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Currently the focus of research into artificial intelligence (AI) is o

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Currently the focus of research into artificial intelligence (AI) is o  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2018, 23:02
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80% (03:15) correct 20% (02:55) wrong based on 20

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67% (00:52) correct 33% (01:12) wrong based on 18

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76% (00:48) correct 24% (01:32) wrong based on 17

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65% (01:22) correct 35% (00:38) wrong based on 17

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Source: McGraw Hills GMAT 2013 (116)

Currently the focus of research into artificial intelligence (AI) is on relatively limited applications, including guiding airplanes and missiles, understanding language, detecting credit card fraud, and diagnosing medical conditions from electrocardiograms. While these avenues certainly contain promise for commercial and industrial interests, the populace at large typically is more interested in a slightly less consequential application of AI. In 1997, Deep Blue, a chess playing computer program, defeated grand master Gary Kasparov in a tournament, marking the first time a computer was able to best a human world champion.

But these more “frivolous” applications of AI are actually valuable indicators of the state of technology. Computer engineers are constantly reviving and reinventing the programming algorithms in an effort to make computers think more like people do. And the exponential increases in processing and storage technology are allowing artificial intelligence researchers to greatly increase the power of AI programs while simultaneously reducing the size and computing needs of the machines. For example, the Deep Blue program required 256 specialized processors to analyze the millions and millions of combinations of moves. Each of these processors was about one hundred times faster than a standard home computer, which means Deep Blue was about 25,600 times faster than a 1997 personal computer.

Only five years later, in 2002, AI engineers unleashed a new chess playing program, Deep Fritz. Deep Fritz played Vladimir Kramnik, the highest ranked chess player in the world, to a draw, but this result was anything but a failure to the AI community. Whereas Deep Blue required 256 processors to achieve its victory, Deep Fritz had a mere eight. Deep Blue could analyze 200 million moves per second, but Deep Fritz could deal with only 2.5 million. Yet Deep Fritz’s chess playing abilities more closely resemble those of a person. Deep Blue was able to defeat Kasparov by brute strength alone, calculating millions of possible moves and counter moves. Deep Fritz played Kramnik to a draw by using advanced pattern recognition skills, which allowed it to be competitive despite considering fewer move combinations.


1. The main idea of the passage is that

A. computer chess programs will soon be able to defeat any human challenger
B. computer chess programs are now being designed to be more efficient and perform fewer calculations
C. certain applications of AI technology provide insight into advances in the field
D. the public pays too much attention to frivolous applications of AI technology
E. the Deep Fritz chess program is more successful than the Deep Blue program


2. According to the passage, the AI community did not view Deep Fritz’s draw as a failure because

A. Kramnik was a higher ranked chess player than Kasporov and was thus harder to defeat
B. researchers did not expect Deep Fritz to win because it only had eight processors
C. Deep Fritz’s performance suggested that programmers were approaching one of their goals
D. Deep Blue’s victory had already proven that a computer could beat a grand champion in chess
E. human players had five years to adapt to competing against chess programs


3. The author implies that human chess players

A. will not lose to Deep Fritz
B. will soon be unable to defeat most computer chess programs
C. are not able to analyze possible move combinations when playingchess
D. rely on pattern recognition skills when playing chess
E. could potentially beat Deep Fritz but not Deep Blue


4. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. contrast the abilities of two computer programs
B. encourage researchers to pursue more serious inquiries
C. detail the state of research in a particular field
D. compare human chess players to computer chess programs
E. challenge a long-held assumption about AI



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Re: Currently the focus of research into artificial intelligence (AI) is o  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Aug 2018, 23:35
Can someone tell me why B is an incorrect answer for question 2? The scientists' goal is not mentioned in the passage according to me.
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Re: Currently the focus of research into artificial intelligence (AI) is o  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2018, 05:31
mgcon wrote:
Can someone tell me why B is an incorrect answer for question 2? The scientists' goal is not mentioned in the passage according to me.


Because it is no where mentioned that the engineers did not expect it to win. It did not win, but it does not mean they did not expect it to win.
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Re: Currently the focus of research into artificial intelligence (AI) is o  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Aug 2018, 23:22
1
The passage talks about AI(Artificial Intelligence).
In first passage it states that the application of AI is presently limited, with some examples.
Then it gives an example of AI usage in Chess game. The author states it as unimportant but at the same time says that these are valuable as it help to understand the state of technology.
Second paragraph talks about Deep Blue and third paragraph talks about Deep fritz ad alter compare some features of both the softwares.

Question 1: The main idea of the passage is that
A. Passage talks about 2 software but doesn't make any claim. This can't be main Idea
B. This is said in last 2 sentences in passage. Hence, can't be the main idea as it is not the only purpose of passage.
C. Correct : This is the idea of passage as in first paragraph it says about some application of AI. later it is said that the frivolous application are important and other 2 paragraphs provide more details using Chess game software as an example.
D. This is not mentioned in the passage.
E. Discussing the 2 games is not he primary purpose of passage.

Question 2: According to the passage, the AI community did not view Deep Fritz’s draw as a failure because

A. This is not more important as the passage talks about AI and has nothing to do with player ranking.
B. The passage doesn't state or imply that engineers didn't expect deep fritz to win as it has only 8 processors. This is a comparision drawn by author and as per the passage it is used only for comparison between deep Blue and deep Fritz.
C. Correct: As per the last paragraph, Deep fritz used far less processor and lesser move processing than Deep Blue. Still it was able to Draw the game with highest ranking Chess player. There has been considerable change in programming from Deep Blue to Deep fritz and Deep Fritz less processing, analysing less moves at once(compared to Deep Blue) and learning during the game makes it more like a real person.
D. This is irrelevant as the question is concerned with Deep Fritz.
E. Out of scope. Nothing suggests if human player adapted to computer game or not.

3. The author implies that human chess players

Implies Question ask something which is not directly stated in passage but can be derived.
A. It can't be implied.
B. The passage talks about a draw, but doesn't say if other program can be defeated.
C. This is opposite to the what can be implied.
D. Correct: "Deep Fritz played Kramnik to a draw by using advanced pattern recognition skills". This sentence helps us answer as the line before states that "Deep Fritz’s chess playing abilities more closely resemble those of a person".
E. This can't be implied.

Question 4: The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. The comparison is only stated in the last paragraph.
B. This is not the actual purpose of this passage.
C. Correct: The passage talks about AI and then goes on to describe about 2 software using AI and how the softwres evolved and changed over time.
D. It does talk about defeat of human chess player by computer program but that is a small part and not describes the passage as whole.
E. Out of scope.
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Re: Currently the focus of research into artificial intelligence (AI) is o &nbs [#permalink] 18 Aug 2018, 23:22
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