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# Doubt between that and it in Comparisons

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Intern
Joined: 24 Jul 2013
Posts: 29
Doubt between that and it in Comparisons  [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2018, 09:08
1
Hi,

I was watching a video by Ron () wherein exactly 1 hour into the video he talks about the usage of it vs that in comparisons. A screenshot has been attached below. There, he gave four examples:

1. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than it was in 1995

2. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than that in 1995

3. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than it was in 1995

4. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than that in 1995

He says that 'it' refers to noun along with the modifiers. 'that' refers to only nouns minus the modifiers.

According to him,

#1 is correct,

#2 is incorrect as 'it' should be used instead of 'that'.

#3 is nonsense as 'it' refers to 'air quality of Los Angeles in 2010'

But in #4, he goes on to say 'that' refers to 'air quality of los angeles' and is thus correct. As per my understanding, 'of Los Angeles' is a modifier and shouldn't be included in the definition of 'that'.

I am confused and need some guidance on 'it', 'that', and 'those' when used in comparisons.

Cheers!
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GMAT 1: 540 Q45 V20
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Doubt between that and it in Comparisons  [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2018, 10:12
1
longranger25 wrote:

But in #4, he goes on to say 'that' refers to 'air quality of los angeles' and is thus correct. As per my understanding, 'of Los Angeles' is a modifier and shouldn't be included in the definition of 'that'.

Cheers!

these are all correct and THAT refers to the highlighted part:

1. The air quality in 2010 was higher than that in 1995
2. The air quality of Los Angles in 2010 was higher than that in 1995.
3. The air quality of Los Angles in 2010 was higher than that of NewYork in 1995.

in #1, The Air quality in general is discussed. the Author did not mention about the particular zone, state or country.

in #2 here - THAT cannot just modify 'The air quality' because sentence is focused about the air quality of LA not entire America or world. Comparison is between the air quality in two different years but only in LA. This is the reason THAT has to modify NOUN+modifier.

But in #3, it will not be the case as "of NEWYORK' is already present. so THAT will just modify "the Air Quality"
_________________
Math Expert
Joined: 02 Aug 2009
Posts: 7763
Re: Doubt between that and it in Comparisons  [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2018, 19:30
1
1
longranger25 wrote:
Hi,

I was watching a video by Ron () wherein exactly 1 hour into the video he talks about the usage of it vs that in comparisons. A screenshot has been attached below. There, he gave four examples:

1. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than it was in 1995

2. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than that in 1995

3. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than it was in 1995

4. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than that in 1995

He says that 'it' refers to noun along with the modifiers. 'that' refers to only nouns minus the modifiers.

According to him,

#1 is correct,

#2 is incorrect as 'it' should be used instead of 'that'.

#3 is nonsense as 'it' refers to 'air quality of Los Angeles in 2010'

But in #4, he goes on to say 'that' refers to 'air quality of los angeles' and is thus correct. As per my understanding, 'of Los Angeles' is a modifier and shouldn't be included in the definition of 'that'.

I am confused and need some guidance on 'it', 'that', and 'those' when used in comparisons.

Cheers!

Reference to the PM I received..

A quick approach here will be to see if PARALLELISM works in two parts....

1. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than it was in 1995
PARALLELISM is between items before WAS
So IT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles'... Perfectly fine

2. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than that in 1995
PARALLELISM between items before IN..
Doesn't make sense

3. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than it was in 1995
PARALLELISM is between items before WAS
So IT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles in 2010'... Illogical

4. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than that in 1995
PARALLELISM between items before IN..
So THAT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles'.
Perfectly fine.
_________________
Senior Manager
Joined: 07 Oct 2017
Posts: 258
Re: Doubt between that and it in Comparisons  [#permalink]

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15 Aug 2018, 23:10
chetan2u wrote:
longranger25 wrote:
Hi,

I was watching a video by Ron () wherein exactly 1 hour into the video he talks about the usage of it vs that in comparisons. A screenshot has been attached below. There, he gave four examples:

1. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than it was in 1995

2. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than that in 1995

3. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than it was in 1995

4. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than that in 1995

He says that 'it' refers to noun along with the modifiers. 'that' refers to only nouns minus the modifiers.

According to him,

#1 is correct,

#2 is incorrect as 'it' should be used instead of 'that'.

#3 is nonsense as 'it' refers to 'air quality of Los Angeles in 2010'

But in #4, he goes on to say 'that' refers to 'air quality of los angeles' and is thus correct. As per my understanding, 'of Los Angeles' is a modifier and shouldn't be included in the definition of 'that'.

I am confused and need some guidance on 'it', 'that', and 'those' when used in comparisons.

Cheers!

Reference to the PM I received..

A quick approach here will be to see if PARALLELISM works in two parts....

1. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than it was in 1995
PARALLELISM is between items before WAS
So IT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles'... Perfectly fine

2. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than that in 1995
PARALLELISM between items before IN..
Doesn't make sense

3. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than it was in 1995
PARALLELISM is between items before WAS
So IT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles in 2010'... Illogical

4. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than that in 1995
PARALLELISM between items before IN..
So THAT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles'.
Perfectly fine.
What an explanation chetan sir

Sent from my ONEPLUS A3003 using GMAT Club Forum mobile app
_________________
Thank you =Kudos
The best thing in life lies on the other side of the pain.
Intern
Joined: 24 Jul 2013
Posts: 29
Re: Doubt between that and it in Comparisons  [#permalink]

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16 Aug 2018, 08:44
Wo!! What did you just do? Pretty amazing shortcut.

Let me try this out on other problems and report back to you.

Thanks a ton!

chetan2u wrote:
longranger25 wrote:
Hi,

I was watching a video by Ron () wherein exactly 1 hour into the video he talks about the usage of it vs that in comparisons. A screenshot has been attached below. There, he gave four examples:

1. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than it was in 1995

2. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than that in 1995

3. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than it was in 1995

4. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than that in 1995

He says that 'it' refers to noun along with the modifiers. 'that' refers to only nouns minus the modifiers.

According to him,

#1 is correct,

#2 is incorrect as 'it' should be used instead of 'that'.

#3 is nonsense as 'it' refers to 'air quality of Los Angeles in 2010'

But in #4, he goes on to say 'that' refers to 'air quality of los angeles' and is thus correct. As per my understanding, 'of Los Angeles' is a modifier and shouldn't be included in the definition of 'that'.

I am confused and need some guidance on 'it', 'that', and 'those' when used in comparisons.

Cheers!

Reference to the PM I received..

A quick approach here will be to see if PARALLELISM works in two parts....

1. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than it was in 1995
PARALLELISM is between items before WAS
So IT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles'... Perfectly fine

2. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than that in 1995
PARALLELISM between items before IN..
Doesn't make sense

3. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than it was in 1995
PARALLELISM is between items before WAS
So IT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles in 2010'... Illogical

4. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than that in 1995
PARALLELISM between items before IN..
So THAT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles'.
Perfectly fine.
Intern
Joined: 24 Jul 2013
Posts: 29
Re: Doubt between that and it in Comparisons  [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2018, 13:41
It works. I have been able to get a lot of questions correctly now. I believe, it is just a combination of knowing the right construction and knowing what needs to be parallel where. Solid post. 10/10. I owe you a treat!

Thanks so much!!

chetan2u wrote:
longranger25 wrote:
Hi,

I was watching a video by Ron () wherein exactly 1 hour into the video he talks about the usage of it vs that in comparisons. A screenshot has been attached below. There, he gave four examples:

1. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than it was in 1995

2. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than that in 1995

3. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than it was in 1995

4. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than that in 1995

He says that 'it' refers to noun along with the modifiers. 'that' refers to only nouns minus the modifiers.

According to him,

#1 is correct,

#2 is incorrect as 'it' should be used instead of 'that'.

#3 is nonsense as 'it' refers to 'air quality of Los Angeles in 2010'

But in #4, he goes on to say 'that' refers to 'air quality of los angeles' and is thus correct. As per my understanding, 'of Los Angeles' is a modifier and shouldn't be included in the definition of 'that'.

I am confused and need some guidance on 'it', 'that', and 'those' when used in comparisons.

Cheers!

Reference to the PM I received..

A quick approach here will be to see if PARALLELISM works in two parts....

1. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than it was in 1995
PARALLELISM is between items before WAS
So IT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles'... Perfectly fine

2. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than that in 1995
PARALLELISM between items before IN..
Doesn't make sense

3. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than it was in 1995
PARALLELISM is between items before WAS
So IT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles in 2010'... Illogical

4. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than that in 1995
PARALLELISM between items before IN..
So THAT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles'.
Perfectly fine.
Math Expert
Joined: 02 Aug 2009
Posts: 7763
Re: Doubt between that and it in Comparisons  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

17 Aug 2018, 19:15
longranger25 wrote:
It works. I have been able to get a lot of questions correctly now. I believe, it is just a combination of knowing the right construction and knowing what needs to be parallel where. Solid post. 10/10. I owe you a treat!

Thanks so much!!

chetan2u wrote:
longranger25 wrote:
Hi,

I was watching a video by Ron () wherein exactly 1 hour into the video he talks about the usage of it vs that in comparisons. A screenshot has been attached below. There, he gave four examples:

1. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than it was in 1995

2. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than that in 1995

3. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than it was in 1995

4. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than that in 1995

He says that 'it' refers to noun along with the modifiers. 'that' refers to only nouns minus the modifiers.

According to him,

#1 is correct,

#2 is incorrect as 'it' should be used instead of 'that'.

#3 is nonsense as 'it' refers to 'air quality of Los Angeles in 2010'

But in #4, he goes on to say 'that' refers to 'air quality of los angeles' and is thus correct. As per my understanding, 'of Los Angeles' is a modifier and shouldn't be included in the definition of 'that'.

I am confused and need some guidance on 'it', 'that', and 'those' when used in comparisons.

Cheers!

Reference to the PM I received..

A quick approach here will be to see if PARALLELISM works in two parts....

1. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than it was in 1995
PARALLELISM is between items before WAS
So IT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles'... Perfectly fine

2. The air quality of Los Angeles was higher in 2010 than that in 1995
PARALLELISM between items before IN..
Doesn't make sense

3. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than it was in 1995
PARALLELISM is between items before WAS
So IT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles in 2010'... Illogical

4. The air quality of Los Angeles in 2010 was higher than that in 1995
PARALLELISM between items before IN..
So THAT refers to ' the air quality of Los Angeles'.
Perfectly fine.

Happy it helped you
_________________
Re: Doubt between that and it in Comparisons   [#permalink] 17 Aug 2018, 19:15
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