signifies that the modifier only applies to the nearest noun, which in this case is the Roman Colosseum. Does this make sense? YES!

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater...
The modifier here doesn't have the word "which," so it applies to the entire phrase that precedes it. Does it make sense to say the construction of the Roman Colosseum was named the Flavian Amphitheater? NO!

Therefore, we must eliminate any options that don't use the word "which" in this modifier:

(A) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
(B) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
(C) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
(D) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
(E) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

There you go - we can eliminate options B, D, & E because the modifier is referring back to the wrong thing.

Now that we're only left with 2 options, let's focus on whether or not we need that extra "and" at the end of the underlined phrase. To decide if it's necessary, let's go through and cross out any non-essential phrases or modifiers. What we're left with should still be a complete sentence. If not, then we have a problem!

(A) Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

This is CORRECT! While this is an incredibly wordy sentence with several modifiers and non-essential phrases added in, we can still find the core of the sentence - a subject and verb.

(C) Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

This is INCORRECT because the extra "and" took away our verb! If we read what we have left after crossing out all the modifiers and non-essential phrases, this doesn't work as a complete sentence.


There you have it - option A is the correct choice because it uses modifiers and non-essential phrases correctly to create a clear meaning and a complete sentence.


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New post 20 Apr 2019, 08:24
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.



(A) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,- need a conjunction to connect the two main verb began and was;


(B) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and – the use of V3 form of begin is incorrect here; if there were no conjunction, it would be correct;


(C) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and – good; fixed the issues in A; 


(D) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it – if there were no “it”, it would be correct;


(E) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and – incorrect use of V3 form of begin;
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New post 21 Apr 2019, 02:19
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Let me brush up a few concepts
1. 'Which' is a relative pronoun. It is not called a pro-subject or a pro-object. Therefore it does not matter whether it refers to a subject or an object of a verb or an object of preposition because all of them are going to nouns. The only criterion is that the pronoun should refer to something that is logical just in front, and if not, slightly away but not the subject, which may be placed farther away. However relative pronouns are slightly different pronouns in that, the pronouns, as a first choice seek to refer to the subject of the clause and in its absence will look for an another proximate, but, logical noun.

Quote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles
.

(A) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
(C) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

Now, how can we say that 'which' does not refer to the Colosseum but to the construction?. Speaking logically, have we ever heard of anyone calling the construction as Flavian Amphitheater?

So let's rest assured that 'which' in A and B does refer right royally to the Colosseum.



Point No 2. Past participle modifiers: past participle modifiers, such as verb+ed ( opposed by) or verb+ en (eaten by thousands of Europeans) verb+n( proven) verb+t (dreamt by), as per GMAT conventions, with or without a comma, do modify only the touching noun or the touching noun phrase.

Ex: By 1940, the pilot Jacqueline Cochran held seventeen official national and international speed records, earned at a time when aviation was still so new that many of the planes she flew were of dangerously experimental design.

The past participle modifier 'earned' correctly modifies the speed records. Similarly, in B, D, and E, the modifier 'known' modifies the Colosseum. After all, we can see that it cannot refer to the construction because the activity of construction is never named after Flavian Amphitheater.

(B) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
(D) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
(E) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

Perhaps this is a ploy by GMAT to make us break our heads on this non-issue. We must be prudent to solve this problem through other means of which there is no dearth.


(A) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,--- This is double verbing syndrome. The two verbs of the predicate namely began and was completed are not joined by a worthwhile connector.

(B) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and ------ The first part of the sentence lacks a verb. ' Begun" is not a verb but a modifier.

(C) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and -- looks ok

(D) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it -- The first part has only two modifiers but no verb; Perhaps if we remove the intrusive pronoun 'it' the sentence may fit in.

(E) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and ---- A blatant fragment without any verb.

Sorry for the boring elaboration.
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