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Errors in the performance of repetitive or “boring” tasks—often attrib

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Errors in the performance of repetitive or “boring” tasks—often attrib  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Sep 2019, 10:58
2
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7
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A
B
C
D
E

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Question Stats:

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Errors in the performance of repetitive or “boring” tasks—often attributed to a momentary lapse in concentration—can be serious in such activities as flying a passenger aircraft. Is there any method that would provide warning of such lapses—for example by monitoring brain activity? Researchers scanned the brains of volunteers performing a repetitive task. When the tasks were being performed correctly, the volunteers' brains showed activity in cognitive-processing regions. However, these regions became less active several seconds before some errors were made, and another brain region, region X, became active. The researchers concluded that the monitoring of region X could provide warning of an impending error.

Which of the following, if true, most supports the researchers' conclusion?

A. The cognitive effort required in performing a repetitive task diminishes significantly with increases in the number of repetitions of the task performance.

B. Once a mistake was made and detected, brain activity in regions associated with cognitive effort sometimes increased.

C. Other research found that whenever significant activity occurs in region X, it is generally with repetitive tasks, soon before an error occurs.

D. The diminution of brain activity in cognitive processing regions and the increase of activity in region X began at least 5 seconds before the errors occurred.

E. Reduced activity in brain regions associated with cognitive effort was accompanied by increased activity in regions that become active during sleep.


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Re: Errors in the performance of repetitive or “boring” tasks—often attrib  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2019, 09:16
Option D repeats what's already given in the passage. Any other reason to eliminate option D ?

"However, these regions became less active several seconds before some errors were made, and another brain region, region X, became active"

option D : The diminution of brain activity in cognitive processing regions and the increase of activity in region X began at least 5 seconds before the errors occurred
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Re: Errors in the performance of repetitive or “boring” tasks—often attrib  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Sep 2019, 11:38
Yes

It has a fundamental error. Argument says that we can get a warning before the error happens. It doesn't concern us how early we are getting a warning.

D is irrelevant to the argument
TarunTilokani wrote:
Option D repeats what's already given in the passage. Any other reason to eliminate option D ?

"However, these regions became less active several seconds before some errors were made, and another brain region, region X, became active"

option D : The diminution of brain activity in cognitive processing regions and the increase of activity in region X began at least 5 seconds before the errors occurred


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Errors in the performance of repetitive or “boring” tasks—often attrib  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Sep 2019, 13:09
Confusion is between Choices C and D. The passage clearly says "several seconds" which i belive is more than 5 seconds. Hence D eliminated. C chosen.

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Re: Errors in the performance of repetitive or “boring” tasks—often attrib  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Sep 2019, 01:49
gmatt1476 wrote:
Errors in the performance of repetitive or “boring” tasks—often attributed to a momentary lapse in concentration—can be serious in such activities as flying a passenger aircraft. Is there any method that would provide warning of such lapses—for example by monitoring brain activity? Researchers scanned the brains of volunteers performing a repetitive task. When the tasks were being performed correctly, the volunteers' brains showed activity in cognitive-processing regions. However, these regions became less active several seconds before some errors were made, and another brain region, region X, became active. The researchers concluded that the monitoring of region X could provide warning of an impending error.

Which of the following, if true, most supports the researchers' conclusion?

A. The cognitive effort required in performing a repetitive task diminishes significantly with increases in the number of repetitions of the task performance.

B. Once a mistake was made and detected, brain activity in regions associated with cognitive effort sometimes increased.

C. Other research found that whenever significant activity occurs in region X, it is generally with repetitive tasks, soon before an error occurs.

D. The diminution of brain activity in cognitive processing regions and the increase of activity in region X began at least 5 seconds before the errors occurred.

E. Reduced activity in brain regions associated with cognitive effort was accompanied by increased activity in regions that become active during sleep.


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Official Explanation

Argument Evaluation

This question requires us to find a statement that would provide additional support for the researchers' conclusion that monitoring region X can provide warning that an error is about to be made by someone engaged in a repetitive task.

Note that researchers had observed during brain scans that cognitive-processing regions of the brain remained active when a repetitive task was performed correctly. These regions became less active, and brain region X became active, several seconds before errors were made.

Certainly, further research showing such errors being preceded by the onset of activity in region X would strengthen the researchers' conclusion—this would help rule out that the researchers had simply noticed an unusual coincidence.

However, what would be even more helpful would be to indicate that whenever significant activity in someone's region X occurs, this person is definitively engaged in repetitive tasks and is about to make an error.

To see why this would be helpful, consider: if such activity in region X frequently happened, even when no errors were about to be made, monitoring such activity would not be helpful as a warning that an error was impending. Therefore, ruling this out would support the conclusion.

A. Note that this does not indicate that cognitive effort diminishes; it merely indicates that the amount of such effort required diminishes. Even more important, it tells us nothing about activity in region X.

B. This indicates what sometimes happens after errors are made. However, it gives us no information about what happens soon before an error. Information about that, of course, is what we need if we are trying to determine whether something can provide warning of an impending error.

C. Correct. As indicated above, the conclusion would be well supported by research suggesting that whenever region X has significant activity, this is usually during repetitive tasks and soon before an error occurs.

D. This does not provide additional support for the claim that monitoring region X will be useful as a warning of an impending error. After all, the statement that activity in region X began at least 5 seconds before the errors occurred rules out only that the increase in activity in region X occurred less than 5 seconds before the errors occurred. This statement does not rule out the possibility that the increase came, for example, many hours before the error occurred.

E. Such a discovery may help researchers discover why the errors occurred. However, it does not help support the claim that monitoring region X could provide a warning of impending error.

The correct answer is C.
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Re: Errors in the performance of repetitive or “boring” tasks—often attrib  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2019, 15:22
gmatt1476 wrote:
Errors in the performance of repetitive or “boring” tasks—often attributed to a momentary lapse in concentration—can be serious in such activities as flying a passenger aircraft. Is there any method that would provide warning of such lapses—for example by monitoring brain activity? Researchers scanned the brains of volunteers performing a repetitive task. When the tasks were being performed correctly, the volunteers' brains showed activity in cognitive-processing regions. However, these regions became less active several seconds before some errors were made, and another brain region, region X, became active. The researchers concluded that the monitoring of region X could provide warning of an impending error.

Which of the following, if true, most supports the researchers' conclusion?

A. The cognitive effort required in performing a repetitive task diminishes significantly with increases in the number of repetitions of the task performance.

B. Once a mistake was made and detected, brain activity in regions associated with cognitive effort sometimes increased.

C. Other research found that whenever significant activity occurs in region X, it is generally with repetitive tasks, soon before an error occurs.

D. The diminution of brain activity in cognitive processing regions and the increase of activity in region X began at least 5 seconds before the errors occurred.

E. Reduced activity in brain regions associated with cognitive effort was accompanied by increased activity in regions that become active during sleep.


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Conclusion :- "the monitoring of region X could provide warning of an impending error."
Only option C and D are close...
Rest are irrelevant...
Option C states that "Other research found that whenever significant activity occurs in region X, it is generally with repetitive tasks, soon before an error occurs."
So the other research also found the similar thing as did these researchers...

Option D states that "The diminution of brain activity in cognitive processing regions and the increase of activity in region X began at least 5 seconds before the errors occurred."
This statement merely restates the same information mentioned in the passage i.e "these regions became less active several seconds before some errors were made, and another brain region, region X, became active." We can say "at least 5 seconds " means "several seconds".
So option D does not strengthen.

C is the answer.
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Re: Errors in the performance of repetitive or “boring” tasks—often attrib  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Oct 2019, 23:11
The argument requires evidence to support the hypothesis that monitoring region X will lead to the detection of errors before they occur.

The reason D is incorrect is because it provides insight only on occasions when errors begin. D basically validates the premise by stating 'we found reason to believe X is to be monitored because activity in region X increased about 5 seconds before.

However, C actually strengthens the hypothesis by corroborating the findings with other research. The other findings basically confirms the causal relationship between activity in region X and error occurrence
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Re: Errors in the performance of repetitive or “boring” tasks—often attrib  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Oct 2019, 10:02
Quote:
Errors in the performance of repetitive or “boring” tasks—often attributed to a momentary lapse in concentration—can be serious in such activities as flying a passenger aircraft. Is there any method that would provide warning of such lapses—for example by monitoring brain activity? Researchers scanned the brains of volunteers performing a repetitive task. When the tasks were being performed correctly, the volunteers' brains showed activity in cognitive-processing regions. However, these regions became less active several seconds before some errors were made, and another brain region, region X, became active. The researchers concluded that the monitoring of region X could provide warning of an impending error.


More boring -> lapse concentration (serious when flying)
If correct, CP regions more active
After error, CP less active, but X region more active
Conclusion: region X -> warning error

Quote:
A. The cognitive effort required in performing a repetitive task diminishes significantly with increases in the number of repetitions of the task performance.

Irrelevant. Describes just if CP regions are less active, but nothing’s told about region X. Out.

Quote:
B. Once a mistake was made and detected, brain activity in regions associated with cognitive effort sometimes increased.

Irrelevant. We are not interested what happens after the error was made. Out.

Quote:
C. Other research found that whenever significant activity occurs in region X, it is generally with repetitive tasks, soon before an error occurs.

One more research with similar results. Region X is associated with repetitive tasks. Seems ok.


Quote:
D. The diminution of brain activity in cognitive processing regions and the increase of activity in region X began at least 5 seconds before the errors occurred.

Specificity. We don’t need “5 secs”. Irrelevant. Out.

Quote:
E. Reduced activity in brain regions associated with cognitive effort was accompanied by increased activity in regions that become active during sleep.

Again, as in A, describes just CP region, but no X region. Irrelevant. Out.
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Re: Errors in the performance of repetitive or “boring” tasks—often attrib   [#permalink] 27 Oct 2019, 10:02
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