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Electrons orbit around the nucleus of an atom in the same way that the

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Electrons orbit around the nucleus of an atom in the same way that the  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 06 Jul 2018, 03:06
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Difficulty:

55% (hard)

Question Stats:

49% (01:24) correct 51% (01:25) wrong based on 100 sessions

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Electrons orbit around the nucleus of an atom in the same way that the Earth orbits around the Sun. It is well known that gravity is the major force that determines the orbit of the Earth. We may, therefore, expect that gravity is the main force that determines the orbit of an electron.

The argument above attempts to prove its case by

(A) applying well-known general laws to a specific case
(B) appealing to well-known specific cases to prove a general law about them
(C) testing its conclusion by a definite experiment
(D) appealing to an apparently similar case
(E) stating its conclusion without giving any kind of reason to think it might be true

Source: LSAT

Originally posted by US09 on 06 Jul 2018, 03:03.
Last edited by Bunuel on 06 Jul 2018, 03:06, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic.
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Re: Electrons orbit around the nucleus of an atom in the same way that the  [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2018, 09:13
B, C and E can be easily eliminated.

(A) applying well-known general laws to a specific case

Laws not applied to specific case

(D) appealing to an apparently similar case

yes appealing to Similar case

Ans : D

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Re: Electrons orbit around the nucleus of an atom in the same way that the  [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2018, 11:36
urvashis09 wrote:
Electrons orbit around the nucleus of an atom in the same way that the Earth orbits around the Sun. It is well known that gravity is the major force that determines the orbit of the Earth. We may, therefore, expect that gravity is the main force that determines the orbit of an electron.

The argument above attempts to prove its case by

(A) applying well-known general laws to a specific case
(B) appealing to well-known specific cases to prove a general law about them
(C) testing its conclusion by a definite experiment
(D) appealing to an apparently similar case
(E) stating its conclusion without giving any kind of reason to think it might be true

Source: LSAT

Electrons orbit around an atom = Earth orbiting around the sun.
Now, since gravity determines the orbit of the Earth = gravity must determine the orbit of the Electron.

Its clear that the author argues citing the apparently similar case to prove his point of view, answer must be (D)
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Re: Electrons orbit around the nucleus of an atom in the same way that the  [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2018, 23:12

The passage draws a parallel between two cases that share a similar trait: (1) the orbit of electrons around an atom’s nucleus and (2) the orbit of the Earth around the Sun in our solar system. It uses knowledge about the second case (the fact that “gravity is the major force that determines the orbit of the Earth”) to draw an inference about the first (that “gravity is the main force that determines the orbit of an electron”). The passage is “appealing to an apparently similar case” (the role of gravity in determining the Earth’s orbit) to establish a conclusion about the role of gravity in determining an electron’s orbit. Therefore, (D) is the credited response.

Response (A) is incorrect because it mistakes the argument made in the passage, based on an analogy, for an argument that applies “well-known general laws to a specific case.” For the facts in this passage, such an argument from general laws to a specific case would go as follows:

1. General law: For all bodies in orbit, gravity is the main force that determines the body’s orbit.
2. Specific case: An electron is a body in orbit.
3. Conclusion: Gravity is the main force that determines an electron’s orbit.

Comparing this with the passage makes it clear that the argument in the passage builds its case on an apparently analogous situation, not on general law. That the law of gravity, a well-known general law, applies to the specific case of the orbit of electrons is the conclusion the argument is drawing, not the method by which the argument attempts to prove its case.

Response (B) is incorrect because the argument is not trying to prove a general law about both electrons and planets. Its conclusion is only about electrons and their nuclei based on information about a comparable case.

Response (C) is incorrect because there is no evidence in the passage that the argument is using data from an experiment to make its point.

Response (E) is incorrect because the argument clearly does provide a reason for its conclusion, which can be stated as follows: since an electron orbits around its nucleus in the same way as the Earth orbits around the Sun, it is logical to conclude that there are other similarities between the two phenomena.

OPTION: D
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Re: Electrons orbit around the nucleus of an atom in the same way that the   [#permalink] 29 Dec 2018, 23:12
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