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Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2016, 11:58
nocilis wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.

C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

VeritasPrepKarishma, mikemcgarry
Could you guys please help resolve the issue between B & E..

According to me, the Issue with E is

Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

We use Present Perfect to denote an Action/Event that started in Past and is still there in Present or its Effect is still there in Present. So, wouldn't the Sentence fragment - species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth - mean that those species appeared on Earth in past and new ones are still appearing. Here, present perfect cannot mean the other thing because sentence further says that - Nearly 99% of those species have vanished.
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2016, 09:20
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umg wrote:
nocilis wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.

C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

VeritasPrepKarishma, mikemcgarry
Could you guys please help resolve the issue between B & E..

According to me, the Issue with E is

Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

We use Present Perfect to denote an Action/Event that started in Past and is still there in Present or its Effect is still there in Present. So, wouldn't the Sentence fragment - species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth - mean that those species appeared on Earth in past and new ones are still appearing. Here, present perfect cannot mean the other thing because sentence further says that - Nearly 99% of those species have vanished.


I do not see a problem with E; rather option E seems better than B:
The species appeared in the past and are still continuing to appear - till date five hundred million species have appeared. Hence past perfect is better than simple past.

A more detailed explanation can be found here:
five-hundred-million-different-species-of-living-creatures-16579-60.html#p773666
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2016, 08:07
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umg wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:

I do not see a problem with E; rather option E seems better than B:
The species appeared in the past and are still continuing to appear - till date five hundred million species have appeared. Hence past perfect is better than simple past.

A more detailed explanation can be found here:
five-hundred-million-different-species-of-living-creatures-16579-60.html#p773666

I did read Tommy Wallach's comment before but it couldn't resolve my doubt.

Anyways, what I have understood from your comment and all others' before you is that the number of species included in E is more than that in B. While B says that about 500 mil species appeared in past, E says that 500 mil species include even those species that appeared/were discovered today.

Did I get it right?


Yes, that is what the posts convey. Here is an alternative take on this:

Case 1. A species X no longer lives:

1.1 A species X appeared and have vanished. (Here the appearance has no effect in the present since it has already vanished - the effect of vanishing is though still there.)

1.2 A species appeared and vanished. (Here the appearance has no effect in the present since it has already vanished - the effect of vanishing is also not there.)

Case 2. A species Y still lives:

2.1 A species Y has appeared. (Here the appearance has effect in the present since the species still lives.)

Now out of all the species, some appeared and have vanished (OR vanished), and the others have appeared and are still living - in this case since at least some effect of the appearance is there (because at least some species are still living), present perfect would be appropriate:

Out of all the species that HAVE appeared, some have vanished (or vanished). (The others are still living.)
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2016, 20:29
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Explanation as to why E is preferred over C?

Two problems:

1. The passive construction X is vanished implies that the act of vanishing was performed on X by someone else - this usage is not correct. The creatures vanished, not that they are vanished (by someone else).

2. Starting a sentence with a verb is not a standard practice. Option C has a more standard construction: starting with a prepositional phrase modifier, then the subject and finally the verb.
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2017, 22:15
Here is my take.
a) Modifier issue. Ing modifier when following a clause imply that the action is happening at the same time. How can you have appearing and vanishing together. Also, the other usage of ing modifiers is to indicate a consequence- again something which is nonsensical in this case.
b) This can't be right. If 99% of the species that appeared have disappeared, then it means that some species still appear because not all of them have disappeared(not the best way to represent what I mean, but hope this will do :D). How can you then use Past tense "appeared". It should be have appeared as the species still continue to show up.
c) A blunder .
d) redundancy- of 500 million and of them again later in the sentence
e) No obvious errors
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2017, 11:34
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16. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

The essence o the nature of evolution is that it is an ongoing and eternal affair.


A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing --- modification is unclear. With comma + vanishing modifying the action of five hundred million species, appearing.-It looks incongruous.

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished. -- that appeared is incongruous
C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth. -- that appeared is incongruous as explained at the top

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished. Correct

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished. -- One cannot put a cap the number of species in evolution. There are so many that are evolving silently without our knowledge; hence, the use of 'the ', a factor that denotes an entirety is inappropriate
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Re: Q39: Five hundred million different species of living  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2019, 05:01
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Re: Q39: Five hundred million different species of living   [#permalink] 20 Aug 2019, 05:01

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