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During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was

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14 Jul 2012, 09:06
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.

After removing the fluff, we can eliminate D and E.
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of : the opening sentence is in past tense.
Between B and C, B is wordy and C conveys the correct meaning in a clear and concise way. Hence C.

(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of : this enabled. What does this refer to "knowing" or "the ecology and the land"

(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
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14 Jul 2012, 09:23
maybeam wrote:
yashii9 wrote:
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

1.
1st clause- modifier that modifies the noun
2nd clause (Native Americans)- Noun

These two are rightly placed. Based on this we can eliminate D & E.

2. Looking at the end of underlined sentence we can notice
a. rescue of
b. to rescue

to rescue is the correct idiom also if you dont know the correct idiom, "in the rescue of" sounds really awkward.
This leave us with C.

Hope this helps.

that was an ideed great explanation.
i wanted to clarify 2 things here

1. did u eliminate A on the grounds of correct usuage of rescue of and rescue to?
correct me, i may be wrong, but rescuing of is not a wrong idiom.

2. does intimately knowing and intimate knowledge had any role to play in deciding the choice?

Something very general,
When we use idioms separately and when we use them in sentence : we should be careful and sensible about the intention of the author so we have to be careful about the meaning as well.
Now the GMAT is also testing the meaning and you can very well expect that out of 5 ACs two will have appropriate grammatical structure but still one is the buck .
Be careful that even if the small sections of the sentence is looking correct but the meaning is not what is expected then it is probably not the right AC.
Do a 3/2 separation start from the 3 common starter ACs and find the flaw in (A) then proceed , after you are not able to find the right AC in those 3 , move on to the rest 2, then once you have chosen the right answer , fix it with the main sentence and read it, try to figure out as it is contending the next most tempting option.Meanwhile,POE will help you to eliminate atleast 2 ACs.
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14 Jul 2012, 23:02
2
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

in D and E modifier (M)------M1,M2, SUBJECT +VERB+ EXTENSION IS NOT DESIREABLE ONE Unles there is no relation between M1 AND M2, SUBJECT++++++++++++

SO out D and E.

B . sentence construction is not paralell in subject matter. the sentence should have been stood as separately, though that would be wordy, clumsy, and confusing. this could be ------Native Americans ,knowing intimately the ecology of the land, helped to rescue. this refers to entire preceeding clause but i have never seen such construction as this one.

A. Initial modifier impels to deal with the active subject rather than passive one i think. so wordy and bad construction should be avoided if possible

c........officially correct so it is correct. but i am showing you some arguments to support this option. modifier with construction modifies the entire clause not a specific one in the sentence.-----"how native americans helped to rescue many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardshi" is clearly described by the modifier begins with "WITH" GOT IT ?
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14 Jul 2012, 23:28
one strategy that i have read an try to follow is to try and read the sentence without the part between two (,)'s. if it makes sense, then it generally makes it to the answer choice options.

so try and read options A, B and C without the part involving the intimate knowledge.

P.S. use ths trick only if the stimulus also has a formation involving two (,)'s.
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15 Jul 2012, 12:38
Could anyone let me know a reason apart from awkward construction to eliminate A.

I am stuck here with A and C.
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15 Jul 2012, 21:39
It is the wrong idiom that is even more important than the awkwardness( awkwardness is after all a matter of opinion) of the clause. - were a help in the rescuing of - is demonstrably a blatant idiomatic error. It should be the straight -helped to rescue-

That is why A is off the hook
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02 Feb 2013, 06:56
ugimba wrote:

During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.

(A) Native Americans, intimately knowingthe ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) havingintimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowingintimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

This is a past event.
"Settlement WAS viewed..."
"Native Americans helped..."
Keep everything past tense. Thus, eliminate A, D and E.
B is wordy.

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04 Feb 2013, 14:33
not easy at all, middle modifier, "having" in D and E can modifies the previous clause or latter clause and so is wrong.
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26 Jul 2017, 08:27
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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26 Jul 2017, 08:49
noboru wrote:
So 2 consecutive noun modifiers are not correct?

I have the same question.
I guess it is possible if two modifiers are connected using "and"?
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26 Jul 2017, 10:16
sevenplusplus wrote:
noboru wrote:
So 2 consecutive noun modifiers are not correct?

I have the same question.
I guess it is possible if two modifiers are connected using "and"?

Hello sevenplusplus,

Firstly, the opening modifier of this official sentence During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers is not a noun modifier. It is an action modifier because the sentence says that something happened during the xyz period.

Secondly, two noun modifiers can be uses back to back to refer to a noun entity. But yes, there should be connector between the two for ease of understanding.

In Choices D and E, the placement of the modifiers having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land and knowing intimately the ecology of the land respectively is such that it can associate with the preceding noun newcomers as well as the following noun Native Americans.

Hence, their usage in both these options is incorrect.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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26 Jul 2017, 10:35
ugimba wrote:
262. During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers, Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.
(A) Native Americans, intimately knowing the ecology of the land, were a help in the rescuing of
(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of
(C) Native Americans, with their intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, helped to rescue
(D) having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped the rescue of
(E) knowing intimately the ecology of the land, Native Americans helped to rescue

A - I don't see much wrong here, except my god it's wordy. I'm not a big idiom person, but 'help in the rescuing of' sounds off. OUT!
B - 'knew the ecology and the land' changes the meaning. OUT!
C - Nothing wrong grammatically + help to rescue sounds better than A. Keep C.
D - 'having...' is modifying newcomers. OUT
E - Same as D. Incorrect verb-ing modifier usage.

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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2017, 10:54
egmat wrote:
sevenplusplus wrote:
noboru wrote:
So 2 consecutive noun modifiers are not correct?

I have the same question.
I guess it is possible if two modifiers are connected using "and"?

Hello sevenplusplus,

Firstly, the opening modifier of this official sentence During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers is not a noun modifier. It is an action modifier because the sentence says that something happened during the xyz period.

Secondly, two noun modifiers can be uses back to back to refer to a noun entity. But yes, there should be connector between the two for ease of understanding.

In Choices D and E, the placement of the modifiers having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land and knowing intimately the ecology of the land respectively is such that it can associate with the preceding noun newcomers as well as the following noun Native Americans.

Hence, their usage in both these options is incorrect.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Hi. I have a doubt.
How do D and E modify new comers? A comma followed by ing modifier can only modify the entire clause right?
The subject of the preceding clause is continent.
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26 Jul 2017, 11:52
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sarathgopinath wrote:

Hi. I have a doubt.
How do D and E modify new comers? A comma followed by ing modifier can only modify the entire clause right?
The subject of the preceding clause is continent.

Hello sarathgopinath,

It is true that the two verb-ing modifiers in Choice D and E are preceded by a that clause + comma. However, the clause is in the passive voice, the rules for comma + verb-ing modifiers will not be applicable on the clause. This is the grammatical part of the usage.

From meaning standpoint, the two modifiers are meant to refer to Native Americans because the context of the sentence makes it absolutely clear that the Native Americans intimately knew the ecology of the land and hence helped to rescue many pilgrims and pioneers. Hence, the two modifiers must be placed correctly to be able to perform their function without any ambiguity whatsoever. But the same does not happen in Choice D and E.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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27 Jul 2017, 03:33
egmat wrote:
It is true that the two verb-ing modifiers in Choice D and E are preceded by a that clause + comma. However, the clause is in the passive voice, the rules for comma + verb-ing modifiers will not be applicable on the clause. This is the grammatical part of the usage.

Hello Shraddha, I was not aware of this. Does this mean that when we have a clause in passive voice + comma + verb-ing modifiers, these verb-ing modifiers will modify the word immediately before the verb-ing modifiers?

Is my understanding correct. Is there an official example you can think of, where the correct option uses this kind of structure.
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27 Jul 2017, 11:23
malavika1 wrote:
Hello Shraddha, I was not aware of this. Does this mean that when we have a clause in passive voice + comma + verb-ing modifiers, these verb-ing modifiers will modify the word immediately before the verb-ing modifiers?

Is my understanding correct. Is there an official example you can think of, where the correct option uses this kind of structure.

Hello malavika1,

Thank you for the query.

See, I am not saying that if a comma + verb-ing modifier is placed after a passive voice clause, it will refer to the noun preceding it.

All I am saying that comma + verb-ing modifier rules do not work on clauses in passive voice structure.

In this particular official sentence, we know from the context of the sentence that the two verb-ing modifiers used in Choice D and E are meant to modify Native Americans. But their placement is such that they do not their function correctly.

I really cannot think of an official correct sentence in which a comma + verb-ing modifier placed after a passive voice clause refers to the preceding noun.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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28 Jul 2017, 08:55
Thanks Shraddha. I think in D and E, even if we go with the normal usage of these comma + ing modifiers, then as sarathgopinath mentioned, in D and E, "having intimate knowledge" is modifying "continent". So, D and E are suggesting that the "continent" had intimate knowledge!

Can we take it this way?
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28 Jul 2017, 09:07
malavika1 wrote:
Thanks Shraddha. I think in D and E, even if we go with the normal usage of these comma + ing modifiers, then as sarathgopinath mentioned, in D and E, "having intimate knowledge" is modifying "continent". So, D and E are suggesting that the "continent" had intimate knowledge!

Can we take it this way?

Hello malavika1,

Yes, even if you analyze the usage of the verb-ing modifiers this way, you will be able to reject choices D and E.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was  [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2017, 22:01
egmat wrote:
sevenplusplus wrote:
noboru wrote:
So 2 consecutive noun modifiers are not correct?

I have the same question.
I guess it is possible if two modifiers are connected using "and"?

Hello sevenplusplus,

Firstly, the opening modifier of this official sentence During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers is not a noun modifier. It is an action modifier because the sentence says that something happened during the xyz period.

Secondly, two noun modifiers can be uses back to back to refer to a noun entity. But yes, there should be connector between the two for ease of understanding.

In Choices D and E, the placement of the modifiers having intimate knowledge of the ecology of the land and knowing intimately the ecology of the land respectively is such that it can associate with the preceding noun newcomers as well as the following noun Native Americans.

Hence, their usage in both these options is incorrect.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Hi eGmat,
Please help me to understand the usage of comma + with. I will be grateful if you can provide some inputs.
As per my understanding, If you find comma + -ING or comma + "with" after just the subject of a sentence (i.e., not after an entire clause), then they work differently: in that case, they just modify that noun/subject. Here comma + with acts as an adjective modifier.
Also, COMMA + WITH generally functions as an ADVERB modifying the preceding action.
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During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was  [#permalink]

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10 Oct 2018, 02:09
even though there are great explanations for incorrect choice B, I would like to point one more error:

During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers,........................... many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.

(B) Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of

put in B:
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers,Native Americans knew the ecology and the land intimately and this enabled them to help in the rescue of many Pilgrims and pioneers from hardship, or even death.

Now even if we correct the error " knew the ecology AND the land " the choice would still be wrong :
the original sentence tries to convey a quality which native americans possess , a quality which proved to be helpful to the pilgrims.
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was viewed as “wilderness” by the newcomers,Native Americans knew the ecology and the land -- this implies that the native americans possessed the knowledge DURING the early years , and not any time before or after that. This is a distortion in meaning.

Though this is too subtle and other errors are more than enough to ditch B, a more clearer picture only increases your knowledge
During the early years of European settlement on a continent that was &nbs [#permalink] 10 Oct 2018, 02:09

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