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Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,

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Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 22 Aug 2019, 18:54
4
26
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

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Question Stats:

62% (01:38) correct 38% (01:51) wrong based on 1062 sessions

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Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells, can be directed to grow in organs or tissues appropriate for transplant, use them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and may study them to gain insight into basic human biology.


(A) transplant, use them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and may study them

(B) transplant, using them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and studied

(C) transplant, used to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and studied

(D) a transplant, use them for testing drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and for studying

(E) a transplant, used to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals,and may study them

Originally posted by goalsnr on 12 Jun 2008, 19:31.
Last edited by hazelnut on 22 Aug 2019, 18:54, edited 2 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Feb 2014, 18:41
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gmatter0913 wrote:
IMO B.

'directed' and 'studied' are parallel.

What is the answer?


The OA is C. Choice B is tempting because it's essentially grammatically correct with directed/studied are parallel with a modifying phrase sandwiched in between (you could argue pronoun ambiguity but the GMAT accepts ambiguity in many cases). You have to decide between B & C on the basis of meaning. Let's look at the structures of both options:

Option B
Doctors hope stem cells can be
directed for transplant, using them (transplants?) to test drugs/chemicals,
and
studied to gain insight

[This option seems to suggest that the transplantable organs will be used to test drugs/chemicals. Why would transplantable organs be used for testing instead of for transplants? This meaning is questionable.]

Option C
Doctors hope stem cells can be
directed for transplant,
used to test drugs/chemicals,
and
studied to gain insight

[This option states three reasons why doctors want to use the stem cells: transplants, testing, and study. This meaning is very straightforward.]

Option B is eliminated for questionable/illogical meaning. Option C wins.

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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2012, 23:46
8
A clear C. Can be directed, can be used and can be studied.
One thing that I learnt from this is that GMAT can so traumatize you that rather than finding the simple parallelism, you would go for an adverbial effect modifier.:P
Took 2.04 mins when it should have been down under a minute.
Well you continue learning until the last minute of the match.
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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jun 2008, 19:34
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C for me, can be directed, used, and studied
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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jun 2008, 14:20
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goalsnr wrote:
Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells, can be directed to grow in organs or tissues appropriate for transplant, use them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and may study them to gain insight into basic human biology.
A. transplant, use them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and may study them
B. transplant, using them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and studied.
C. Transplant, used to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and studied.
D. A transplant, use them for testing drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and for studying.
E. A transplant, used to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and may study them.


If we break down this sentence, we see that Doctors hope that the body's master cells can be

1. (the body's master cells can be) directed to grow in organs
2. (the body's master cells can be) used to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals
3. and (the body's master cells can be) studied

Doctors hope for these three things. The first one is outside the underlined part and will dictate the parallel structure the other two will take. In order to keep a parallel structure and consistencey among these three thing, we need to pick answer choice C.
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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2009, 00:57
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I'm going with C in this one.
There are two possible parallelism points here hope that ... and master cells can be. None of the options include that, so I think that we should try to find parallelism in the rest of the sentence.

Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells can be


(A) master cells can be directed to grow in organs or tissues appropriate for transplant, use them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and may study them to gain insight into basic human biology

this sentence suggests that the master cells use themselves to test drugs out.


(B) master cells can be directed to grow in organs or tissues appropriate for transplant, using them to test drugs and potentially toxic
chemicals, and studied.

using and studied are not parallel

C. master cells can be directed to grow in organs or tissues appropriate for transplant,[can be] used to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and [can be] studied.
I think that this is the correct answer choice. the three elements are parallel.

D. a transplant, use them for testing drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and for studying.

I think that as in A this sentence suggests that master cells use themselves for testing and for studying.

E. a transplant, used to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and may study them.

used is not parallel to may study them
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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Feb 2014, 04:51
IMO B.

'directed' and 'studied' are parallel.

What is the answer?
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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Feb 2014, 05:18
Option B
Doctors hope stem cells can be
directed for transplant, using them (transplants?) to test drugs/chemicals, <--- them refers to stem cells. Possibly, stem cells can be used to test drugs. I still feel this sentence is correct.
and
studied to gain insight
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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Feb 2014, 11:29
gmatter0913 wrote:
KyleWiddison wrote:

Option B
Doctors hope stem cells can be
directed for transplant, using them (transplants?) to test drugs/chemicals, <--- them refers to stem cells. Possibly, stem cells can be used to test drugs. I still feel this sentence is correct.
and
studied to gain insight



Option B can work as a sentence - there isn't a grammatical issue with it. You simply have a parallel list of two items (directed + studied) with a modifier in the middle (using to test...). I would argue that it doesn't make sense to use transplantable organs for drug testing when there is a shortage of transplantable organs. It make much more sense to use stem cells alone for drug testing. I will acknowledge that there is valid debate on this point.

So, let's look at another way to make a decision between B and C. Option B presents us with two parallel items + modifier and Option C presents us with three parallel items. Let's go back to the original to see if we can determine the original intent [maintain original intent unless it is logically flawed]. The original sentence is attempting to create a three item list, but fails to keep it parallel. With that is mind, let's fix the parallelism errors and maintain the three item list - that leads us to Option C.

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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2014, 10:27
KyleWiddison wrote:
gmatter0913 wrote:
KyleWiddison wrote:

Option B
Doctors hope stem cells can be
directed for transplant, using them (transplants?) to test drugs/chemicals, <--- them refers to stem cells. Possibly, stem cells can be used to test drugs. I still feel this sentence is correct.
and
studied to gain insight



Option B can work as a sentence - there isn't a grammatical issue with it. You simply have a parallel list of two items (directed + studied) with a modifier in the middle (using to test...). I would argue that it doesn't make sense to use transplantable organs for drug testing when there is a shortage of transplantable organs. It make much more sense to use stem cells alone for drug testing. I will acknowledge that there is valid debate on this point.

So, let's look at another way to make a decision between B and C. Option B presents us with two parallel items + modifier and Option C presents us with three parallel items. Let's go back to the original to see if we can determine the original intent [maintain original intent unless it is logically flawed]. The original sentence is attempting to create a three item list, but fails to keep it parallel. With that is mind, let's fix the parallelism errors and maintain the three item list - that leads us to Option C.

KW


i am having trouble in eliminating option D

could you please help me out !
Thanks :)
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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2014, 07:42
adymehta29 wrote:

i am having trouble in eliminating option D

could you please help me out !
Thanks :)


We can eliminate choice D due to a lack of parallel structure. We are looking for directed, used, and studied. Choice D gives us directed, use, and for studying.

Does that clear this up for you?

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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Nov 2014, 21:43
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KyleWiddison wrote:
gmatter0913 wrote:
IMO B.

'directed' and 'studied' are parallel.

What is the answer?


The OA is C. Choice B is tempting because it's essentially grammatically correct with directed/studied are parallel with a modifying phrase sandwiched in between (you could argue pronoun ambiguity but the GMAT accepts ambiguity in many cases). You have to decide between B & C on the basis of meaning. Let's look at the structures of both options:

Option B
Doctors hope stem cells can be
directed for transplant, using them (transplants?) to test drugs/chemicals,
and
studied to gain insight

[This option seems to suggest that the transplantable organs will be used to test drugs/chemicals. Why would transplantable organs be used for testing instead of for transplants? This meaning is questionable.]

Option C
Doctors hope stem cells can be
directed for transplant,
used to test drugs/chemicals,
and
studied to gain insight

[This option states three reasons why doctors want to use the stem cells: transplants, testing, and study. This meaning is very straightforward.]

Option B is eliminated for questionable/illogical meaning. Option C wins.

KW



Hello Kyle,

C is the answer to this one...
My query is on the usage of them in other options and what "them" refers to...In my opinion...them can refer tissues,organs or cells as well..The sentence will make sense if replace them with any of the options
Eg...

master cells can be directed to grow in organs or tissues, using tissues/organs to test drugs and potentially chemicals,and may study tissues/organs to gain insight...(Use of master cells will not work here)

In your explanation above, them seems to be refer to transplant (singular,I think...but them is plural)...please confirm what them refers to then...

In option C however,
master cells can be directed to grow in Organs or Tissues,
Masters cells can be used to test drugs
and Master cells can be studied..

Clearly it is the master cells which can be used for the purposes...

In option D and E can we say that a transplant ---- a particular type of transplant is being talked about and not transplant in general..can we rule these option on these basis as well...(i know parallelism is best here but looking at what other ways can the answer choice be rejected)
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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Nov 2014, 13:11
WoundedTiger wrote:
Hello Kyle,

C is the answer to this one...
My query is on the usage of them in other options and what "them" refers to...In my opinion...them can refer tissues,organs or cells as well..The sentence will make sense if replace them with any of the options
Eg...

master cells can be directed to grow in organs or tissues, using tissues/organs to test drugs and potentially chemicals,and may study tissues/organs to gain insight...(Use of master cells will not work here)

In your explanation above, them seems to be refer to transplant (singular,I think...but them is plural)...please confirm what them refers to then...

In option C however,
master cells can be directed to grow in Organs or Tissues,
Masters cells can be used to test drugs
and Master cells can be studied..

Clearly it is the master cells which can be used for the purposes...

In option D and E can we say that a transplant ---- a particular type of transplant is being talked about and not transplant in general..can we rule these option on these basis as well...(i know parallelism is best here but looking at what other ways can the answer choice be rejected)


Sorry for the confusion about the pronoun reference (your bolded question above). I did use the word transplants in my explanation, but later I used the more accurate term 'transplantable organs' because them does indeed refer to the organs/tissues (which are used for transplants).

I don't understand your question about options D & E. Can you clarify?

KW
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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jan 2016, 10:30
Can someone explain why option A is incorrect.

master cell can be directed to grow... to use and to study - why this structure is Incorrect!
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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jan 2016, 21:50
smartguy595 wrote:
Can someone explain why option A is incorrect.

master cell can be directed to grow... to use and to study - why this structure is Incorrect!


The verb must be past tense to be parallel with "directed" in the not underlined portion of the sentence.

So "use" must be "used"

"study" must be "studied"

Hence A is wrong.
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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jan 2016, 06:37
smartguy595,

gmatser1 is correct in pointing out the verb tense issues that make option A non-parallel. I do want to point out that choice A has a significant meaning issues that you should be sure to understand. The structure is setup where the parallel verbs should be passive so that the stem cells receive the action. However, the 2nd and 3rd items in the list (use and may study) are in the active voice and imply that somehow the stem cells are illogically doing drug testing and performing studies. You have to make sure that the correct answer doesn't have that shift from passive to active...

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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2016, 22:25
This took some time to reveal itself, but the correct answer is indeed C
Even though the correct answer "sounds" nothing like one might hear in everyday conversation, it is nonetheless correct.

Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,can be directed to grow in organs or tissues appropriate for transplant, used to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and studied to gain insight into basic human biology

All three are parallel and correct. Stem cells can be X,Y and Z

goalsnr wrote:
Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells, can be directed to grow in organs or tissues appropriate for transplant, use them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and may study them to gain insight into basic human biology.
A. transplant, use them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and may study them
B. transplant, using them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and studied.
C. Transplant, used to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and studied.
D. A transplant, use them for testing drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and for studying.
E. A transplant, used to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals,and may study them.

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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2019, 03:18
goalsnr wrote:
Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells, can be directed to grow in organs or tissues appropriate for transplant, use them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and may study them to gain insight into basic human biology.


A. transplant, use them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and may study them

B. transplant, using them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and studied.

C. Transplant, used to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and studied.

D. A transplant, use them for testing drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and for studying.

E. A transplant, used to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals,and may study them.


look at choice C and learn something.
X can be directed to grow, used to test and studied to gain

"to grow" refer to X. this means X will grow. but " to test" and " to gain" do not refer to X but to an agent outside the sentence. this is correct but remember the reference of "to do" after a difinite verb to understand meaning .

the charcoal was burried to keep it from being stolen

here, "to keep" refers to persons outside to sentence. in the passive pattern, "to do" can play this role. be ready to understand it.

because gmat tests meaning, it tests the higher level of grammar, the level of meaning analysis. I dont like this game.
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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2019, 03:53
A, D, E are incorrect - break parallelism
(A) transplant, use them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and may study them
(E) a transplant, used to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and may study them
(D) a transplant, use them for testing drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and for studying

B suggests that the organs and tissues could be used to test drugs and chemicals instead of the stem cells.
(B) transplant, using them to test drugs and potentially toxic chemicals, and studied
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Re: Doctors hope that one day the body’s master cells, called stem cells,   [#permalink] 04 Oct 2019, 03:53
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