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Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly co

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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly co  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2015, 13:24
Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly contain millions of electronic switches. Unfortunately, electronic switches that are this small cannot withstand intense radiation. Micro-Mechanics plans to produce a chip that, because it uses only microscopic mechanical switches, will be invulnerable to radiation damage. The switches will, however, be slower than electronic switches and the chip will contain only 12,000 switches. For there to be a market for Micro-Mechanics’ chip as a result of the apparent advantage described above, each of the following would have to be true EXCEPT:

A. There will be applications in which the speed attainable by an electronic switch is not essential.

B. Switches used on electronic chips that contain only 12,000 switches are more vulnerable to radiation damage than the switches on Micro-Mechanics’ chip will be.

C. There will be applications for computer chips in environments where the chips may have to survive intense radiation.

D. Some devices in which computer chips will be used will have other components that will be able to function during or after exposure to radiation.

E. Manufacturers are able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure to intense radiation, where this protection is necessary.
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly co  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2015, 00:38
IMO (E)
The main reason to go for mechanical switches is their ability to sustain intense radiation. Now if electronic switches can be protected and hence used in such environment then market for mechanical switches might not exist.
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly co  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2015, 03:27
Hi souvik101990,
I have been solving the questions posted by you and other verbal moderators..
I am just wondering how you guys decide the difficulty level of the question?

How do you know that the current question is 35% percentile question ????

It would be a great information for me.. :)

Thanks in advance...
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly co  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Dec 2015, 19:38
eybrj2 wrote:
Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly contain millions
of electronic switches. Unfortunately, electronic switches that are this small cannot
withstand intense radiation. Micro-Mechanics plans to produce a chip that, because
it uses only microscopic mechanical switches, will be invulnerable to radiation
damage. The switches will, however, be slower than electronic switches and the
chip will contain only 12,000 switches.


Ok, so we need to find a way to strengthen the usage/implementation of the new MMS.

For there to be a market for Micro-Mechanics’ chip as a result of the apparent
advantage described above, each of the following would have to be true EXCEPT:

A. There will be applications in which the speed attainable by an electronic
switch is not essential.
if no, then will not be used, so this one works.

B. Switches used on electronic chips that contain only 12,000 switches are more
vulnerable to radiation damage than the switches on Micro-Mechanics’ chip
will be.
if switches of other companies with the same specs are more vulnerable than MM's chip, then definitely there will be a market for MM's chip.

C. There will be applications for computer chips in environments where the chips
may have to survive intense radiation.
works. if there are no applications in which chips that needs to be resistant against radiation, then there would be no market for MM's chips.

D. Some devices in which computer chips will be used will have other
components that will be able to function during or after exposure to radiation.
good one. what if the chip is resistant to radiation, but the other components not? if this is the case, then MM's chips are not actually needed. so this one works as well.

E. Manufacturers are able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure
to intense radiation, where this protection is necessary.
see how here MANUFACTURERS are mentioned and not the final users? This one is a nice iSWAT. we are not concerned about the ability of manufacturers to protect the chips.

E is the best answer.
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly co  [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2016, 04:03
this is basically a weakening EXCEPT question type
If option E is considered to be false than what is the need to produce new type of chips
Hence correct answer - E
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly co  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2016, 06:21
mikemcgarry wrote:
JusTLucK04 wrote:
If it is so..Isn't D bit of a stretch..How should we know that to function properly these chips require some other working components in the instrument too
Is it a necessary condition?..COnfused Between D & E..but E is any day a better option..Still this is a Gmat prep question

Dear JusTLucK04,
I'm happy to respond. :-) Are you familiar with the Negation Test for Assumption questions? See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/assumption ... -the-gmat/
We can use something very similar here.

The possible scenario: there is a market for Micro-Mechanics’ chips with microscopic mechanical switches.

If an answer MUST be true for this scenario to work, then when we take the negation of it, that would make the scenario impossible in some way -- it would be an objection or a weakener with respect to the scenario.

Here's the prompt:
Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly contain millions of electronic switches. Unfortunately, electronic switches that are this small cannot withstand intense radiation. Micro-Mechanics plans to produce a chip that, because it uses only microscopic mechanical switches, will be invulnerable to radiation damage. The switches will, however, be slower than electronic switches and the chip will contain only 12,000 switches.

For there to be a market for Micro-Mechanics’ chip as a result of the apparent advantage described above, each of the following would have to be true EXCEPT:


Now, let's consider negations of these two choices.
D. Some devices in which computer chips will be used will have other components that will be able to function during or after exposure to radiation.
NEGATION = All devices in which computer chips will be used will have other components that absolutely cannot function during or after exposure to radiation.
Well, if these devices are going to fail when they are exposed to radiation, because all the other components fail, then it wouldn't matter at all whether the chips were still working. Therefore, why would anyone be willing to buy radiation-proof chips to put them into devices that definitely will fail when exposed to radiation? That would be completely pointless. If we negate this, it absolutely destroys the scenario --- the scenario is simple not possible.

Remember the opposite of "some" is "none", and the opposite of "some ... not" is "all".

E. Manufacturers are able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure to intense radiation, where this protection is necessary.
This one is interesting, because if this is true, then it would weaken the scenario. If manufacturers can protect the electronic chips from radiation, then that eliminates the risk of radiation. In that case, there would absolutely no reason to buy chips that could still function after exposure to radiation, because the entire problem of exposure to radiation had already been solve. Now, let's negate this:
NEGATION = Manufacturers are not able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure to intense radiation, even where this protection is necessary.
Well, if manufacturers cannot provide this protection, then exposure to radiation is a BIG problem, and Micro-Mechanics’ chips with microscopic mechanical switches would provide a huge solution for this BIG problem. Thus, there would be a gigantic market for them.

For the one's that genuinely must be true, the negation constitutes an objection or weakener to the scenario, but the last one, (E), is completely the opposite. Answer (E), in its original form, is a weakener, while its negation would strengthen the scenario.

That's why (E) is the best answer. It's the only one that doesn't have to be true --- in fact, if it's negation is true, that would be considerably more helpful to the scenario.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


crystal explanation.

I am afraid I cannot achieve negation.

Merry Christmas.
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly co  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2017, 05:22
Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly contain millions of electronic switches. Unfortunately, electronic switches that are this small cannot withstand intense radiation. Micro-Mechanics plans to produce a chip that, because it uses only microscopic mechanical switches, will be invulnerable to radiation damage. The switches will, however, be slower than electronic switches and the chip will contain only 12,000 switches.

For there to be a market for Micro-Mechanic's chip as a result of the apparent advantage described above, each of the following would have to be true EXCEPT:

(A) There will be applications in which the speed attainable by an electronic switch is not essential.

(B) Switches used on electronic chips that contain only 12,000 switches are more vulnerable to radiation damage than the switches on Micro-Mechanic's chip will be.

(C) There will be applications for computer chips in environments where the chips may have to survive intense radiation.

(D) Some devices in which computer chips will be used will have other components that will be able to function during or after exposure to radiation.

(E) Manufacturers are able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure to intense radiation, where this protection is necessary.

GMATNinja, What is the type of question? I guess it must be "strengthen" question type because of the key word "to be true". However, some argue that it is "weaken" or "assumption". Could you help to explain with answer choice (D)? How could be "some devices" & "other components" strengthen the argument?
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly co  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Jun 2017, 18:45
hazelnut wrote:
Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly contain millions of electronic switches. Unfortunately, electronic switches that are this small cannot withstand intense radiation. Micro-Mechanics plans to produce a chip that, because it uses only microscopic mechanical switches, will be invulnerable to radiation damage. The switches will, however, be slower than electronic switches and the chip will contain only 12,000 switches.

For there to be a market for Micro-Mechanic's chip as a result of the apparent advantage described above, each of the following would have to be true EXCEPT:

(A) There will be applications in which the speed attainable by an electronic switch is not essential.

(B) Switches used on electronic chips that contain only 12,000 switches are more vulnerable to radiation damage than the switches on Micro-Mechanic's chip will be.

(C) There will be applications for computer chips in environments where the chips may have to survive intense radiation.

(D) Some devices in which computer chips will be used will have other components that will be able to function during or after exposure to radiation.

(E) Manufacturers are able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure to intense radiation, where this protection is necessary.

GMATNinja, What is the type of question? I guess it must be "strengthen" question type because of the key word "to be true". However, some argue that it is "weaken" or "assumption". Could you help to explain with answer choice (D)? How could be "some devices" & "other components" strengthen the argument?

Regarding the question type... as explained above by mikemcgarry, the correct answer choice (E), if true, would actually weaken the argument that there is a market for Micro-Mechanics’ chip as a result of the apparent advantage described in the passage.

The argument that there is a market for Micro-Mechanics' chip depends on the assumptions in all of the other answer choices, but we are looking for an assumption that, if true, would actually weaken the argument.

Regardless, I wouldn't waste time worrying about how to categorize this question. After all, you'll never get a GMAT CR question asking you to select the type that best describes the question! The important thing is understanding the structure of the argument. Labeling the question won't make much of a difference.

As for choice (D), in order for there to be a market for the chips, we do not need ALL devices to require use of the chips. If there are SOME devices that will have computer chips and that will have other components that can survive exposure to radiation, then Micro-Mechanics' chip can potentially be used in those devices. Thus, choice (D) describes a potential market for the chip, supporting the argument that there is, in fact, a market for the chip.
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly co  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jul 2017, 20:52
mikemcgarry wrote:
JusTLucK04 wrote:
E. Manufacturers are able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure to intense radiation, where this protection is necessary.
This one is interesting, because if this is true, then it would weaken the scenario. If manufacturers can protect the electronic chips from radiation, then that eliminates the risk of radiation. In that case, there would absolutely no reason to buy chips that could still function after exposure to radiation, because the entire problem of exposure to radiation had already been solve. Now, let's negate this:
NEGATION = Manufacturers are not able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure to intense radiation, even where this protection is necessary.
Well, if manufacturers cannot provide this protection, then exposure to radiation is a BIG problem, and Micro-Mechanics’ chips with microscopic mechanical switches would provide a huge solution for this BIG problem. Thus, there would be a gigantic market for them.

For the one's that genuinely must be true, the negation constitutes an objection or weakener to the scenario, but the last one, (E), is completely the opposite. Answer (E), in its original form, is a weakener, while its negation would strengthen the scenario.

That's why (E) is the best answer. It's the only one that doesn't have to be true --- in fact, if it's negation is true, that would be considerably more helpful to the scenario.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)


Imagine an electronic chip and electronic switches attached to the chip. Even if manufacturers are able to protect the chip itself, it does not necessarily mean that the switch attached to the chip is protected. Hence, the chip itself is not damaged, but the switch is damaged and the system will not work.
Please, kindly explain why my thinking is wrong.
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly co  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2017, 15:22
Soul777 wrote:

Imagine an electronic chip and electronic switches attached to the chip. Even if manufacturers are able to protect the chip itself, it does not necessarily mean that the switch attached to the chip is protected. Hence, the chip itself is not damaged, but the switch is damaged and the system will not work.
Please, kindly explain why my thinking is wrong.

Dear Soul777,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, your question is an excellent example of why outside knowledge, general knowledge about how the real world works, it absolutely crucial to the GMAT CR. See this blog article:
GMAT Critical Reasoning and Outside Knowledge

My friend, we live in a world in which virtually everything you do depends on computers--when you use your phone or a computer, drive a car, turn on anything electronic, plug in anything electric, even turn on a faucet or flush a toilet, you are tapping into something that rums on computer chips. They are everywhere. Have you ever seen a computer chip? This Wikipedia article has several pictures. A typical modern chip is about the size of a coin or smaller. The "switches" on it are microscopic, so small that one cannot even see them with one's eyes. These "switches" and all the wires of the circuit are welded directly onto the chip. There would be absolutely no way to protect the chip without protecting all the circuits on the chip. This would be like designing something that protected all your internal organs from radiation without protecting your skin--it would have to be something that went under your skin all over your body--ouch! It's much easier just to put on a radioactivity suit that protects all of you, outside and inside. Much in the same way, in practice, these manufacturers would put the chips and all the surrounding circuitry in some kind of outer lead casing that would block all the radiation to all the electronic parts. This is precisely what they have to do on spacecrafts, for example.

My friend, get curious about the real world. If you are not actively learning about the real world around you, then unrealistic scenarios like the one you proposed will utterly bedevil you on the GMAT CR.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly co  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Aug 2018, 10:02
egmat wrote:
lys8207 wrote:
Electronic computer chips made of tiny silicon wafers now regularly contain millions of electronic switches. Unfortunately, electronic switches that are this small cannot withstand intense radiation. Micro-Mechanics plans to produce a chip that, because it uses only microscopic mechanical switches, will be invulnerable to radiation damage. The switches will, however, be slower than electronic switches and the chip will contain only 12,000 switches.

For there to be a market for Micro-Mechanics’ chip as a result of the apparent advantage described above, each of the following would have to be true EXCEPT:

A. There will be applications in which the speed attainable by an electronic switch is not essential.

B. Switches used on electronic chips that contain only 12,000 switches are more vulnerable to radiation damage than the switches on Micro-Mechanics’ chip will be.

C. There will be applications for computer chips in environments where the chips may have to survive intense radiation.

D. Some devices in which computer chips will be used will have other
components that will be able to function during or after exposure to radiation.

E. Manufacturers are able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure to intense radiation, where this protection is necessary.
oa is E and can someone explain why not D?

is this weaken question or question about choosing the one that does not strength?
Thanks.


Hi,

I see some great attempts above on the explanations for different answer choices. However, I think we need a better understanding of this question. This is one of those Official questions, which defy any categorization and thus tries to challenge the real understanding of the basic concepts.

Let's begin with the passage.

Understanding the Passage:

1. Electronic computer chips now regularly contain millions of electronic switches.
2. Electronic switches that are this small cannot withstand intense radiation.
3. Microscopic mechanical switches, still to be introduced, will be invulnerable to radiation damage.
4. The MM (Micro Mechanical) switches will, however, be slower than electronic switches
5. The MM chip will contain only 12,000 switches (as compared to millions of electronic switches)

So, we have one advantage of MM switches over electronic switches: MM switches are invulnerable to radiation unlike electronic switches
Also, we have one disadvatange of MM switches over electronic switches: MM switches are slower than electronic switches
In addition, there is one more different between the two: There can be millions of electronic switches on a chip whereas there can only be 12000 mechanical switches on a chip.

Now, let's understand the question stem:

Understanding the Question Stem:

For there to be a market for Micro-Mechanics’ chip as a result of the apparent advantage described above, each of the following would have to be true EXCEPT:

It means we have to find an option statement which does not have to be true for there to be a market for Micro-mechanics chip. So, this is a question where we should expect four strengtheners and one non-strengthener (A non-strengthener may have no impact on the conclusion or it may weaken the conclusion).

Since this an "EXCEPT" question type where we expect to find four strengtheners, there is no point prethinking the correct answer choice (The correct answer choice will either have no impact or weaken the conclusion). Let's directly look at the option statements:

Analysis of Option Statements:

A. There will be applications in which the speed attainable by an electronic switch is not essential. - This option takes care of the disadvantage of MM switches. This option statement basically says that we can have speeds slower than attained by electronic switches - this opens up the possibility of the market for MM switches, which have slower speeds than electronic switches. This is a VALID STRENGTHENER.

B. Switches used on electronic chips that contain only 12,000 switches are more vulnerable to radiation damage than the switches on Micro-Mechanics’ chip will be. - This option statement tries to make a like-comparison between chips based on electronic switches and chips based on MM switches. Since MM switches can have only 12000 MM switches, it makes a comparison between MM chips and electronic chips with 12000 switches and says that MM chips have an advantage there due to their radiation-resistance. This is a VALID STRENGTHENER.

C. There will be applications for computer chips in environments where the chips may have to survive intense radiation. - This says that there are applications where intense radiations need to be survived through. We are given that MM switches do much better job in such situations than electronic switches. Therefore, this option also strengthens that there will exist a market for MM chips or switches. This is a VALID STRENGTHENER.

D. Some devices in which computer chips will be used will have other components that will be able to function during or after exposure to radiation. - This is actually a necessary condition for there to be a market for MM chips. Wondering why? The reason is that if there is no device whose components can work after exposure to radiation, then even if we replace electronic switches with MM switches, the device will not work (because other components are not working). In such a case, the market for MM switches will not exist. Therefore, this statement is not only a strengthener but also a necessary condition (or an assumption).

E. Manufacturers are able to protect electronic computer chips against exposure to intense radiation, where this protection is necessary. - This means that the only advantage MM switches had over electronic switches is not an advantage actually because manufacturers can protect electronic switches, wherever necessary. This statement actually weakens the statement that there will be a market for MM chips. This statement is a WEAKENER. Therefore , CORRECT.


Some of us may have doubts whether the correct choice must be weakener with the given question stem. The answer is No. It may have been some arbitrary statement which does not impact the conclusion. However, GMAT generally plays safe in many scenarios - In this case also, by providing a weakener, it makes sure that there are no doubts about the correct answer choice.

Hope this helps :)

Thanks,
Chiranjeev


Couldn't stop myself from giving KUDOS here in text form as well. Superb explanation. Thank you very much. :thumbup:
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