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# Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric

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Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 28 Aug 2019, 21:19
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Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.

(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of
(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning
(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning

Please explain the differnece between "as a result of Ving" and "result from"?

Originally posted by chihao on 29 Nov 2003, 13:30.
Last edited by Bunuel on 28 Aug 2019, 21:19, edited 3 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric  [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2016, 07:48
5
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techiesam wrote:
OptimusPrepJanielle wrote:
Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.
(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning as a result of + noun comes before a consequence, not to describe the cause of the consequence
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of
(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning suggests more than one type of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and should say "increases"
(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning suggests more than one type of atmospheric carbon dioxide

There is no doubt that B is the right choice,but the questions needs the student to understand the difference between combustion and burning.Doesn't that require outside knowledge?

The main reason that A is wrong is the usage of "as a result of".

The phrase "as a result of..." cannot directly refer to CO2, but should refer to the formation of CO2 ( either the verb "is formed" directly or the past participle "formed").

The correct construction could be as follows:
"As a result of burning fossile fuels, CO2 is formed." ( adverbial phrase used to refer to the verb "is formed")

Another alternative extension of this usage could be as follows:
Instead of a complete clause, even a past particple "formed" would be acceptable. The structure would then be as follows:
"CO2 formed as a result of burning...."

You are right that people who do not come from mechanical engineering background would not know that combustion is controlled burning. However even for them who consider both these words synonymous, "combustion" would be preferable, since in most cases a concrete noun form is preferred to a gerund form.
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric  [#permalink]

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23 May 2014, 12:56
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jlgdr wrote:
Alternative OE needed here, not one of the posts clearly explains this question. What the hell is atmospheric carbon dioxide anyways?

Cheers!
J

Hi jlgdr,

• Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be
o that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe
 by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.

MEANING

• The sentence states something in contrast to the earlier hypotheses. It says:
• It is possible that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide would cool the globe.
o This increase in the atmospheric carbon dioxide resulted from the burning of fossil fuels.
• How can it cool the globe? - by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.

So, now we know what the author wants to convey through the original sentence. Let’s look at the options one by one and find out the errors, if there are any:

OPTION A: Incorrect

‘…increased carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels…’:
Let’s consider a simple example:

India, as a result of win over Australia, moved into the semi-finals.
In this sentence, the action of India moving into the semi-finals happened as a result of India’s win over Australia.
Similarly, option A indicates that the atmospheric carbon dioxide would cool the globe as a result of the burning fossil fuels. This meaning is illogical. The possibility is that the increased atmospheric carbon dioxide would cool the globe.

OPTION B: Correct

The verb-ing modifier ‘resulting’ modifies the preceding noun ‘increased atmospheric carbon dioxide’ and tells us about the reason of the increase in the carbon dioxide.

OPTION C: Incorrect

The result of the combustion of fossil fuels is ‘increased atmospheric carbon dioxide’ not ‘increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere’.
‘Increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere’ is wordy in comparison to ‘increased atmospheric carbon dioxide’.

OPTION D: Incorrect

1. Since ‘that’ refers to ‘carbon dioxide’, it is singular. Hence using plural verb ‘increase’ is incorrect.
2. This option states that the carbon dioxide would cool the globe, while the original sentence stated that the increased carbon dioxide would cool the globe. The meaning is changed.

OPTION E: Incorrect

‘…atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from….’ means that the atmospheric carbon dioxide increased something. ‘increased’ is acting as a verb here for the subject ‘that’. It cannot act as a verb-ed modifier because then there would be no verb in the dependent clause starting with ‘that’.

P.S.: ‘atmospheric carbon dioxide’ simply means the carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere.

Hope this helps!
Manyu
##### General Discussion
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric  [#permalink]

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29 Nov 2003, 14:09
chihao wrote:
Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.
(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of
(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning
(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning

Please explain the differnece between "as a result of Ving" and "result from"?

little difference in meaning...but there is a difference in how we use it...

1. Y happened resulting from X happening

2. X happened. as a result , y happened

"As a result " is generally "Set off" by a comma in its usage

As a result, the 49ers had to play without their regular quarter back.

The 49ers , as a result, had to play without their regular quarter back.

we cant really use "resulting from" here...

i think here B is the best answer

thanks
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric  [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2004, 20:18

Dont think that increased CO2, or increased "level" of CO2 makes any diff in the paragraph.

In GMAT, I have seldom seen 2 "-ing" in the same sentence.
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2004, 02:51
1
chihao wrote:
Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.
(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of
(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning
(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning

chihao, are you sleeping? people crave for an answer...
meanwhile, i think, the answer is e. c and d do not fit with would. a and b comparing with e are wordy...
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10 Aug 2007, 12:20
I chose A initially...but I think 'as a result of' is redundant in this case.

B is the best of all choices...but isn't increased CO2 resulting...awkward...how could a past event be affected by a present progressive event...any thoughts??
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10 Aug 2007, 15:09
vineetgupta wrote:
I chose A initially...but I think 'as a result of' is redundant in this case.

B is the best of all choices...but isn't increased CO2 resulting...awkward...how could a past event be affected by a present progressive event...any thoughts??

in the context of this sentence, 'increased' is used as an adverb to modify CO2 not as a verb.
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Re: SC ....Contrary to earlier conjectures.....  [#permalink]

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25 Feb 2008, 11:00
2
Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.

(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning
what does "as a result" refer to?
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of
correct. resulting refers to increased carbon dioxide.
(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
it seems that the practice of increasing would cool..., changing the meaning. moreover, does resulting refer to atmosphere? unclear
(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning
that is unclear
(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning
wrong tense
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05 Jul 2009, 12:58
1
Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (noun phrase) resulting from the combustion of burning fossil fuels (participle phrase modifying the noun phrase) would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.

This is not reflected in the C.
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric  [#permalink]

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16 May 2014, 14:38
Alternative OE needed here, not one of the posts clearly explains this question. What the hell is atmospheric carbon dioxide anyways?

Cheers!
J
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric  [#permalink]

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27 May 2015, 09:55
Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.
(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning as a result of + noun comes before a consequence, not to describe the cause of the consequence
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of
(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning suggests more than one type of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and should say "increases"
(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning suggests more than one type of atmospheric carbon dioxide
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Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2015, 03:07
beckee529 wrote:
vineetgupta wrote:
I chose A initially...but I think 'as a result of' is redundant in this case.

B is the best of all choices...but isn't increased CO2 resulting...awkward...how could a past event be affected by a present progressive event...any thoughts??

in the context of this sentence, 'increased' is used as an adverb to modify CO2 not as a verb.

Thanks! This is a perfect angle to cut in.

OA is B. The context means that "Maybe atmospheric carbon dioxide has reached a certain degree, it would thus cool the globe".

(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning
Grammatically correct. I would choose A if there is no B.
Here "increased atmospheric carbon dioxide" is correct, because it means that the CO2 has already reached a certain degree.

(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of
Correct. Will compare with A later.

(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
Wrong.
(1) Changed the meaning of the sentence. "increasing" is incorrectly used. It means that CO2 level is still increasing.
(2) Redundant. "carbon dioxide in the atmosphere" equals "atmospheric carbon dioxide" but is much longer.

(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning
(1) Redundant. "carbon dioxide in the atmosphere" equals "atmospheric carbon dioxide" but is much longer.
(2) The function of "increase" changed.
Originally, "increase" is used to describe the CO2 level.
However, here "increase" is used to describe how CO2 is formed.
(3) The tense of "increase" is wrong. The increase must have happened before we speak.

(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning
The function of "increase" changed.
Originally, "increase" is used to describe the CO2 level.
However, here "increase" is used to describe how CO2 is formed.

Now let's compare A and B. From the first sight they are the same:
(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (as a result of burning)
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide (resulting from the combustion of)

However, if we look carefully into the brackets, we find that in A "as a result of burning" is a prepositional phrase that works as an attribute; while in B, "resulting from the combustion of" is a present participle phrase that also work as an attribute.

The only difference between A and B is that:
(1) In A, "result" is a noun that has some connectiontion with CO2, either direct or indirect, we can't tell.
(2) In B, "resulting" is a verb, an action that is received directly by CO2.

Therefore, B is better.
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased  [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2015, 04:31
1
Fossil fuels (coal, crude oil and natural gas) are those that have been fossilized from millions of years ago. The process of using them is called combustion, which is to ignite them in a closed chamber such as a furnace, an engine etc; Combustion’s main purpose is to harness heat.

On the contrary burning refers to using sources such as wood that are not fossilized but used immediately. Burning is mostly done in open fires. The purpose here would be mostly for lighting and sometimes to generate heat like in cooking.

Base on the above description choices A, D and E. that call usage of fossil fuel as burning are out. Between B and C: Increased atmospheric CO2 means, high level of CO2. This is the correct meaning as in B;

However, it may be that increasing Co2 in the atmosphere may mean two things. 1. Increasing may be an on - going effect or it may mean that increasing CO2 in the atmosphere by some agent; both the prospects are not the intended meaning. So C is out
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric  [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2016, 06:19
OptimusPrepJanielle wrote:
Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.
(A) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning as a result of + noun comes before a consequence, not to describe the cause of the consequence
(B) increased atmospheric carbon dioxide resulting from the combustion of
(C) increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting from the combustion of
(D) carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that increase from burning suggests more than one type of atmospheric carbon dioxide, and should say "increases"
(E) atmospheric carbon dioxide that increased from burning suggests more than one type of atmospheric carbon dioxide

There is no doubt that B is the right choice,but the questions needs the student to understand the difference between combustion and burning.Doesn't that require outside knowledge?
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric  [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2018, 05:14
Hello.
Please explain why option B is correct and what is the error in option C ?
Thank you.
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric  [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2018, 06:30
shahsuhailp wrote:
Hello.
Please explain why option B is correct and what is the error in option C ?
Thank you.

Hi shahsuhailp,

Option C changes the intended meaning.

Original sentence:
chihao wrote:
Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased atmospheric carbon dioxide as a result of burning fossil fuels would cool the globe by reducing the amount of solar energy absorbed by snow.

The original sentence talks about the "increased atmospheric carbon dioxide" and not about "increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere".

Hope this helps.

Regards,
Louis
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2019, 21:23
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Re: Contrary to earlier conjectures, it may be that increased   [#permalink] 28 Aug 2019, 21:23
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