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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the

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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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New post 15 Jul 2013, 04:54
themask03 wrote:
I get that the OA is C, but what is the difference between began and begun


hi

BEGAN VS BEGUN:

In grammatical terms, it's this: "began" is past tense and "begun" is the past participle.

What this means in use is that if you are talking about something in the simple past tense, you would always use "began." These sentences are correct:

- I began music lessons when I was 6.
- The story began in the Colonial Period.
- Where were you when the game began?
- Our relationship began when we were in high school.

A participle can't be used all by itself as a verb. Another verb has to go with it. So you can't say something "begun." You have to say it "has begun," "had begun," "was begun," "will be begun," and so on.

"Begun" would be wrong in every one of the examples above and in any other sentence like them.

Here are some correct uses of "begun." Notice the helping verb (the auxiliary verb) that goes along with it. The verbs can be separated--such as by "not"--but they still work together.

- You cannot be seated after the play has begun.
- I have begun a shopping list.
- We have not yet begun to fight.

Likewise, if you are using "had" or "have" or another auxiliary, you must use "begun" and not "began." These sentences are all wrong:

WRONG - Have you began your assignment?
WRONG - My shift had began at 3:00.
WRONG - The party has not began yet.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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zazoz wrote:

1. 'Construction' is the subject, right? so how this sentence possible : 'construction of the Roman.....began in blah blah'. My point is how the 'construction' began something?? It seems illogical to me. :help2 :?: Shouldn't it be 'construction was begun' in 'C'? I know! I must be wrong, but I couldn't justify myself until now.


Hi zazor.
I'm glad to help.

"Construction began in A.D. 69....." is 100% correct. Because "begin" is intransitive verb that is complete in itself and does not require any further elements to make its meaning complete.
For example: When I listen that song, my heart breaks ==> even though "heart" is a passive doer of action "break", but we don't need to say "my heart is broken".
Other intransitive verbs: appear, arrive, begin, break, come, cough, decrease, die, disappear, drown, fall, go, happen,.....

Quote:
2. The verb 'was completed' is passive or 'was' is a linking verb and 'completed' is the adjectives to describe 'construction'. I ask this in regard to my approach to this question; I thought that 'and' must be there, so after 'and' we need a parallel construction, so I said to myself we have 'was completed' so we must have 'was begun' to create parallelism. But when I saw the correct answer I said to myself maybe 'was completed' is not passive (I am REALLY confused) and we need 'began'. When I reached to this point of my logic my first question popped up. Now here I am with lots of paradoxes in my mind. Please help me getting rid of some annoying misunderstandings. Thanks a million.


We have to say "was completed" because "complete" is NOT a transitive verb. ==> The parallel structure in C is: the construction began .....and was completed......

Quote:
3. According to my descriptions, Why 'E' is incorrect?


E is 100% incorrect because "which" modifies " the Flavian Amphitheater" wrongly. Let ask yourself what began in A.D. 69.? the Flavian Amphitheater (the Roman Colosseum) --OR-- The construction? ==> Clearly, the construction did. Thus, "which" is a misplaced modifier --> E is wrong.

Hope it's clear.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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New post 24 Mar 2014, 10:39
jlgdr wrote:
Could someone please elaborate more on the (B) vs (D) split?

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in both the options, B and D, :
Construction of the Roman Colosseum,officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater.

"officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" is acting as modifier for Roman Colosseum and is giving more information. but if we read the sentence it gives out a meaning as "officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" is modifying "Construction of the Roman Colosseum" which is not correct. So the error can be rectified by using which/that (relative pronoun) to fix the noun.
or the sentence can be started as "Roman Colosseum,officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater" - this makes sense.

Hope this clarifies your doubt.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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New post 09 Apr 2015, 09:22
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
Seems to be the correct answer choice.
- There are 2 independent clauses appropriately connected by And.
- which correctly refers the preceding noun
- modifier during is placed appropriately & is also used parallely
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 19 Sep 2016, 10:14
Answer is C

Just reading the question stem makes it clear that it needs an "AND" at the end of the underlined portion because it is connecting the two clauses:- the main clause and the dependent clause. Therefore the decision point here is the presence of a coordinating non-contrasting conjunction} ---> "AND" in the correct sentence.

Therefore A, D are out because these options do not have the proper conjunction "AND"
Option B, C and E remaining.
Option B and E use "begun" - WRONG TENSE

Option C Uses the correct tense "Began"- Simple Past for begin as well as the proper conjunction "AND"

ANSWER IS C

KC wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

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Originally posted by LogicGuru1 on 08 Jul 2016, 23:22.
Last edited by LogicGuru1 on 19 Sep 2016, 10:14, edited 5 times in total.
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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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New post 05 Nov 2016, 16:48
Doubt is: There are two actions that happened in the past: a) began in A.D. 69 and b) was completed a decade later. If there are two actions that happen in a past and in a sequence, then the 1st action in the sequence should be a past perfect tense Vs past tense. So "began" should be "had begun". Is that not correct?
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ramyagmatclub wrote:


Doubt is: There are two actions that happened in the past: a) began in A.D. 69 and b) was completed a decade later. If there are two actions that happen in a past and in a sequence, then the 1st action in the sequence should be a past perfect tense Vs past tense. So "began" should be "had begun". Is that not correct?

Dear ramyagmatclub,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, please do not start a brand-new thread for any question that already exists here on GMAT Club. I guarantee that every single question in the GMAT OG is already posted here. Always search first for an already existing thread: if you don't find your answer there in the discussions on that thread, then that would be an appropriate place to post your question. I merged your thread into a much larger thread on this same question.

Also, if you do post a GMAT SC, please underline the prompt properly. I added the underlining to your post.

Finally, to answer your question: we have to use the past perfect tense to indicate an earlier past action if there is no other evidence in the sentence that would allow us to figure this out. If there are other markers in the sentence that allow us to figure out the time sequence, then the GMAT often considers it redundant to use the past perfect tense also. In this sentence, there are other time phrases (the year "A.D. 69" and "a decade later") which make the time sequence absolutely unambiguous. No need for the past perfect.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2017, 06:21
reena.phogat wrote:
bay010 wrote:
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


The answer is C. But I am not able to discern as to how the part after ',and' is an Independent clause. The phrase 'was completed a decade later' does not have a subject. How is it a independent clause?

2 verbs can exist in a clause if they are connected with AND and OR. Then their subject will same
Otherwise SV pair must be equal to number of clauses in sentence.
Here 2nd clause must have SV pair...But subject is not there so to correct it either we can add a subject or we can connect 2 verbs with and if their subject is same...

Sent from my XT1068 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app

I get your point. But when you join two verbs you use only 'and' and when you join to independent clauses/thoughts you use ',and'. Please correct me if I am wrong. Thanks :)
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C. Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

One note is that the parallel- markers should join two equal things, either clauses, phrases or just words such as nouns etc, etc. In this case, "began in A.D. 69", a predicate is joined with "was completed " another predicate. So it is okay IMO. In addition, in two part symmetries, if the subject of the first part logically holds good for the second part too, then an ellipsis is permitted as parallel enough
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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New post 10 Apr 2017, 08:42
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,
B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

Begun can never be used without a helping verb. B,D and E are out.
A has incorrect structure which is fixed by C by the use of 'and'
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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New post 03 May 2017, 02:57
Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,

B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it
--> lack of comma (,) between Vespasian and it

E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and
--> run-on and awkward.
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Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

A. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, ----lacking conjunction between the two predicates

B. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and -----This is a fragment with the first part lacking a verb
C. which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and --- Correct choice.

D. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it --- The first part is a fragment and the second part is fused with the first part without a punctuation mark.

E. officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and ----- The first part before 'and ' is a fragment.
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2017, 07:08
Dear,
I read through all the explanations of this post and do agree that C is the most suitable answer. But as per chapter 10 of SC Manhattan (page 197), we do not use a comma before "and" to separate two verbs that have the same subject. Clearly, C uses "comma + and" to separate two verbs. Could you pls explain why? Thank you:D
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Dear,
I read through all the explanations of this post and do agree that C is the most suitable answer. But as per chapter 10 of SC Manhattan (page 197), we do not use a comma before "and" to separate two verbs that have the same subject. Clearly, C uses "comma + and" to separate two verbs. Could you pls explain why? Thank you:D


Hi duckcanfly ,

Welcome to GMATClub. :)

I understand your point. But whenever we want to use any additional information within a sentence, we use two commas such that if you remove the stuff between those two commas, your sentence must hold the meaning.

Let's understand this in this sentence.

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

Did you find the meaning now? I have two phrases used here. I can eliminate them and conclude the final sentence as follows:

Construction of the Roman Colosseum began in A.D. 69 and was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

I hope that makes sense. :)
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2018, 12:44
in option c, why is began in active form???? shouldn't it be "was began"
plzzz explain... !!!
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Re: Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the [#permalink]

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New post 25 Mar 2018, 19:16
KC wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 2017

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 780
Page: 705

Construction of the Roman Colosseum, which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, was completed a decade later, during the reign of Titus, who opened the Colosseum with a one-hundred-day cycle of religious pageants, gladiatorial games, and spectacles.

(A) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian,

(B) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

(C) which was officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, began in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and

(D) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater and begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian it

(E) officially known as the Flavian Amphitheater, which was begun in A.D. 69, during the reign of Vespasian, and


D is out because of It and begun here is modifier we need proper verb.
E is out which was begun does not make sense and should be left out .
A is run on there is no conjunction to connect two verbs began and was completed
B begun is a modifier not a verb so B should be dropped .
C is correct
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