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Critical Reasoning Concept Articles from Different Companies

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New post 09 Nov 2013, 07:46
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New post 12 Nov 2013, 07:55
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Master this fiendishly tricky variety of Critical Reasoning question on the GMAT
The philosopher Zeno of Elia (490-430 BCE) was famous for his mind-bending paradoxes. One of them went like this:
Suppose there were a race between Achilles (famed as the fastest runner in ancient Greece) and a tortoise, and the tortoise was given a small head start, say to point A. In the time it takes Achilles to run from the start to point A, the tortoise will move to a new point, point B. By the time Achilles catches up to point B, the tortoise will be at a new place, point C. On and on like this, Achilles will have an infinite number of distances to cover before he can even catch up to the tortoise. No one can run an infinite number of distances in a finite amount of time. Therefore even the fleet-footed Achilles would not be able to outrun a slow-footed tortoise.

Confused? That’s the point!

The Structure of a Paradox

A paradox is a statement or argument that, at least on the surface, does not make sense. In matters purely of personal taste, things can simply not make sense and that’s it — for example, the secularly Jewish man I know who avoids all ham or pork but who absolutely loves eating bacon. Peoples’ idiosyncratic combinations of likes and dislikes need not make sense.
That is not what you will encounter on the GMAT. On GMAT Critical Reasoning, the paradoxical passages will be about the real world, either the natural world or the world of social sciences. These are both realms were perfectly logical laws govern the phenomena, so any paradox will be an apparent paradox, an apparent contradiction, that is resolved by additional information.
For example, with respect to Zeno’s paradox above, in the past few centuries we have come to understand that, mathematically, it is possible under certain conditions to add up an infinite number of things and have the sum be finite. Thus, despite Zeno, Achilles catches up to the tortoise in a finite amount of time, passes it, and wins the race handily, as we would expect. Paradox resolved.

Resolving Paradoxes
The only paradoxes that appear on GMAT Critical Reasoning will be resolvable paradoxes, and in fact, your job will always be the same: to resolve them. Prompts for these questions include:
“Which of the following most helps to explain the apparent discrepancy described above?”
“Which of the following most helps to resolve the apparent contradiction?”

In other words, you will be presented with a paradox, usually in the form of two facts you would not expect to co-exist side by side in the same situation. You will be asked which of the five answer choices best resolves the paradox.
At least one of the wrong answers, if not two of them, will actually do the opposite: they will exacerbate the paradox, making it even more absurd that these two things go together. Always be on the lookout for that kind of answer when you are looking through the answer choices.

The French Paradox
Here’s an example of the kind of paradox CR question you will see on the GMAT.

1) French cuisine is famous for its frequent and liberal use of cream and cheese, both high in saturated fat. For years, medical studies have shown the strong correlation between diets high in saturated fat and coronary heart disease, and yet, France has a much lower incidence of such disease than found in comparable countries like the United States. This is the so-called French Paradox.
Which of the following, if true, helps to explain the French Paradox?
(A) Certain kinds of cheese can have as much as five times the amount of saturated fat that cream has.
(B) People in the United States, per capita, eat almost the same amount of saturated fat on average as do people in France.
(C) The United States imports more cheese from France than from any other country.
(D) Red wine, typically served with French food, helps to clean the buildup of fats in the arteries, reducing the risk of heart disease.
(E) It is typically for a French person to have either cream or cheese at each of the three meals in a day.

Were you able to find the two answer choices that made the paradox worse?

Here’s another paradox question for practice:
http://gmat.magoosh.com/questions/1320

Practice Question Explanation
In attacking a paradox question, first read the prompt and understand the paradox or contradiction in your own words. Here, we could say: most people eat high food and get heart attacks, but the French eat high fat foods and don’t get hard attacks. Then, look for an answer choice that best resolves the paradox.
Both (B) and (E) do the opposite: they make the paradox harder to explain. With (B), if folks in the US and France eat about the same amount of saturated fat, then why do Americans get heart disease but not the French? With (E), if French are eating high fat foods all the time, why aren’t they getting heart disease? In other words, neither of these answers the question, and in fact, both of them simply would make it even harder to understand.
Answers (A) and (C) are off-the-wall irrelevant. Choice (A) says that cheese has more fat then cream, but the French are eating both of those, so it doesn’t matter: either way, the French are eating high fat food. (C) changes the topic to imports, which is completely unrelated to the direct relationship of diet and epidemiology.
Only (D) resolves the paradox. Since the French drink red wine, which in moderation cleans the arteries, this explains how they could eat high fat foods and have a much lower risk of heart disease.
By the way, before you run off thinking red wine is a cure-all, let me point out that higher exercise rates, smaller portions, no snacking between meals, and a much lower incidence of processed sugar and prepared foods in the French diet have also been shown to play a big role in resolving the French Paradox.
So, overall, my advice is eat healthy fresh food, lots of fruits and vegetables, drink red wine in moderation (if you are over 21), drink lots of water every day, avoid deadly trans fats, avoid processed sugar, and exercise regularly: these habits will maximize your health. If you also want a healthy GMAT score, then practice more GMAT Critical Reasoning question like this, and sign up for Magoosh test prep. Magoosh is better for your GMAT score than wine is for your arteries, and you don’t even have to be 21 years old to enjoy Magoosh! No paradox there!

By the way, sign up for our 1-week free trial to try out Magoosh GMAT Prep!
About the Author
Mike McGarry is a Content Developer for Magoosh with over 20 years of teaching experience and a BS in Physics and an MA in Religion, both from Harvard. He enjoys hitting foosballs into orbit, and despite having no obvious cranial deficiency, he insists on rooting for the NY Mets. Follow him on Google+!
- See more at: http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-cr-pa ... KhlDe.dpuf
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New post 12 Nov 2013, 08:19
http://www.businessweek.com/articles/20 ... ng-paradox

This is a concept article by Veritas on Paradox CR questions published by Business week

GMAT Test Tips from Veritas Prep

GMAT Tip: How to Deal With a Critical Reasoning 'Paradox'

This tip on improving your GMAT score was provided by Vivian Kerr at Veritas Prep.
While other questions are more heavily tested in the GMAT critical reasoning, you’ll occasionally see questions that involve explaining a paradox or resolving an apparent contradiction. These “resolve the argument” or “paradox” questions ask about a specific incongruous aspect of the argument. To identify them, look for some common keywords such as: “explains the results,” “resolve the paradox,” or “best explains the discrepancy.” Unlike other critical reasoning questions, these don’t ask how to weaken or strengthen the argument itself.
As with most critical reasoning questions, you should start by taking apart the argument: Identify the conclusion, evidence, and assumptions before reading the question after the paragraph. Specifically, pay attention to what is lacking in the details. Usually the author fails to provide enough information. If you were to make the same argument, what would you add to resolve the issue brought up in the question? Write down your prediction(s) and then scan the answer choices, eliminating those that do not resemble your prediction.

Quick Critical Reasoning Strategy

1. Identify the conclusion, evidence and assumptions.
2. Read and rephrase the question.
3. Go back to the passage and form a prediction.
4. Eliminate incorrect choices.

Let’s try one together.

The vast majority of a person’s health-care expenditures go toward curative measures such as hospitalizations after injuries and care for existing illnesses. Mike’s employer does not provide health insurance to his part-time employees, including Mike. However, the employer does reimburse employees for a flu shot each winter.
Mike’s employer’s seemingly inconsistent behavior in regard to health-care expenses is best explained by which of the following?
Before we get to the answer choices, let’s start by analyzing conclusion, evidence, and assumptions:
Conclusion: The employer does not provide health insurance to part-timers.
Evidence: The majority of health-care expenditures go toward curative measures (fixing injuries, illnesses); employer reimburses for flu shots. Notice the gap in logic here: why would an employer who doesn’t pay health insurance reimburse employees for a flu shot?
Assumption: The employer sees some financial benefit in paying for the flu shot (a preventative measure), even though he won’t pay health insurance. He doesn’t want his employees to get sick in the first place.
Now it’s time to get to the actual question and answer choices.
Question Rephrase: We can see this is a “paradox” question because of the phrase “best explained.” What’s the strongest reason why the employer would pay for a flu shot but not pay for health insurance?
Prediction: Some unknown benefit to the employer in the long-term.
Eliminate Incorrect Choices: Now we’re ready to analyze the answer choices:

(A) Health insurance rarely covers preexisting illnesses.
(B) Part-time employees are usually covered by the insurance of a spouse or parent with full-time employment.
(C) Few employers offer health insurance to part-time employees.
(D) Flu shots prevent illness that could lead to lost work days.
(E) Health insurance premiums are on the rise.

Since we’ve done the work of breaking down the passage, simplifying the question, and predicting an answer, the correct choice (D) is readily apparent.
What can you learn from this question (other than to check to see if your employer will pay for a flu shot)? It pays to analyze the argument before you get to the question stem and answer choices. In order to “best resolve the paradox,” as the questions may ask, it helps to fully understand the paradox first.
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New post 12 Nov 2013, 08:28
Here is a concept article by 800scoree.com on Paradox questions
http://800score.com/guidec3view2e.html

Paradox Questions

These questions present you with a paradox, a seeming contradiction in the argument, and ask you to resolve it or explain how that contradiction could exist. Paradox questions are rare and more common at the higher skill levels. Here are some examples of the ways in which these questions are worded:
• Which of the following, if true, would help to resolve the apparent paradox presented above?
• Which of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the apparent discrepancy described above?

How to approach paradox questions
1. Read the argument and find the apparent paradox, discrepancy, or contradiction.
2. State the apparent paradox, discrepancy, or contradiction in your own words.
3. Use POE (process of elimination). The best answer will explain how both sides of the paradox, discrepancy, or contradiction can be true. Eliminate answers that are out of scope.

SAMPLE QUESTION
Inflation rose by 5.1% over the 2nd quarter, up from 4.1% during the first quarter of the year, and higher than the 3.3% recorded during the same time last year. However, the higher price index did not seem to alarm Wall Street, as stock prices remained steady.
Which of the following, if true, could explain the reaction of Wall Street?
a) Stock prices were steady because of a fear that inflation would continue.
b) The President announced that he was concerned about rising inflation.
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New post 12 Nov 2013, 08:42
Hi Guys

This is concept article on paradox questions by 800gmat.com

http://www.800gmat.com/index.php?cur_pa ... monstrated

Method: Our Optimized Way of Ensuring 100% Accuracy on the GMAT.

Step One: Identify the Question Type and Task.
With all critical reasoning questions read the question first in order to understand what you are asked to find. Any question that asks you to explain or resolve a paradox, discrepancy, or strange situation is a paradox question.
To resolve a paradox, first identify the paradox then find a choice that resolves that paradox.

Step Two: Read the Argument and Extract Necessary Information.
The paradox will be the information that you need.

Step Three: Formulate an Answer to the Question
Give yourself a general sense of what a resolution to the paradox might be. This may not be �the answer,� but it will give you a framework for recognizing the answer
.
Step Four: Eliminate Answer Choices That Are Obviously Wrong.

On the initial pass through the answer choices, keep any choice that seems right or that you don't have a definitive reason to eliminate.

Step Five: Compare Remaining Choices.

Compare the remaining choices for subtle differences. Revisit the question and argument to ensure that you have not overlooked some subtlety.

Example One:
Bengal tigers, a near extinct species of tiger, are known to suffer extraordinary hardships when placed in captivity. Captured Bengal tigers rarely produce offspring and contract a much greater number of illnesses during their captivity, yet the consensus among the zoological community is that captivity is the best opportunity to save this species from extinction.

Which of the following best explains the apparent discrepancy in the statements above?

(A) Captive Bengal tigers reproduce at a rate slightly lower than that of wild Bengal tigers.
(B) The majority of the diseases contracted by wild Bengal tigers are treatable but not curable.
(C) The hardships suffered by captive Bengal tigers are not as severe as those suffered by other species of large cats.
(D) The diseases contracted by Bengal tigers in the wild generally cause sterility in the male of the species.
(E) The data from which the Bengal tiger species was determined to be approaching extinction was in error.

Step One: Identify the Question Type and Task

A question that asks you to "resolve a discrepancy" is a paradox question.
Step Two: Read the Argument and Extract Necessary Information.

The necessary information is the paradox.

Paradox: Captive Bengal tigers contract more diseases and rarely produce offspring yet captivity is the best option for the survival of the species.

Step Three: Formulate an Answer to the Question

Wild tigers face hunters, starvation, and other animals as well as disease (captive tigers face none of these).

Step Four: Eliminate Answer Choices That Are Obviously Wrong.

(A) Only addresses one side - this might explain why they reproduce rarely in captivity, but it does not explain why captivity is better. To explain the paradox, both sides must be connected.
(B) Exacerbates the paradox - this leads to the idea that perhaps the wild tigers should be caught, treated, and released rather than put into captivity and it in no way explains why captivity is the best opportunity.
(C) Does not explain - this choice does not provide any reason that would justify placing them in captivity as a better option than the wild. Other species have no relevance here.
(D) Keep - this suggests that the diseases contracted in the wild are fewer in number and will lead to the extinction of the species (since the tigers will not be able to reproduce), thus making it plausible that rarelyproducing offspring is the better option to never producing offspring.
(E) Dismisses the paradox - this choice dismisses the entire question by saying the tiger is not really going to be extinct Remember that you want a choice that resolves the paradox, not one that ignores, dismisses, or changes the paradox.

Step Five: Compare Remaining Choices.

No need.

Choose D.

Example Two:

A recent survey of 100,000 patients suffering from sever acid reflux disease found that a large majority of the patients reported that missing a meal or two immediately eased the symptoms. Yet neither fasting nor dieting are used in treating acid reflux disease even though conventional treatments, which use drugs, are ineffective and have serious side effects.

Which of the following most explains the fact that neither fasting nor dieting is used in treating acid reflux disease?

(A) Prolonged fasting can cause other physical complications, including but not limited to lightheadedness and fainting.
(B) The precise cause of acid reflux disease has not yet been linked to any particular foods, or types of foods.
(C) The symptoms of acid reflux disease return as strong or stronger at the next snack or meal.
(D) For some suffers of acid reflux disease, missing a meal induces a temporary feeling wellness.
(E) Forcing patients to adhere to a diet or fast is more difficult when a patient is feeling ill.

Step One: Identify the Question Type and Task
A question that asks you to "explain" a situation is a paradox question.

Step Two: Read the Argument and Extract Necessary Information.
The necessary information is the paradox.
Paradox: Fasting eases symptoms but is not used to treat acid reflux.

Step Three: Formulate an Answer to the Question
There must be other problems with the use of fasting and dieting as treatment.

Step Four: Eliminate Answer Choices That Are Obviously Wrong.

(A) Keep - this choice offers a possible explanation.
(B) Does not explain - this choice does not provide any information that explains the situation, since the argument made no claims about specific foods.
(C) Keep - this choice offers a possible explanation since if the symptoms come back stronger, then the patient is worse off.
(D) Does not explain - this choice does not provide any information that explains the situation, since missing a meal is not the same as dieting or fasting.

Step Five: Compare Remaining Choices.
Now you must decide between choices A and C. The difference is quite subtle - choice A states that prolonged fasting �can� cause complications, but it is not a guarantee. Perhaps if only .05% of patients developed complications, this would not provide as strong an explanation as choice C, which definitively states that symptoms come back stronger.

Choose C.
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New post 12 Nov 2013, 09:04
Friends;

Learn some key word tips on resolving paradox questions in GMAT CR as given in a concept article by quizlet.com
6 terms on Resolving paradox on GMAT • Source: GMAT Critical Reasoning Bible published by quizlet.com

http://quizlet.com/25063379/gmat-cr-12- ... sh-cards/#


1. Stimulus Features
1) No conclusion - the author is not attempting to persuade you, just presenting two contradictory sets of facts,
2) language of contradiction (i.e. but, however, yet, although, paradoxically, surprisingly)

2. Question Stem Features
1) an indication that the answer choices should be accepted as true,
2) key words that indicate your task is to resolve a problem

3. Key word indicators
Action: resolve,
explain, reconcile.
Problem: paradox,
discrepancy, contradiction,
conflict, puzzle
Active Resolution
the correct answer will actively resolve the paradox, that is allow both sides to be factually correct, and will either explain how the situation came into being, or will add a piece of information that shows how the two ideas or occurences can coexist.

4. **Important**
if a stimulus contains a paradox where two items are similar, then an answer that explains a difference between the two cannot be correct. Similarily if a stimulus contains a paradox where two items are different, then an answer that explains a similarity cannot be correct.

5.Address the facts
always choose answer choices that conform to the specifics of the stimulus. Do not be lured by reasonable solutions that do not quite meet the stated facts.
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New post 12 Nov 2013, 09:13
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Friends
Concept Article on Resolve the Paradox by “-creasoning.blogspot.in”
http://gmat-creasoning.blogspot.in/2012 ... radox.html
Resolve the Paradox

What is a Paradox
A set of true statements that condradict one another.

Resolving a paradox: Selecting a scenario in which both statements can co exist without conflict.

What is tested?
Your ability to digest/assimilate information in the passage.
Your ability to evaluate new information which when introduced in the passage resolves the contradiction.

< 5% of GMAT questions

How to identify RTP question
- Their goal is to introduce a paradox. So spotting one is the way to spot the question.
- Generally, Do not contain any conclusion.

Process for Answering Questions a) Identify the 2 contrasting statements.
b) Pre think on how to resolve.

Method of Resolving Paradox
Resolution Framework
- Because of New Info Fact A is true, eventhough fact B is valid.
- This new info can either address fact A or Fact B or both the facts. Most of cases, it addresses both the facts simultaneously.
This new info can present info that
a) Ineffective Implementation Proposals to lead to Improvements. But they are not realized.
Ans: Ineffective Implementation
b) Alternate Reasoning (Most Common)
c) Improper Comparison Two entities being compared are not comparable in the first place.
Note: The correct answer choice may not resolve the paradox. It may just resonably support the coexistence.

Characteristics of Incorrect Answer Choices
a) OFS: Presents unrelated info which does not address the paradox.
b) opposite: Instead of resolving, increases the paradox
c) iSWAT
d) Rbi: revalant but incorrect. Only explains one side, and hence doesnt resolve the paradox.
Ex: Paradox about rise and fall whereas the AC is about just rise
Paradox about decrease in sales wheras the AC is about why sales
did not increase.
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New post 12 Nov 2013, 09:20
Hi Friends
Find a concept article from Grockit on Resolving the paradox
http://grockit.com/blog/gmat/2011/04/14 ... -overview/

Resolve the Argument Question Overview from Grockit

Most Critical Reasoning questions you’ve encountered in your online studying have probably been focused on weakening and strengthening the given argument. To diversify your test prep a bit, and keep pushing for better scores, let’s focus on examining a specific CR type that rarely gets enough attention: Resolve the Argument.
What are they? Resolve the argument questions ask about a specific incongruous aspect of the argument.
How to identify? Look for some common keywords such as: “explains the results,” “resolve the paradox,” “best explains the discrepancy,” etc. Unlike other CR questions, these don’t ask how to weaken or strengthen the argument itself.

How to approach? Like any other CR question, you’ll want to identify the conclusion, evidence, and assumptions before even reading the question. Once you realize it’s a “Resolve the Argument” question, you’ll want to rephrase the question in simpler terms, then go back to the passage and find what the “paradox,” “results,” or “discrepancy” is describing. Specifically, pay attention to what islacking in the details. Usually the author fails to provide enough information. If you were to make the same argument, what would you add to resolve the issue brought up in the question? Write down your prediction(s) then scan the answer choices, eliminating those that do not resemble your prediction.

For quick reference:
1. Identify the conclusion, evidence & assumptions.
2. Read and rephrase the question.
3. Go back to the passage & form a prediction.
4. Eliminate incorrect choices.

Let’s try out a Resolve the Argument question from Grockit’s CR question bank:
The majority of a person’s health care expenditures goes towards curative measures like hospitalizations after injuries and care for existing illnesses. Paula’s employer does not provide health insurance to his part-time employees, including Paula. However, he does reimburse employees for a flu shot each winter.
Paula’s employer’s seemingly inconsistent behavior in regard to health care expenses is best explained by which of the following?

A. Health insurance rarely covers pre-existing illnesses.
B. Part-time employees are usually covered by the insurance of a spouse or parent with full-time employment.
C. Few employers offer health insurance to part-time employees.
D. Flu shots prevent illness that could lead to lost work days.
E. Health insurance premiums are on the rise.

Conclusion: Paula’s employer does NOT provide health insurance to part-timers.
Evidence: Majority of $$ goes towards curative measures (fixing injuries, illnesses); reimburses for flu shots.
We can see the gap in logic here. Why would an employer who doesn’t pay health insurance reimburse employees for a flu shot?
Assumption: The employer sees some $$ benefit in paying the flu shot (a preventative measure), even though he won’t pay health insurance. He doesn’t want his employees to get sick in the first place.
We can see this is a “Resolve the Argument” question because of the phrase in the question stem, “best explained.” So let’s rephrase the question and predict what the answer choice might involve.

Question Rephrase: What’s the strongest reason why the employer would pay for a flu shot but NOT pay health insurance?

Prediction: Some unknown benefit to the employer in the long-term.
Since we’ve done the work of breaking down the passage, simplifying the question, and predicting an answer, the correct choice (D) is readily apparent. To practice more Resolve the Argument questions, you can create a Custom Game on Grockit using only those CR questions with the “Resolve Argument” skill tag.
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New post 12 Nov 2013, 09:44
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Dear friends

Aspiranhunt has given its views on” Resolve Paradox” questions in a concept article.
http://www.aspiranthunt.com/gmat/2010/0 ... ons-in-cr/

Paradox Questions in CR

The Paradox Question presents you with a seeming paradox situation in an argument, and then
asks you to seek an explanation on how that discrepancy can exist. Typical ways in which these
questions are asked include:
• Which of the following statements, if true, would best explain the paradox described above?
• Which of the following can explain the apparent contradiction above?
How to solve paradox question
1. Read the argument and identify the apparent contradiction.
2. Look for the sequential difference or spatial difference since they may be the reason that causes
the seeming paradox.
3. If you are unable to pick up the correct answer by step 2, pay attention to the subjects in the two
contradictive situation. Are the two subjects the same? If not, the difference could be the reason for
paradox.

Example
In 1992, 5 percent of every dollar paid in tax went to support the unemployed citizens. In 1998,
8 percent of every dollar paid in tax went to such funds, although that unemployment rate has
decreased in 1998 than in 1992.
Each of the following, if true, could explain the simultaneous increase in percent of every dollar
paid in tax to support the unemployed citizens and decrease in the number of unemployment rate
EXCEPT:

A. On average, each unemployed citizen received more money in 1998 than 1992.
B. On average, people paid less tax in 1998 than in 1992.
C. The individuals had paid more tax than did enterprises during this period.
D. Income before tax has significantly decreased since 1992.
E. The number of tax evaders rose sharply between 1992 and 1998.

Choice A suggests that the total amount of dollars used to support unemployment has increase,
therefore explain the paradox. Choice B, D, and E all suggests that the amount of tax collected
decreased, thus percent of every dollar that went to support the unemployment increases. Only
choice C does not explain such paradox, therefore is the correct answer.
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Re: Critical Reasoning Concept Articles from Different Companies [#permalink]

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Re: Critical Reasoning Concept Articles from Different Companies   [#permalink] 10 Jun 2018, 15:13
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