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Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2016, 10:58
nocilis wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.

C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

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Could you guys please help resolve the issue between B & E..

According to me, the Issue with E is

Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

We use Present Perfect to denote an Action/Event that started in Past and is still there in Present or its Effect is still there in Present. So, wouldn't the Sentence fragment - species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth - mean that those species appeared on Earth in past and new ones are still appearing. Here, present perfect cannot mean the other thing because sentence further says that - Nearly 99% of those species have vanished.
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2016, 08:20
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umg wrote:
nocilis wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.

C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

VeritasPrepKarishma, mikemcgarry
Could you guys please help resolve the issue between B & E..

According to me, the Issue with E is

Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.

We use Present Perfect to denote an Action/Event that started in Past and is still there in Present or its Effect is still there in Present. So, wouldn't the Sentence fragment - species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth - mean that those species appeared on Earth in past and new ones are still appearing. Here, present perfect cannot mean the other thing because sentence further says that - Nearly 99% of those species have vanished.


I do not see a problem with E; rather option E seems better than B:
The species appeared in the past and are still continuing to appear - till date five hundred million species have appeared. Hence past perfect is better than simple past.

A more detailed explanation can be found here:
five-hundred-million-different-species-of-living-creatures-16579-60.html#p773666
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Sep 2016, 07:07
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umg wrote:
sayantanc2k wrote:

I do not see a problem with E; rather option E seems better than B:
The species appeared in the past and are still continuing to appear - till date five hundred million species have appeared. Hence past perfect is better than simple past.

A more detailed explanation can be found here:
five-hundred-million-different-species-of-living-creatures-16579-60.html#p773666

I did read Tommy Wallach's comment before but it couldn't resolve my doubt.

Anyways, what I have understood from your comment and all others' before you is that the number of species included in E is more than that in B. While B says that about 500 mil species appeared in past, E says that 500 mil species include even those species that appeared/were discovered today.

Did I get it right?


Yes, that is what the posts convey. Here is an alternative take on this:

Case 1. A species X no longer lives:

1.1 A species X appeared and have vanished. (Here the appearance has no effect in the present since it has already vanished - the effect of vanishing is though still there.)

1.2 A species appeared and vanished. (Here the appearance has no effect in the present since it has already vanished - the effect of vanishing is also not there.)

Case 2. A species Y still lives:

2.1 A species Y has appeared. (Here the appearance has effect in the present since the species still lives.)

Now out of all the species, some appeared and have vanished (OR vanished), and the others have appeared and are still living - in this case since at least some effect of the appearance is there (because at least some species are still living), present perfect would be appropriate:

Out of all the species that HAVE appeared, some have vanished (or vanished). (The others are still living.)
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2016, 19:29
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Explanation as to why E is preferred over C?

Two problems:

1. The passive construction X is vanished implies that the act of vanishing was performed on X by someone else - this usage is not correct. The creatures vanished, not that they are vanished (by someone else).

2. Starting a sentence with a verb is not a standard practice. Option C has a more standard construction: starting with a prepositional phrase modifier, then the subject and finally the verb.
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2017, 21:15
Here is my take.
a) Modifier issue. Ing modifier when following a clause imply that the action is happening at the same time. How can you have appearing and vanishing together. Also, the other usage of ing modifiers is to indicate a consequence- again something which is nonsensical in this case.
b) This can't be right. If 99% of the species that appeared have disappeared, then it means that some species still appear because not all of them have disappeared(not the best way to represent what I mean, but hope this will do :D). How can you then use Past tense "appeared". It should be have appeared as the species still continue to show up.
c) A blunder .
d) redundancy- of 500 million and of them again later in the sentence
e) No obvious errors
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Sep 2017, 10:34
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16. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

The essence o the nature of evolution is that it is an ongoing and eternal affair.


A. Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing --- modification is unclear. With comma + vanishing modifying the action of five hundred million species, appearing.-It looks incongruous.

B. Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished. -- that appeared is incongruous
C. Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth. -- that appeared is incongruous as explained at the top

D. Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished. Correct

E. Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished. -- One cannot put a cap the number of species in evolution. There are so many that are evolving silently without our knowledge; hence, the use of 'the ', a factor that denotes an entirety is inappropriate
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Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 11 Jul 2020, 07:34
nocilis wrote:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.


(A) Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

(B) Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.

(C) Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.

(D) Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.

(E) Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.


SC16020.02


in choice A, "nearly 99 percent..." is in position of adverbial, an absolute phrase if you want to term. comma+noun+doing work as adverbial of the main clause, showing the attendent circumstance with the main action.. so, "vanishing" takes the time of the main clause "have appeared". this tense is ok.
but, this pattern mean vanishing happen at the time of appearing. they have appear and at the same time, 99 percent of them have appeared. this is not logical
"them" in choice A is correct.

regarding choice B and C
'appeared" mean they no longer exist. this mean all of them no longer exist and, so, it is impossible that 99 percent of the animal that are no longer exist have vanished.

grammar books tell us that have done is used to show an action which continue until present or an action which finished in the past but is new and important at present. we separate two cases and we think that have done show one of two cases. but choice B and C show that have done can shows a mix of two actions, one which finish in the past and one which continues until present.

among the animals which have appeared on earth, some of them died and others still exist.

now, it seems that have done is used to show 3 cases.
action finished in the past but is new and important to present
action continues until present
action which could be finished in the past or could still continue. we dont know exactly which kind the action belong to

in short, the nature of present perfect is that this tense is used to show that the action is important at present regardless of the fact that the action continue or finished.

"vanished are..." in choice c is also wrong. simple present is wrong here.
there are two cases for simple present. action exists at the time of speaking. this case is called instantaneous present . action exist before , in and after the time of speaking. this action exist forever.

so, "vanished are ..." dose not belong to any case. it is wrong

the difference between simple present and perfect present is a main problem in the use of tense. we need to review a few pages of tenses in a good grammar book

Originally posted by thangvietnam on 01 May 2020, 03:44.
Last edited by thangvietnam on 11 Jul 2020, 07:34, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 01 May 2020, 10:35
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Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

(A) Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing. - WRONG. Pronoun ambiguity. 'Them' refers to what species or living creatures.

(B) Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished. - WRONG. Initially looked nothing wrong as such but 'that' should have been followed by 'have' since in its present form the choice suggests that in present there is no species left that appeared recently - all appeared in the past OR at once. Also we have better choices available later.

(C) Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth. - WRONG. Makes a similar meaning error as that in B. Also in passive voice.

(D) Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished. - WRONG. Nothing looks wrong until we reach 'them' usage of which make the choice redundant. Of fie hundred million different species = them.

(E) Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished. - CORRECT. Style wise its better to communicate the fact to leave an impact.

IMO Answer E.
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New post 18 Jun 2020, 21:34
Quote:
(A) Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

How would you correct the original sentence if you left the structure as-is?

What about:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, and nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.
or
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, with nearly 99 percent of them having vanished.
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2020, 03:56
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costcosized wrote:
Quote:
(A) Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

How would you correct the original sentence if you left the structure as-is?

What about:
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, and nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.
or
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, with nearly 99 percent of them having vanished.

Good question, costcosized. I see no problem with the first sentence above in isolation—if it were an option, I would still choose (E)—although I would prefer the conjunction but instead of and to better convey that almost all the species no longer exist. Why might I still prefer (E)? Because the amended sentence above still suggests, until you finish reading the sentence, that these species could have appeared at a specific point in time, even with with present perfect have appeared. That is, I anticipate a since [some time period] prior to the comma, and I have to go back to figure out the intended meaning. Choice (E) presents a clearer picture by launching into a prepositional phrase from the beginning, and the since... could just as easily fit in at the end of the sentence (or not appear at all, as written). As for the second sentence you proposed, I would never opt for that construct over either of the other two. If a better, clearer option exists, then why resort to a mealymouthed sentence?

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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jun 2020, 07:08
Answer choice B and D critically change the meaning of the sentence. We want to say that 99% of 500m animals that appeared on Earth vanished. B and D distort this and make it sound as if out of some 500m animals 99% vanished. That's not the case.

If you think about it A sounds quite funny, 99% of Earth's animals cannot be vanishing...perhaps this is possible in a parallel universe!

As for C, 'vanished' is not an animal or animal specie. Plus, it sounds dramatic and odd. Not the best choice.

This clearly leaves E as the correct answer choice. E conveys the intended meaning.
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jun 2020, 16:23
Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.


(A) Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing.

(B) Nearly 99 percent of five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished.

(C) Vanished are nearly 99 percent of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that appeared on Earth.

(D) Of five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished.

(E) Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.



If we compare last few words of answer choices,

In A, we have " creatures have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them vanishing"
In B, we have " creatures that appeared on Earth have vanished"
In C , We have " creatures that appeared on Earth"
In D, we have "creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent of them have vanished"
In E, we have "creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished"

In B and C, "appeared" is simple past... With simple past we need specific time. No specific time is mentioned...Eliminate
In A, "nearly 99% ....." Modifies "Earth".....Eliminate
In D, "nearly 99 percent of them" , "them" is redundant. Eliminate

Hence, E is the correct answer.
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jul 2020, 00:17
in E both nearly 99 percent have .......seems to modified the Earth. Can any one help me with that
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2020, 06:37
Can someone please explain to me the use of present perfect in this question?

I understand it's used to indicate an action that happened in the past and continuing into the present/future. But in this question, we used "have vanished" - I thought one can vanish once?!

In another official question: "killed" was preferred to "have killed" - this makes sense to me, as killing only happens once.
"Avalanches at Rogers Pass in Glacier National Park killed more than 200 people between 1885 and 1910, but such avalanches..." https://gmatclub.com/forum/avalanches-a ... 05826.html
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2020, 07:08
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Victorz wrote:
Can someone please explain to me the use of present perfect in this question?

I understand it's used to indicate an action that happened in the past and continuing into the present/future. But in this question, we used "have vanished" - I thought one can vanish once?!

Hi Victorz, continuing into the present/future depends more on the context.

For example:

I have met Mother Teresa.
- It means that I met Mother Teresa at some unspecified time in the past.

I have loved chocolates since my childhood.
- It means that I started loving chocolates when I was a child, and my love for chocolates still continues into the present.

Quote:
In another official question: "killed" was preferred to "have killed" - this makes sense to me, as killing only happens once.
"Avalanches at Rogers Pass in Glacier National Park killed more than 200 people between 1885 and 1910, but such avalanches..." https://gmatclub.com/forum/avalanches-a ... 05826.html

Present Perfect implies that something happened at some point in our lives, before now. So, in the most vanilla case of present perfect, the time frame of reference starts now can continues infinitely into the past.

However, when the sentence states between 1885 and 1910, the time frame of reference clearly does not start now (but in 1910 and then goes back). So, Present perfect is not an appropriate usage in this scenario.

You can watch our video on Present Perfect.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Present perfect tense, its application and examples in significant detail. If you or someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2020, 08:27
EducationAisle wrote:
Victorz wrote:
Can someone please explain to me the use of present perfect in this question?

I understand it's used to indicate an action that happened in the past and continuing into the present/future. But in this question, we used "have vanished" - I thought one can vanish once?!

Hi Victorz, continuing into the present/future depends more on the context.

For example:

I have met Mother Teresa.
- It means that I met Mother Teresa at some unspecified time in the past.

I have loved chocolates since my childhood.
- It means that I started loving chocolates when I was a child, and my love for chocolates still continues into the present.

Quote:
In another official question: "killed" was preferred to "have killed" - this makes sense to me, as killing only happens once.
"Avalanches at Rogers Pass in Glacier National Park killed more than 200 people between 1885 and 1910, but such avalanches..." https://gmatclub.com/forum/avalanches-a ... 05826.html

Present Perfect implies that something happened at some point in our lives, before now. So, in the most vanilla case of present perfect, the time frame of reference starts now can continues infinitely into the past.

However, when the sentence states between 1885 and 1910, the time frame of reference clearly does not start now (but in 1910 and then goes back). So, Present perfect is not an appropriate usage in this scenario.

You can watch our video on Present Perfect.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Present perfect tense, its application and examples in significant detail. If you or someone is interested, PM me your email-id; I can mail the corresponding section.


Thanks a lot, EducationAisle! Sounds like for Usage 1: unspecified time before now, it's okay to use either "have vanished" or "vanished."
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2020, 22:51
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Victorz wrote:
Sounds like for Usage 1: unspecified time before now, it's okay to use either "have vanished" or "vanished."

Strictly speaking, for unspecified time before now, simple past would not be a great tense to use.

I have finished my breakfast.
-Correct (unspecified time, so we use present perfect)

I finished my breakfast 3 hours back.
-Correct (specified time, so we use simple past)

I have finished my breakfast 3 hours back.
-Not a great construct (specified time, so we should ideally not be using present perfect)).
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jul 2020, 09:13
EducationAisle wrote:
Victorz wrote:
Sounds like for Usage 1: unspecified time before now, it's okay to use either "have vanished" or "vanished."

Strictly speaking, for unspecified time before now, simple past would not be a great tense to use.

I have finished my breakfast.
-Correct (unspecified time, so we use present perfect)

I finished my breakfast 3 hours back.
-Correct (specified time, so we use simple past)

I have finished my breakfast 3 hours back.
-Not a great construct (specified time, so we should ideally not be using present perfect)).


Thanks a lot, EducationAisle!
    I've done it sometime in the past.
    I did it an hour(/some time) ago.

Btw, the e-book you shared is very helpful! I liked the diagrams!
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Re: Five hundred million different species of living creatures have appear  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2020, 07:41
B has a meaning error " that" is referring incorrectly to 99% .
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New post 21 Jul 2020, 13:58
Hi honorable experts,
VeritasPrepHailey, AnthonyRitz

E says:
Of the five hundred million different species of living creatures that have appeared on Earth, nearly 99 percent have vanished.
^^ Here, 500 million is equivalent to 100%, right? This 100% have appeared means 'they were appeared in the past, and they are still appearing in present'. On the other side, 99% have vanished means 'they were vanished in the past, and they are still vanishing in present'.
If that 100% is appearing right now HOW 99% vanished (past tense)? Don't these 2 parts, before COMMA and after COMMA (100% VS 99%), contradict each other?
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