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Contrary to long-held belief, a bout of strenuous, fatiguing workout

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Contrary to long-held belief, a bout of strenuous, fatiguing workout  [#permalink]

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Project RC Butler 2020 - Participate and win GMAT Club Tests.
Passage # 154 Date: 16-Jun-2020
This post is a part of Project RC Butler 2020. Click here for Details


Contrary to long-held belief, a bout of strenuous, fatiguing workout may boost immune responses in living beings and not decrease the immunity. The long-held belief came into existence on the basis of studies conducted on long-distance runners in the 1980s who reported developing colds in the days closely following their races. Their reported rate of sickness was much higher than found among the other non-athlete family members. Subsequent research into the workings of the immune systems of athletes while and after strenuous events indicated that immune cells would start crowding the bloodstreams of the athletes during the event, but the numbers of such immune cells in the bloodstream would fall sharply within a couple of hours, however, to levels even below than that before the event. Scientists concluded that the physical strain on the athletes had killed a large number of immune cells, laying the athletes’ bodies vulnerable to germs looking out for an opportunity to infect. This conclusion became an established principle in exercise science and sports. However, new experiments have revealed that hardly a third of the athletes who believed they had caught cold after strenuous exercise had actually caught cold per their saliva tests. They had probably mistaken the symptoms of some allergies or itchiness as cold.

Recent research using technically sophisticated methods has thrown new light on the “established principle”. In studies using mice, the mouse immune cells were dyed enabling scientists to track and identify the location of the cells. When the mice ran, several of the immune cells would move out of the different tissues of the mouse’ body and enter the bloodstream – much like what happens in the human body. However, the scientists observed that post a mouse’s exercise, these cells did not die in huge numbers. The tracking showed that the excess immune cells moved from the bloodstream to other parts of the mouse’s body – the guts or the lungs, for example – which might be in need of more help from the immune cells, post the exercise. Also, some cells entered the bone marrow triggering off the creation of more immune cells. Thus, it was understood that by redirecting the cells from the blood into those weak areas, the mice’s immune systems increased their defenses in those areas of the body that had been more vulnerable after exercise. This research opened up the possibility of verifying a similar migration of these cells in human bodies after exercise.

1. Which of the following was not observed in the mice during the experiment?

A. Their bone marrows were producing more immune cells post the exercise.
B. Their bloodstreams showed the entry of immune cells from the tissues from different parts of their bodies.
C. Post the exercise, the excess immune cells in their bloodstream were destroyed.
D. After the exercise, the immune cells in the bloodstream migrated to organs like the guts or the lungs.
E. During the exercise there was an increased presence of immune cells in their bloodstream.


2. Which of the following holds true about the athletes a few days immediately after the event?

A. They developed severe cold infection for which they had to take treatment.
B. They felt sore and fatigued because of the strenuous exercise during the event.
C. Many of them developed symptoms which made them think they had caught cold.
D. Their immune systems became weak as a result of the strenuous exercise.
E. They faced higher risk of contracting infections than their other non-athlete members of the family.


3. Which of the following can be said about the immune cells in an athlete’s body immediately after the end of the event?

A. A number of the excess immune cells were completely destroyed and because of that their overall number fell slightly.
B. The immune cells began entering the bloodstream in the athlete’s body.
C. There was an excess of immune cells in the athlete’s bloodstream.
D. The extra cells were redirected to other parts of the athlete’s body.
E. The athletes caught cold because of the lowered levels of immune cells in their bloodstream.


4. The primary motive of the passage is to

A. Debunk an old unfounded belief.
B. Show how a long-held belief came to be questioned.
C. Introduce a new phenomenon to test a long-held belief.
D. Discuss the new technically advanced methods that helped debunk an old belief.
E. Prove that what is possible in animals will be replicated in humans as well.


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Contrary to long-held belief, a bout of strenuous, fatiguing workout  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jun 2020, 11:47
3
1. Which of the following was not observed in the mice during the experiment?

A. Their bone marrows were producing more immune cells post the exercise. - Observed in the Mice as per Also, some cells entered the bone marrow triggering off the creation of more immune cells. mentioned in the Passage.

B. Their bloodstreams showed the entry of immune cells from the tissues from different parts of their bodies. - As per The tracking showed that the excess immune cells moved from the bloodstream to other parts of the mouse’s body mentioned in the passage
.
C. Post the exercise, the excess immune cells in their bloodstream were destroyed. - Correct - This was the old belief mentioned in para 1.

D. After the exercise, the immune cells in the bloodstream migrated to organs like the guts or the lungs. - Mentioned in the passage that excess immune cells moved from the bloodstream to other parts of the mouse’s body like guts or the lungs.

E. During the exercise there was an increased presence of immune cells in their bloodstream. - Given in the passage these cells did not die in huge numbers. The tracking showed that the excess immune cells moved from the bloodstream to other parts of the mouse’s body



2. Which of the following holds true about the athletes a few days immediately after the event?

A. They developed severe cold infection for which they had to take treatment. - Out of Scope - It is mentioned in the passage that many athletes reported, but no where has it been mentioned that athletes took treatment after the Event.

B. They felt sore and fatigued because of the strenuous exercise during the event. - Out of Scope - Not mentioned in the passage

C. Many of them developed symptoms which made them think they had caught cold. - Correct -Mentioned in the Passage They had probably mistaken the symptoms of some allergies or itchiness as cold.

D. Their immune systems became weak as a result of the strenuous exercise. - This was the Old belief, which is questioned.

E. They faced higher risk of contracting infections than their other non-athlete members of the family. - Same as D




3. Which of the following can be said about the immune cells in an athlete’s body immediately after the end of the event?

A. A number of the excess immune cells were completely destroyed and because of that their overall number fell slightly.- This was the Old belief

B. The immune cells began entering the bloodstream in the athlete’s body. - The immune cells enter the bloodstream during the event.

C. There was an excess of immune cells in the athlete’s bloodstream. - Correct - Mentioned in 1st Para after strenuous events indicated that immune cells would start crowding the bloodstreams of the athletes during the event, but the numbers of such immune cells in the bloodstream would fall sharply within a couple of hours,. Since the Athletes just misunderstood allergies as Cold, hence Immune Cells weren't lost after the event and Immune cells increased ( mentioned ).

D. The extra cells were redirected to other parts of the athlete’s body. - Wrong, as in the conclusion, the author says that This research opened up the possibility of verifying a similar migration of these cells in human bodies after exercise.. So this is yet to be proven in Humans.

E. The athletes caught cold because of the lowered levels of immune cells in their bloodstream. - This was the Old belief.



4. The primary motive of the passage is to

A. Debunk an old unfounded belief. - Wrong - Unfounded is very extreme as Scientists concluded that the physical strain on the athletes had killed a large number of immune cells, laying the athletes’ bodies vulnerable to germs looking out for an opportunity to infect. Scientists performed certain experiment and concluded.

B. Show how a long-held belief came to be questioned. - Correct, As per the Conclusion, This research opened up the possibility of verifying a similar migration of these cells in human bodies after exercise. Possibility of verifying a new theory. This New theory puts into question the Old belief.

C. Introduce a new phenomenon to test a long-held belief. - No New Phenomenon was brought to test the Long held belief.

D. Discuss the new technically advanced methods that helped debunk an old belief. - New technically advanced method has not debunked an old belief, but has brought it into question.

E. Prove that what is possible in animals will be replicated in humans as well. - Out of Scope. Passage is about a Long held belief.
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Re: Contrary to long-held belief, a bout of strenuous, fatiguing workout  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Jul 2020, 02:24
1
1. Which of the following was not observed in the mice during the experiment?

A. Their bone marrows were producing more immune cells post the exercise. True, refer to 2nd para
B. Their bloodstreams showed the entry of immune cells from the tissues from different parts of their bodies. True, refer to 2nd para
C. Post the exercise, the excess immune cells in their bloodstream were destroyed. False this was the hypothesis on humans for the time
D. After the exercise, the immune cells in the bloodstream migrated to organs like the guts or the lungs. True, refer to 2nd para
E. During the exercise there was an increased presence of immune cells in their bloodstream. True, refer to 2nd para

2. Which of the following holds true about the athletes a few days immediately after the event?

A. They developed severe cold infection for which they had to take treatment. they had symptoms that lead them to assume it being cold infection
B. They felt sore and fatigued because of the strenuous exercise during the event. we know how they felt after the event,not while it was on going
C. Many of them developed symptoms which made them think they had caught cold. This is what is being explained in the 2nd para after the mice example
D. Their immune systems became weak as a result of the strenuous exercise. Old belief
E. They faced higher risk of contracting infections than their other non-athlete members of the family. Old belief

3. Which of the following can be said about the immune cells in an athlete’s body immediately after the end of the event?
the question tries to jinx one's thought process by mixing the mice example with the athlete's condition

A. A number of the excess immune cells were completely destroyed and because of that their overall number fell slightly.
B. The immune cells began entering the bloodstream in the athlete’s body.
C. There was an excess of immune cells in the athlete’s bloodstream. True
D. The extra cells were redirected to other parts of the athlete’s body.
E. The athletes caught cold because of the lowered levels of immune cells in their bloodstream. never mentioned

4. The primary motive of the passage is to

A. Debunk an old unfounded belief. haven't come to any conclusion, the mice example just opened doors to question the earlier belief
B. Show how a long-held belief came to be questioned. True
C. Introduce a new phenomenon to test a long-held belief. what the phenomenon? Irrelevant option!
D. Discuss the new technically advanced methods that helped debunk an old belief. example is being put up to question earlier belief
E. Prove that what is possible in animals will be replicated in humans as well. nope, nothing is proved
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Re: Contrary to long-held belief, a bout of strenuous, fatiguing workout   [#permalink] 25 Jul 2020, 02:24

Contrary to long-held belief, a bout of strenuous, fatiguing workout

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