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Coral reefs increasingly face a number of threats including climate

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Coral reefs increasingly face a number of threats including climate  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2018, 05:30
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based on 25 sessions

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Coral reefs increasingly face a number of threats including climate change, ocean acidification, overfishing, and eutrophication. Due to a number of these threats, coral reefs have experienced a distressing decline in the past several decades, associated in many places with an increase in algal biomass. Accordingly, the loss of live coral cover is often associated with a phase-shift from a coral-dominated community structure to a fleshy algae dominated ecosystem.

There are many ways that this community shift can happen, and controversy exists over the relative importance of different factors in contributing to change. According to the bottom-up model, nutrient enrichment of coral reef areas results in an increase of benthic algae, which can grow quicker than coral in large blooms and out compete coral for resources, leading to reef degradation. In the top-down model, herbivory keeps macro algae biomass in check and allows the coral-dominated community to persist. Furthermore, disturbance events like bleaching can lead to a community shift because coral cover grows at a slower rate after a disturbance event and competitive interactions with macro algae become more frequent. The health of corals has come under more scrutiny particularly because of incidences of bleaching, which has been linked to heat stress. Thus, knowledge of coral physiology and coral-algae interaction is becoming increasingly relevant to understanding how corals can recover from stress events.

Previous studies have shown that a number of algae species have negative effects on coral health and physiology. For example, coral tissue mortality may be strongly affected by the presence of competing macro algae. However, in some cases, coral has been shown to actually overgrow and displace algae, while in other cases the algae has no significant impact on the coral. It seems the impact of macro algae on coral is dependent on both the coral and algae species, and that the competition between the two is highly variable, sometimes showing very little to no effect.

Despite the importance of understanding coral-algal competition and the phase-shifts in community structure, there has been very little previous experimental research on quantifying this interaction. Past studies have focused on the impact of herbivory or nutrient enrichment on algal growth and resulting competition with corals, but few quantify the effects of algae on coral physiology to measure the possible competition between the two.

Source - CrackVerbal - GMAT Reading Comprehension Guide




1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) discuss the competition for survival that exists between the coral tissue and the macro algae.
(B) Evaluate the environmental consequences the loss of live coral cover has and suggest some reparative measures.
(C) Discuss a factor that could be causative for the loss of live coral cover and suggest the need for further research to ascertain its impact.
(D) Present a concern about the possible consequences of promoting macro algae population growth in marine ecosystems.
(E) Explain why a particular strategy to increase coral reef population has been less successful than was anticipated.



2. Which of the following can be inferred about macro algae?
(A) They are often more hardy than the coral reef during disturbance events like bleaching.
(B) They pose the biggest threat to the coral reef population.
(C) They are less likely than are the corals to be affected by competition from other marine organisms.
(D) Some species of macro algae are more competitive than others.
(E) Some macro algae are considered inedible by many herbivores resulting in their being unchecked by herbivory.



3. According to the passage, the decline of coral reef could occur because of all of the following EXCEPT?
(A) Substantial elevation of temperature
(B) Competition with other marine organisms
(C) Increased levels of acidity in water
(D) Herbivory of macro algae
(E) Unscrupulous fishing practices


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Coral reefs increasingly face a number of threats including climate  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2018, 21:57
For Question 1

Is the answer "C" because of these lines

Past studies have focused on the impact of herbivory or nutrient enrichment on algal growth and resulting competition with corals, but few quantify the effects of algae on coral physiology to measure the possible competition between the two.

Did it mean that "Some studies do not talk about the effects of algae" So they need to study more on this - by saying further research needs to be done ??
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Re: Coral reefs increasingly face a number of threats including climate  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2018, 23:17
1
KanishkMehta wrote:
For Question 1

Is the answer "C" because of these lines

Past studies have focused on the impact of herbivory or nutrient enrichment on algal growth and resulting competition with corals, but few quantify the effects of algae on coral physiology to measure the possible competition between the two.

Did it mean that "Some studies do not talk about the effects of algae" So they need to study more on this - by saying further research needs to be done ??


Official Explanation for Q1 - Hope this will be helpful.

1.Answer: C Question
type: Big picture
A - Although A is discussed in the passage, it does not qualify as being the primary purpose. It's too narrow.
B - The environmental consequences of the loss of coral are not discussed in this passage.
C - The passage talks about the relationship between the coral cover and the macro algae. It also talks about how research results are inconsistent regarding the level of impact. The author also suggests that more research be done to understand this relationship and its consequences better. Option “C” best describes the purpose of the passage.
D - “Promoting macro algae population growth” is outside the scope of this passage.
E - No strategy to increase coral population is discussed.
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Re: Coral reefs increasingly face a number of threats including climate  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2018, 04:36
Can anyone explain answer of Q3
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Re: Coral reefs increasingly face a number of threats including climate  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2018, 04:51
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push12345
Coral reefs increasingly face a number of threats including climate change, ocean acidification, overfishing, and eutrophication. Due to a number of these threats, coral reefs have experienced a distressing decline in the past several decades, associated in many

Accordingly, the loss of live coral cover is often associated with a phase-shift from a coral-dominated community structure to a fleshy algae dominated ecosystem.

enrichment on algal growth and resulting competition with corals, but few quantify the effects of algae on coral physiology to measure the possible competition between the two.

3. According to the passage, the decline of coral reef could occur because of all of the following EXCEPT?
(A) Substantial elevation of temperature - Y
(B) Competition with other marine organisms - Y
(C) Increased levels of acidity in water - y
(D) Herbivory of macro algae -- whats macro algae and it Herbivory ? Not given in passage.
(E) Unscrupulous fishing practices - y

On the basis of above lines I can eliminate All except D.
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Re: Coral reefs increasingly face a number of threats including climate  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2018, 07:07
push12345 wrote:
Can anyone explain answer of Q3



in the passage it says "herbivory keeps macro algae biomass in check and allows the coral-dominated community to persist. "

so Herbivory doesn't present threat to coral, on the contrary herbivory contributes to keeping algae in check, making coral a dominating community :)
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Re: Coral reefs increasingly face a number of threats including climate  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2018, 07:09
aragonn do you think RC passages of gmat prep companies are easier compared to official gmat prep ?
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Re: Coral reefs increasingly face a number of threats including climate  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Nov 2018, 07:12
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dave13 wrote:
aragonn do you think RC passages of gmat prep companies are easier compared to official gmat prep ?

dave13 - yes this one is really very easy passage. though people who start need to go a bit slow and practice on easy passages. This way they can practice their plan before implementing on real GMAT questions.
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Simple strategy:
“Once you’ve eliminated the impossible, whatever remains, however improbable, must be the truth.”

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My Notes:
Reading comprehension | Critical Reasoning | Absolute Phrases | Subjunctive Mood

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Re: Coral reefs increasingly face a number of threats including climate &nbs [#permalink] 27 Nov 2018, 07:12
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Coral reefs increasingly face a number of threats including climate

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