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# Ernst Haeckel held the individual development of biological organisms,

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Re: Ernst Haeckel held the individual development of biological organisms,  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2015, 07:03
option C seems best: that the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, passes through all the previous evolutionary stages from single cell organism to the species of these organisms

reason as why E is wrong: the intent of the sentence is to put forward THAT Ernst Haeckel held or propounded some theory which is true in entirety SO that FACT should be presented in PRESENT TENSE and NOT in PAST PERFECT as is done in E

Undoubtedly (c) -

(C) that the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, passes through all the previous evolutionary stages from single cell organism to the species of these organisms

The highlighted part correctly modifies the development of biological organisms
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Re: Ernst Haeckel held the individual development of biological organisms,  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2015, 08:42
Ernst Haeckel held some finding and not the individual development
Therefore the sentence needs a that after Ernst Haeckel held
Without that the sentence reads as if Ernst Haeckel was responsible for the individual development.
Eliminate A and B

The original sentence has previous evolutionary stages - The adjective previous modifies evolutionary stages
In option D and E the adverb previously modifies the verb passed. Hence the meaning is changed.
Further I think there is no need of past perfect used in option E.

Quote:
Ernst Haeckel held the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, to have passed through all the previous evolutionary stages from single cell organism to its species.

(A) the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, to have passed through all the previous evolutionary stages from single cell organism to its species

(B) the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, to pass through previously all the evolutionary stages from single cell organism to that species

(C) that the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, passes through all the previous evolutionary stages from single cell organism to the species of these organisms

(D) that the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, previously pass through all the evolutionary stages from single cell organism to their species

(E) that the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, had passed through all the evolutionary stages previously from single cell organism to the current species

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Re: Ernst Haeckel held the individual development of biological organisms,  [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2015, 13:15
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tuanquang269 wrote:
Ernst Haeckel held the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, to have passed through all the previous evolutionary stages from single cell organism to its species.

(A) the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, to have passed through all the previous evolutionary stages from single cell organism to its species

(B) the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, to pass through previously all the evolutionary stages from single cell organism to that species

(C) that the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, passes through all the previous evolutionary stages from single cell organism to the species of these organisms

(D) that the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, previously pass through all the evolutionary stages from single cell organism to their species

(E) that the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, had passed through all the evolutionary stages previously from single cell organism to the current species

I'll add my two cents, because I was the author of this particular question. There is some intelligent discussion already on this page. As a few people have noted, choice (E) cannot be correct, because "the individual development of biological organisms" is something that exists in present time and is ongoing. Every time a human female or an animal is pregnant, this is the occasion of the individual development of another biological organism. Since this is an ongoing happening, we need the present tense.

BTW, Ernst Haeckel (1834-1919) summed up this idea in the notorious inscrutable sentence: "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny." You will not have to analyze that sentence on the GMAT!

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Re: Ernst Haeckel held the individual development of biological organisms,  [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2017, 17:40
A) the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, to have passed through all the previous evolutionary stages from single cell organism to its species

B) the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, to pass through previously all the evolutionary stages from single cell organism to that species

C) that the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, passes through all the previous evolutionary stages from single cell organism to the species of these organisms

D) that the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, previously pass through all the evolutionary stages from single cell organism to their species

E) that the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, had passed through all the evolutionary stages previously from single cell organism to the current species
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Re: Ernst Haeckel held the individual development of biological organisms,  [#permalink]

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21 Mar 2017, 16:25
Ernst Haeckel held the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, to have passed through all the previous evolutionary stages from single cell organism to its species.

A) the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, to have [color=#ed1c24]passed through all the previous evolutionary stages from single cell organism to its species[/color] The tense is wrong

B) the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, to [color=#ed1c24]pass through previously all the evolutionary stages from single cell organism to that species the development is singular and should be refed with passes

C) that the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, passes through all the previous evolutionary stages from single cell organism to the species of these organisms correct choice

D) that the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, previously pass through all the evolutionary stages from single cell organism to their species individual development passes and not pass

E) that the individual development of biological organisms, from embryos to adult forms, had passed through all the evolutionary stages previously from single cell organism to the current species change in meaning because of the wrong tense used.
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Re: Ernst Haeckel held the individual development of biological organisms,  [#permalink]

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22 May 2018, 06:28

Magoosh Official Explanation:

A question about Ernst Haeckel, the biologist responsible for the idea "Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny."

Split #1a: "held" + [infinitive] vs. "held" + "that"-clause. Choices (A) & (B) have the former, and the remaining three choices have the latter. The construction "hold P to be Q" is highly suspect: while it may appear in some contexts, it would never be part of a correct answer on the GMAT. What we have in (A) & (B) is even worse ---- "hold P to do X" --- "hold" + [subject] + [action-verb infinitive phrase]: this is wrong 100% of the time. Choices (A) & (B) are incorrect.

The construction "hold that [clause]" is perfectly correct, so long as what follows "that" is a full clause with a bonafide [noun]+[verb] structure. Here, (C) & (D) & (E) all have full clause after the word "that", so these are correct.

Split #1b: in this "that" clause, subject-verb agreement. The subject of the "that" clause in all three of these choices is "the individual development", which is singular, so we need a singular verb. Choice (C) has "passes", which works. Choice (D) has "pass", a plural verb, which is incorrect. Choice (E) has "had passed", a past perfect verb that could be either singular or plural, so as far as verb-number goes, this works.

Split #1c: verb tense. For the two verbs that pass the subject-verb agreement test, let's talk about the tense. What are we discussing in this part of the sentence? We are discussing something that is true about animals out there in an ongoing way. Bird fly. Wolves howl. We use present tense verbs for this, even when it's an idea of someone in the past. Past people thought that pigs fly. Past people believed that wee people run wild in the woods. Past people believed that salamanders survive fire. All present tense verbs. Thus, we need the present tense verb "passes", which (C) correctly has. The past perfect makes no sense in context, so (E) is incorrect.

Split #2: "previous" vs. "previously". What is previous to what here? What the sentence is trying to say is that the "evolutionary stages" (which happened long before the existence of the individual animal) came before the individual animal's own development. Thus, we need an adjective, "previous", modifying the noun "evolutionary stages." The adverb "previously" could only modify the verb passes/pass/had passed/etc., but this verb does not happen before anything else discussed in the sentence. The adverb "previously" is incorrect, and choices (B) & (D) & (E) make this mistake.

Because of all of these splits, the only possible answer is (C).
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Re: Ernst Haeckel held the individual development of biological organisms, &nbs [#permalink] 22 May 2018, 06:28

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