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Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor,

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Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor,  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2015, 02:59
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Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor, called Bushido, has been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences affect the Japanese nation to this day.

A. has been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences affect the Japanese nation to this day
B. had been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences affect the Japanese nation to this day
C. had been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences has affected the Japanese nation to this day
D. still has a cultural influence on the Japanese nation to this day even though it had been prevalent in Japan only until the middle of the 19th century
E. still has a cultural influence on the Japanese nation even though it has been prevalent in Japan only until the middle of the 19th century

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Re: Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor,  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2015, 04:49
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IMO, there is something inherently debatable about this question. Normally a past perfect is used only when two events are in sequence and when the sequence itself is unclear. Where there is only one event in the past, it is customary to denote it in simple past. For example, we say India was ruled by the British until August 15, 1947. We do not say, India had –been ruled by the British until August 15, 1947. A specific event occurring in a duration of period would be better expressed with a simple past, than with a past perfect I feel. Assuming that we let go this point of dispute

A. has been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences affect the Japanese nation to this day --- ‘has been’ is wrong tense

B. had been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences affect the Japanese nation to this day --- reluctantly ok

C. had been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences have affected the Japanese nation to this day --- influences has affected – SV error.
D. still has a cultural influence on the Japanese nation to this day even though it had been prevalent in Japan only until the middle of the 19th century ---- ‘still and to this date’ is redundant
E. still has a cultural influence on the Japanese nation even though it has been prevalent in Japan only until the middle of the 19th century--- ‘has been prevalent’ is wrong tense
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Re: Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor,  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2015, 06:16
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daagh wrote:
IMO, there is something inherently debatable about this question. Normally a past perfect is used only when two events are in sequence and when the sequence itself is unclear. Where there is only one event in the past, it is customary to denote it in simple past. For example, we say India was ruled by the British until August 15, 1947. We do not say, India had –been ruled by the British until August 15, 1947. A specific event occurring in a duration of period would be better expressed with a simple past, than with a past perfect I feel. Assuming that we let go this point of dispute

A. has been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences affect the Japanese nation to this day --- ‘has been’ is wrong tense

B. had been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences affect the Japanese nation to this day --- reluctantly ok

C. had been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences have affected the Japanese nation to this day --- influences has affected – SV error.
D. still has a cultural influence on the Japanese nation to this day even though it had been prevalent in Japan only until the middle of the 19th century ---- ‘still and to this date’ is redundant
E. still has a cultural influence on the Japanese nation even though it has been prevalent in Japan only until the middle of the 19th century--- ‘has been prevalent’ is wrong tense


That's how they argue:
This answer choice corrects the original Tense mistake by changing has been prevalent (Present Perfect) to had been prevalent (Past Perfect). The corrected sentence correctly uses the Past Perfect to describe a past action that was completed before a certain point in time in the past (the middle of the 19th century).
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Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor,  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2015, 07:03
IMHO B

Current historical research has shown thatthe Samurai code of honor, called Bushido, has been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences affect the Japanese nation to this day.

-----The Samurai code of honor--------------->(prevelent)-------------->19th Century-----------> Effect till this day

The sentence refers that " The Samurai code of honor " was prevelent till 19th century , hence past perfect tense must be used... ( only Options B & C has it )

Between affect and have affected , I chose affect , since it correctly shows that the action is happening till this date...

Hence I will go with (B)
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Re: Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor,  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2015, 07:07
Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor, called Bushido, has been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences affect the Japanese nation to this day.

Bushido does two things
1. it has been prevalent till middle 19th century
2. its cultural influences continue to exist now.

if we are not sure of contrast or link in between, we can try it two ways(even though A then B or viceversa)

even though Bushido had been prevalent till middle 19th century, its cultural influences continue to exist even now.
or
even though its cultural influences continue to exist even now, Bushido had been prevalent till 19th century.

For me, the earlier one makes sense.

A. has been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences affect the Japanese nation to this day
(use of present perfect for past event ruins the meaning here.)

B. had been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences affect the Japanese nation to this day
(This does not make sense meaning wise as per above reasoning.)

C. had been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences has affected the Japanese nation to this day
Same as B

D. still has a cultural influence on the Japanese nation to this day even though it had been prevalent in Japan only until the middle of the 19th century
this is correct choice.

E. still has a cultural influence on the Japanese nation even though it has been prevalent in Japan only until the middle of the 19th century
has been ruins here
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Re: Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor,  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2015, 10:17
Can someone explain the even history please
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Re: Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor,  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Oct 2015, 10:21
Can someone explain the event history please
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Re: Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor,  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Oct 2015, 01:07
Hi Mechmeera,

"Current" and "still" refer to the same thing hence D and E are out in one shot.

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Re: Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor,  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Mar 2018, 04:27
reto wrote:
Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor, called Bushido, has been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences affect the Japanese nation to this day.

A. has been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences affect the Japanese nation to this day
B. had been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences affect the Japanese nation to this day
C. had been prevalent in Japan until the middle of the 19th century although its cultural influences has affected the Japanese nation to this day
D. still has a cultural influence on the Japanese nation to this day even though it had been prevalent in Japan only until the middle of the 19th century
E. still has a cultural influence on the Japanese nation even though it has been prevalent in Japan only until the middle of the 19th century


A. has been - bad. We need past perferct, because the action is in the past before something in the past.
B. Good.
C. has affected - bad. Need present simple.
D. Still and To this day - these two are redundant together
E. has been - bad.
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Re: Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor,  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2019, 10:41
To me answer choice B is not that great from a logical standpoint;

Did it really take "current" research to establish the end of the influence of the bushido culture which already ended in the 19th century?
Maybe I am being picky here or I simply misunderstand the sentence...
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Re: Current historical research has shown that the Samurai code of honor,   [#permalink] 03 Jan 2019, 10:41
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