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El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a

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El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 11 Dec 2018, 05:14
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A
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D
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El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated in the western Pacific to flow back to the east.


(A) a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated

(B) a phenomenon where changes in the ocean and atmosphere are combining to allow the warm water that is accumulating

(C) a phenomenon in which ocean and atmosphere changes combine and which allows the warm water that is accumulated

(D) is a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine to allow the warm water that has accumulated

(E) is a phenomenon where ocean and atmosphere changes are combining and allow the warm water accumulating


OG16 SC109

Originally posted by Puilunchristin on 25 Feb 2006, 15:19.
Last edited by Bunuel on 11 Dec 2018, 05:14, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Mar 2012, 10:11
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I have chosen D for this question:

A. Sentence is a fragment because it lacks a main verb. Currently, the sentence has 2 modifiers for El Nino - the 2nd modifier is therefore misplaced at the moment.

B. Sentence is a fragment because it lacks a main verb.

C. Again, the sentence is a fragment.

D. This sentence is correct. The use of present perfect tense is fine because it is describing how water accumulated in the past and continues to accumulate in the present will flow back East.

E. The use of "where" to describe phenomenon is incorrect because "where" is used to describe places, not events. Also, "are combining" is really confusing. If this is correct, then we a have a parallelism error because "are combining" is not parallel to "allow."
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2006, 16:13
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Puilunchristin wrote:
275. El Nino, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated in the western Pacific to flow back to the east.

(A) a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated
(B) a phenomenon where changes in the ocean and atmosphere are combining to allow the warm water that is accumulating
(C) a phenomenon in which ocean and atmosphere changes combine and which allows the warm water that is accumulated
(D) is a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine to allow the warm water that has accumulated
(E) is a phenomenon where ocean and atmosphere changes are combining and allow the warm water accumulating


would go with D

I may not explain it very well but here is what I think:
a,b c do not have a verb to complete the clause that began with El Nino, however d & e have IS that is completing the clause. The 'IN WHICH' in d is better than 'where' in E. also E sounds odd otherwise.
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2011, 08:42
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2013, 00:32
Can someone explain the Error in Option C... I know its wrong but can't figure out what it is. Thanks in advance!
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2013, 01:03
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fozzzy wrote:
Can someone explain the Error in Option C... I know its wrong but can't figure out what it is. Thanks in advance!


C has an incorrect structure: if you eliminate the modifer " the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru" you'll see that the word "is" must be present

El Nino, [the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru], a phenomenon in which ocean and atmosphere changes combine and which allows the warm water that is accumulated in the western Pacific to flow back to the east.

C looks like this: El Nino a phenomenon in which . There is something missing... like a verb...

Hope it's clear
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2013, 06:15
275. El Nino, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated in the western Pacific to flow back to the east.

(A) a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulatedfragment. No verb for El Nino
(B) a phenomenon where changes in the ocean and atmosphere are combining to allow the warm water that is accumulating. fragment. No verb for El Nino
(C) a phenomenon in which ocean and atmosphere changes combine and which allows the warm water that is accumulated. fragment. No verb for El Nino
(D) is a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine to allow the warm water that has accumulated
(E) is a phenomenon where ocean and atmosphere changes are combining and allow the warm water accumulating. awkward.
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2013, 11:08
Baten80 wrote:
Why is has used in the correct choice D?


Any one about usage of HAS in D?
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2014, 10:17
targetdec31 wrote:
Any one about usage of HAS in D?

has accumulated is a present perfect tense, and is primarily used to depict an event that has happened at some unspecific time before the current time.

Perhaps this can be best understood by few examples:

Now a days, the new Governments always rollback the changes that have been implemented by the old Governments.
- The clause in present perfect (that have been implemented by the old Governments) is modifying changes

Everyday, the Sun clears the mist that has been accumulated by the low temperatures of the night.
- The clause in present perfect (that has been accumulated by the low temperatures of the night) is modifying mist

In El Nino, changes combine to allow the warm water that has accumulated in the western Pacific to flow back to the east.
- The clause in present perfect (that has accumulated in the western Pacific) is modifying warm water

p.s. Our book SC Nirvana discusses Present Perfect tense, its application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2014, 11:00
Can someone explain why "combine" or "to allow" in A and B is not considered a verb?
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2014, 11:49
russ9 wrote:
Can someone explain why "combine" or "to allow" in A and B is not considered a verb?

combine in A and are in B are indeed verbs; but these verbs are only part of dependent clauses; so, there is no independent clause in A and B; and there cannot be a sentence without an Independent clause.

Let's take a simplified example that mirrors A:

James, a married man, an athlete who combines skill and strength enabling him to win medals.

This is not a valid sentence, because the verb combines only appears as a part of dependent clause: who combines skill and strength enabling him to win medals.

One way to fix it would be:

James, a married man, is an athlete who combines skill and strength to enable him to win medals.

Now, we have an Independent clause: James is an athlete

By the way, A and B also have back to back modifiers (the periodic abnormal ... and and a phenomenon in which....), modifying the same entity El Nino. This is not GMAT's stylistic preference.
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El Nino, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2016, 16:17
saurabh87 wrote:
El Nino, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated in the western Pacific to flow back to the east.

(A) a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated
(B) a phenomenon where changes in the ocean and atmosphere are combining to allow the warm water that is accumulating
(C) a phenomenon in which ocean and atmosphere changes combine and which allows the warm water that is accumulated
(D) is a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine to allow the warm water that has accumulated
(E) is a phenomenon where ocean and atmosphere changes are combining and allow the warm water accumulating


Sentence Breakup
El Nino, (No verb)

the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, (Modifying Phrase)

a phenomenon (in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere) combine allowing the warm water (SV:: a phenomenon-combine)

that has accumulated in the western Pacific to flow back to the east. (SV:: That-has accumulated)

My doubt is, since "in which" is a preposition and "in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere" a prepositional phrase

and we know subject of a verb can't be in prepositional phrase then subject of combine should be a phenomenon and not changes.

am I correct??
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jul 2016, 12:23
Puilunchristin wrote:
275. El Nino, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated in the western Pacific to flow back to the east. OG16 SC109


(A) a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated - NO VERB
(B) a phenomenon where changes in the ocean and atmosphere are combining to allow the warm water that is accumulating
NO VERB
(C) a phenomenon in which ocean and atmosphere changes combine and which allows the warm water that is accumulated
NO VERB
(D) is a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine to allow the warm water that has accumulated
(E) is a phenomenon where ocean and atmosphere changes are combining and allow the warm water accumulating
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2018, 20:58
El Nino, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated in the western Pacific to flow back to the east.

(A) a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated -- El Nino does not have a verb ; usage of allowing is incorrect
(B) a phenomenon where changes in the ocean and atmosphere are combining to allow the warm water that is accumulating -- El Nino does not have a verb ; usage of where to refer to a phenomenon is incorrect
(C) a phenomenon in which ocean and atmosphere changes combine and which allows the warm water that is accumulated -- El Nino does not have a verb ; meaning change because of usage of and
(D) is a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine to allow the warm water that has accumulated -- Correct
(E) is a phenomenon where ocean and atmosphere changes are combining and allow the warm water accumulating -- usage of where to refer to a phenomenon is incorrect ; present continuous are combining is incorrect

AjiteshArun , daagh , mikemcgarry ,GMATNinja ,egmat, other experts-- please enlighten
In the correct answer , is the usage of "to allow" correct? To allow should express intent/purpose

Answer D
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jan 2018, 23:37
Skywalker18 wrote:
AjiteshArun , daagh , mikemcgarry ,GMATNinja ,egmat, other experts-- please enlighten
In the correct answer , is the usage of "to allow" correct? To allow should express intent/purpose

Answer D
To can be used for intent, but it has a whole lot of other uses too. In this case they're trying to get at result. For example,

The opening was large enough to allow only a small child through.

Here the meaning is not (a) for the purpose of allowing only a small child through the opening was large enough but (b) the size of the opening was such that only a particular result was possible.
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Re: El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Feb 2018, 14:17
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Hi Puilunchristin,

Thank you for your question. Let's look at this question, one problem at a time, and see if we can narrow it down to the correct answer!

The first major difference between the answers is how they begin: a phenomenon vs. is a phenomenon. The problem with just using "a phenomenon" is that it creates a sentence fragment. There is no verb in the sentence - it's just a subject with two modifiers. So, let's get rid of answers A, B, & C because all three answers aren't complete sentences.

Now that we've narrowed it down to only D & E, let's look at what's different about each one:


(D) is a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine to allow the warm water that has accumulated

Answer D is the CORRECT answer because it uses the phrase "in which" to indicate an explanation, not the phrase "where" which indicates place or direction. It also uses clearer verbs "combine" and "has accumulated" to show meaning.

(E) is a phenomenon where ocean and atmosphere changes are combining and allow the warm water accumulating

Answer E is INCORRECT because it uses the word "where," which should only be used to show place or direction - NOT to indicate you are giving an example or explanation. The other problem is using verbs like "are combining" and "accumulating." They both tell the reader that this phenomenon is happening only RIGHT NOW, instead of saying it's something that happens in the past and could also happen in the present or future.
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El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Mar 2019, 03:02
@verbalexperts can you help?

Does the correct answer a bit distorts the initial meaning?
According to question stem I understood that: 1 thing just happens and this "happening" allows "the warm water" .... to flow
According to the correct answer choice: 1 thing happens to allow (in purpose) "the warm water" .... to flow.

I understand that D is the best choice given. But when I was first evaluating the answer choices I somehow rejected D and then returned back because have not found better choice

Please help
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El Niño, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface off Peru, a   [#permalink] 19 Mar 2019, 03:02
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