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# For nearly a century, scientists have known and hypothesized about

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Updated on: 21 Oct 2019, 04:45
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 321, Date : 10-Sep-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details

For nearly a century, scientists have known and hypothesized about the concept of absolute zero, the lowest possible temperature (approximately –459. 4 degrees Fahrenheit). Theoretically, at absolute zero matter comes to a complete standstill, since any motion would generate heat and raise the temperature. However, scientists are still uncertain about exactly what happens to matter when it reaches absolute zero. Does it simply maintain its form, as if in a state of suspended animation, or does it break down into subatomic particles? Scientists have some ideas about how such matter might behave from studies of both superconductivity (a state in which atomic particles behave in an unusually orderly manner, allowing electrical current to flow with no resistance) and superfluidity (another abnormally orderly atomic state that allows liquids to pass through solids). In both states, particles and atoms move practically in lockstep, allowing phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion. But few would venture to guess whether matter continues along the same orderly scale, or whether at absolute zero it makes a quantum leap to a new state.

Recent breakthroughs have allowed scientists to create near-absolute-zero conditions in the laboratory. After studying the new data, most physicists now agree that, at absolute zero, atoms will condense into a single entity, in effect becoming one large atom. This transition is known as Bose-Einstein condensation. The question still remains: will a Bose-Einstein condensate behave in a super-orderly manner in other hyper-cold states? Some scientists theorize that its state will be extremely unstable, while others maintain that matter in absolute zero will be tremendously stable because it will be free from motion. Scientists have created atmospheres as cold as one microkelvin (one-millionth of a degree above absolute zero), but have not reached absolute zero itself: the task is daunting, because the colder atoms get, the more prone they are to soaking up energy from any surrounding source, thereby raising their temperatures. Some pessimists in the field suspect that it will be centuries before any group of atoms can be chilled to a state of absolute zero.
1 The author of the passage probably mentions superconductivity and superfluidity in order to

A. introduce the experimental evidence that led scientists to develop the theory of Bose-Einstein condensation
B. illustrate some of the principles that might govern the behavior of matter at a temperature of absolute zero
C. prove that matter in a state of absolute zero is extremely unstable
D. differentiate between the ways matter behaves in states of extreme cold and extreme heat
E. provide evidence supporting those who believe that it would take centuries to chill a group of atoms to a temperature of absolute zero

Spoiler: :: OE
The words probably mentions…in order to indicate that this is a purpose question. The subject of the question is superconductivity and superfluidity. The task of the question is to determine the reason that the author mentions superconductivity and superfluidity. The passage states that scientists are still uncertain about exactly what happens to matter when it reaches absolute zero, but they have some ideas about how such matter might behave from studies of both superconductivity (a state in which atomic particles behave in an unusually orderly manner, allowing electrical current to flow with no resistance) and superfluidity (another abnormally orderly atomic state that allows liquids to pass through solids). Thus, the author mentions superconductivity and superfluidity in order to offer examples of how matter might behave at absolute zero.

Choice A: No. The recycled language Bose-Einstein condensation might make this answer choice seem appealing. However, this is a memory trap. The passage discusses superconductivity and superfluidity in the first paragraph to illustrate how such matter might behave. However, in the second paragraph the passage mentions new data and how most physicists now agree that, at absolute zero, atoms will condense into a single entity, in effect becoming one large atom. This transition is known as Bose-Einstein condensation.

Choice B: Correct. This answer choice is a paraphrase of the passage which states that scientists are still uncertain about exactly what happens to matter when it reaches absolute zero, but have some ideas about how such matter might behave from studies of both superconductivity…and superfluidity... In both states, particles and atoms move practically in lockstep, allowing phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion.

Choice C: No. The recycled language extremely unstable may make this answer choice seem tempting. However, this is a memory trap. The author refers to the unstable state when referring to Bose-Einstein condensation. Additionally, the word prove is extreme language that is not supported by the passage. Regarding superconductivity and superfluidity, the passage states few would venture to guess whether matter continues along the same orderly scale, or whether at absolute zero it makes a quantum leap to a new state.

Choice D: No. This answer choice may seem appealing because the passage states in both states, particles and atoms move practically in lockstep, allowing phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion. However, no such comparison is made between extreme cold and extreme heat. The passage only discusses matter approaching the lowest possible temperature.

Choice E: No. The phrase take centuries to chill a group of atoms to a temperature of absolute zero is recycled language that may make this answer choice seem tempting because the passage states some pessimists in the field suspect that it will be centuries before any group of atoms can be chilled to a state of absolute zero. However, this is a memory trap. Regarding superconductivity and superfluidity, the passage states scientists have some ideas about how such matter might behave from studies of both superconductivity…and superfluidity. If anything the evidence points to how matter might behave, not how long it will take to chill a group of atoms.

The correct answer is choice B.

2 It can be inferred from the passage that the normal "randomness of atomic motion"

A. causes atoms to move unpredictably only if temperature remains constant
B. causes atoms to align unpredictably into various patterns
C. eventually leads atoms to congeal into a Bose-Einstein condensate
D. rarely allows atoms to change form
E. causes atoms to move in a disorderly fashion

Spoiler: :: OE
The phrase it can be inferred in the question stem indicates this is an inference question. The task of the question is indicated by the word inferred. The subject of the question is the normal "randomness of atomic motion.” In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice that cannot be supported by the text. The passage states that scientists have some ideas about how such matter might behave from studies of both superconductivity…and superfluidity (another abnormally orderly atomic state that allows liquids to pass through solids). In both states, particles and atoms move practically in lockstep, allowing phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion.

Choice A: No. This answer choice may seem tempting because the passage states theoretically, at absolute zero matter comes to a complete standstill. However, the word only is extreme language and the phrase if temperature remains constant appears to be a reversal. The passage states that in both states, particles and atoms move practically in lockstep, allowing phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion.

Choice B: No. This answer may seem appealing because the passage states that in both states, particles and atoms move practically in lockstep, allowing phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion. However, this answer is a reversal. The lockstep is correlated with superfluidity or superconductivity, not with the randomness of atomic motion.

Choice C: No. The recycled language Bose-Einstein condensate may make this choice seem tempting. However, this answer choice is a reversal. The passage states that most physicists now agree that, at absolute zero, atoms will condense into a single entity, in effect becoming one large atom. However, particles and atoms that move practically in lockstep is an example of phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion.

Choice D: No. This answer choice may seem appealing because the passage mentions superconductivity (a state in which atomic particles behave in an unusually orderly manner, allowing electrical current to flow with no resistance) and superfluidity (another abnormally orderly atomic state that allows liquids to pass through solids). However, the phrase rarely allows atoms to change form is extreme language. The passage states that in both states, particles and atoms move practically in lockstep, allowing phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion.

Choice E: Correct. This choice is a paraphrase of the passage which states that scientists have some ideas about how such matter might behave from studies of both superconductivity…and superfluidity (another abnormally orderly atomic state that allows liquids to pass through solids). In both states, particles and atoms move practically in lockstep, allowing phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion.

The correct answer is choice E.

3 According to the passage, most physicists believe that during Bose-Einstein condensation, atoms

A. compress into a single atomic entity, thereby losing their individual atomic identities
B. increase their temperatures by attracting energy from warmer, nearby sources
C. behave in an extremely orderly manner
D. regain their randomness of motion, thereby preventing the unusual phenomena that occur in states of superconductivity and superfluidity
E. maintain a constant temperature of one microkelvin

Spoiler: :: OE
The phrase as according to the passage indicates that this is a retrieval question. The task of the question is indicated by the phrase according to the passage, most physicists believe. The subject of the question is during Bose-Einstein condensation, atoms…. In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice that cannot be supported by the text. According to the passage, recent breakthroughs have allowed scientists to create near-absolute-zero conditions in the laboratory. After studying the new data, most physicists now agree that, at absolute zero, atoms will condense into a single entity, in effect becoming one large atom.

Choice A: Correct. This choice is a paraphrase of the passage which states that recent breakthroughs have allowed scientists to create near-absolute-zero conditions in the laboratory. After studying the new data, most physicists now agree that, at absolute zero, atoms will condense into a single entity, in effect becoming one large atom.

Choice B: No. This answer choice may seem appealing because the passage states that the colder atoms get, the more prone they are to soaking up energy from any surrounding source, thereby raising their temperatures. However, this choice is a memory trap. The passage states that most physicists now agree that, at absolute zero, atoms will condense into a single entity, in effect becoming one large atom. The passage indicates that scientists don’t know how a Bose-Einstein condensate will behave by asking will a Bose-Einstein condensate behave in a super-orderly manner in other hyper-cold states?

Choice C: No. The recycled language orderly manner may make this answer choice seem tempting. However, this choice is a memory trap. The passage asks will a Bose-Einstein condensate behave in a super-orderly manner in other hyper-cold states? Some scientists theorize that its state will be extremely unstable, while others maintain that matter in absolute zero will be tremendously stable because it will be free from motion. Thus, the passage indicates that scientists don’t know how a Bose-Einstein condensate will behave.

Choice D: No. This answer may be appealing because the passage states both superfluidity and superconductivity allow phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion. However the phrase regain their randomness of motion is a reversal. The passage states that some scientists theorize that its state will be extremely unstable, while others maintain that matter in absolute zero will be tremendously stable because it will be free from motion.

Choice E: No. The recycled language one microkelvin may make this answer choice seem tempting. However, the phrase maintain a constant temperature is a reversal. The passage states the colder atoms get, the more prone they are to soaking up energy from any surrounding source, thereby raising their temperatures.

The correct answer is choice A.

4 Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the relationship between the temperatures of absolute zero and one degree microkelvin?

A. The formation of a Bose-Einstein condensate occurs at both temperatures, although the condensate is more stable at the temperature of absolute zero.
B. For all practical purposes, the two are indistinguishable, since it would take many centuries for a group of atoms to cool to absolute zero.
C. While scientists theorize that matter behaves differently at these two temperatures, no experimental evidence of these different behaviors as yet exists.
D. At one degree microkelvin, matter is in a state of superconductivity, whereas at absolute zero it is not.
E. Matter always assumes the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate when it makes the transition in temperature from one degree microkelvin to absolute zero.

Spoiler: :: OE
The phrase can be inferred in the question stem indicates that this is an inference question. The task of the question is indicated by the word inferred. The subject of the question is something about the relationship between the temperatures of absolute zero and one degree microkelvin. In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice that cannot be supported by the text. The passage states that scientists have created atmospheres as cold as one microkelvin (one-millionth of a degree above absolute zero), but have not reached absolute zero itself: the task is daunting, because the colder atoms get, the more prone they are to soaking up energy from any surrounding source….Some pessimists in the field suspect that it will be centuries before any group of atoms can be chilled to a state of absolute zero. The passage also states few would venture to guess whether matter continues along the same orderly scale, or whether at absolute zero it makes a quantum leap to a new state.

Choice A: No. The recycled language Bose-Einstein condensate and stable might make this answer choice seem appealing. However, the phrases the formation…occurs at both temperatures and more stable are reversals. The passage states at absolute zero, atoms will condense into a single entity, in effect becoming one large atom. This transition is known as Bose-Einstein condensation. The passage also states some scientists theorize that its state will be extremely unstable.

Choice B: No. The recycled language centuries for a group of atoms to cool to absolute zero may make this answer choice seem tempting. However, the word indistinguishable is extreme language. The passage states that scientists have created atmospheres as cold as one microkelvin…but have not reached absolute zero itself: the task is daunting, because the colder atoms get, the more prone they are to soaking up energy from any surrounding source, thereby raising their temperatures.

Choice C: Correct. This choice is a paraphrase of the passage which states that few would venture to guess whether matter continues along the same orderly scale, or whether at absolute zero it makes a quantum leap to a new state. Furthermore, scientists have created atmospheres as cold as one microkelvin (one-millionth of a degree above absolute zero), but have not reached absolute zero itself. Thus, no experimental evidence exists.

Choice D: No. The recycled language microkelvin, superconductivity, and absolute zero may make this answer choice seem appealing. However, the statement at one degree microkelvin, matter is in a state of superconductivity uses outside knowledge since no such comparison is made in the passage. The passage discusses studies of…superconductivity and atmospheres as cold as one microkelvin separately.

Choice E: No. The recycled language Bose-Einstein condensate, one degree microkelvin, and absolute zero may make this answer choice seem tempting. However matter always assumes the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate is extreme language. The passage states that scientists have created atmospheres as cold as one microkelvin (one-millionth of a degree above absolute zero), but have not reached absolute zero itself. The passage also states after studying the new data, most physicists now agree that, at absolute zero, atoms will condense into a single entity…known as Bose-Einstein condensation, but the discussion of Bose-Einstein condensation doesn’t consider the transition in temperature from one degree microkelvin to absolute zero.

The correct answer is choice C.

Originally posted by srij13 on 05 Sep 2019, 00:06.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 21 Oct 2019, 04:45, edited 5 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (1043).
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Re: For nearly a century, scientists have known and hypothesized about  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2019, 06:58
Please post the explanation for Q.4 anyone?
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Re: For nearly a century, scientists have known and hypothesized about  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2019, 07:32
Hello there

Official explanations of all questions has been added, you just need to click on the spoiler button visible under the timer.

Here is OE of question #4

Official Explanation

4 Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the relationship between the temperatures of absolute zero and one degree microkelvin?

Explanation

The phrase can be inferred in the question stem indicates that this is an inference question. The task of the question is indicated by the word inferred. The subject of the question is something about the relationship between the temperatures of absolute zero and one degree microkelvin. In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice that cannot be supported by the text. The passage states that scientists have created atmospheres as cold as one microkelvin (one-millionth of a degree above absolute zero), but have not reached absolute zero itself: the task is daunting, because the colder atoms get, the more prone they are to soaking up energy from any surrounding source….Some pessimists in the field suspect that it will be centuries before any group of atoms can be chilled to a state of absolute zero. The passage also states few would venture to guess whether matter continues along the same orderly scale, or whether at absolute zero it makes a quantum leap to a new state.

Choice A: No. The recycled language Bose-Einstein condensate and stable might make this answer choice seem appealing. However, the phrases the formation…occurs at both temperatures and more stable are reversals. The passage states at absolute zero, atoms will condense into a single entity, in effect becoming one large atom. This transition is known as Bose-Einstein condensation. The passage also states some scientists theorize that its state will be extremely unstable.

Choice B: No. The recycled language centuries for a group of atoms to cool to absolute zero may make this answer choice seem tempting. However, the word indistinguishable is extreme language. The passage states that scientists have created atmospheres as cold as one microkelvin…but have not reached absolute zero itself: the task is daunting, because the colder atoms get, the more prone they are to soaking up energy from any surrounding source, thereby raising their temperatures.

Choice C: Correct. This choice is a paraphrase of the passage which states that few would venture to guess whether matter continues along the same orderly scale, or whether at absolute zero it makes a quantum leap to a new state. Furthermore, scientists have created atmospheres as cold as one microkelvin (one-millionth of a degree above absolute zero), but have not reached absolute zero itself. Thus, no experimental evidence exists.

Choice D: No. The recycled language microkelvin, superconductivity, and absolute zero may make this answer choice seem appealing. However, the statement at one degree microkelvin, matter is in a state of superconductivity uses outside knowledge since no such comparison is made in the passage. The passage discusses studies of…superconductivity and atmospheres as cold as one microkelvin separately.

Choice E: No. The recycled language Bose-Einstein condensate, one degree microkelvin, and absolute zero may make this answer choice seem tempting. However matter always assumes the form of a Bose-Einstein condensate is extreme language. The passage states that scientists have created atmospheres as cold as one microkelvin (one-millionth of a degree above absolute zero), but have not reached absolute zero itself. The passage also states after studying the new data, most physicists now agree that, at absolute zero, atoms will condense into a single entity…known as Bose-Einstein condensation, but the discussion of Bose-Einstein condensation doesn’t consider the transition in temperature from one degree microkelvin to absolute zero.

The correct answer is choice C.

Hope it helps

ArihantJain18 wrote:
Please post the explanation for Q.4 anyone?

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Re: For nearly a century, scientists have known and hypothesized about  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2019, 10:10
SajjadAhmad I am Confused between Option B and E in Q2 ? Can u pls explain ?

And what is the level of the passage ?
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Re: For nearly a century, scientists have known and hypothesized about  [#permalink]

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03 Oct 2019, 10:17
Alpha14 wrote:
SajjadAhmad I am Confused between Option B and E in Q2 ? Can u pls explain ?

And what is the level of the passage ?

Official Explanation

2. It can be inferred from the passage that the normal "randomness of atomic motion"

Explanation

The phrase it can be inferred in the question stem indicates this is an inference question. The task of the question is indicated by the word inferred. The subject of the question is the normal "randomness of atomic motion.” In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice that cannot be supported by the text. The passage states that scientists have some ideas about how such matter might behave from studies of both superconductivity…and superfluidity (another abnormally orderly atomic state that allows liquids to pass through solids). In both states, particles and atoms move practically in lockstep, allowing phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion.

Choice A: No. This answer choice may seem tempting because the passage states theoretically, at absolute zero matter comes to a complete standstill. However, the word only is extreme language and the phrase if temperature remains constant appears to be a reversal. The passage states that in both states, particles and atoms move practically in lockstep, allowing phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion.

Choice B: No. This answer may seem appealing because the passage states that in both states, particles and atoms move practically in lockstep, allowing phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion. However, this answer is a reversal. The lockstep is correlated with superfluidity or superconductivity, not with the randomness of atomic motion.

Choice C: No. The recycled language Bose-Einstein condensate may make this choice seem tempting. However, this answer choice is a reversal. The passage states that most physicists now agree that, at absolute zero, atoms will condense into a single entity, in effect becoming one large atom. However, particles and atoms that move practically in lockstep is an example of phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion.

Choice D: No. This answer choice may seem appealing because the passage mentions superconductivity (a state in which atomic particles behave in an unusually orderly manner, allowing electrical current to flow with no resistance) and superfluidity (another abnormally orderly atomic state that allows liquids to pass through solids). However, the phrase rarely allows atoms to change form is extreme language. The passage states that in both states, particles and atoms move practically in lockstep, allowing phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion.

Choice E: Correct. This choice is a paraphrase of the passage which states that scientists have some ideas about how such matter might behave from studies of both superconductivity…and superfluidity (another abnormally orderly atomic state that allows liquids to pass through solids). In both states, particles and atoms move practically in lockstep, allowing phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion.

The correct answer is choice E.

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Re: For nearly a century, scientists have known and hypothesized about  [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2019, 17:05
+1 Kudos to posts containing answer explanation of all questions

In Q 3, Why is B not the right answer ?

In A, it mentions that they individual atoms will loose their identities. That is never mentioned in the passage that individual atoms will loose any properties and hence identities.

Whereas B, that's universal for any atom/BE Condensate that i would take up energy from nearby heat source, if any is present.
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Re: For nearly a century, scientists have known and hypothesized about  [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2019, 09:02
Official Explanation

3 According to the passage, most physicists believe that during Bose-Einstein condensation, atoms

Difficulty Level: 600

Explanation

The phrase as according to the passage indicates that this is a retrieval question. The task of the question is indicated by the phrase according to the passage, most physicists believe. The subject of the question is during Bose-Einstein condensation, atoms…. In order to answer the question, determine what the passage states about the subject and evaluate the answer choices, eliminating any choice that cannot be supported by the text. According to the passage, recent breakthroughs have allowed scientists to create near-absolute-zero conditions in the laboratory. After studying the new data, most physicists now agree that, at absolute zero, atoms will condense into a single entity, in effect becoming one large atom.

Choice A: Correct. This choice is a paraphrase of the passage which states that recent breakthroughs have allowed scientists to create near-absolute-zero conditions in the laboratory. After studying the new data, most physicists now agree that, at absolute zero, atoms will condense into a single entity, in effect becoming one large atom.

Choice B: No. This answer choice may seem appealing because the passage states that the colder atoms get, the more prone they are to soaking up energy from any surrounding source, thereby raising their temperatures. However, this choice is a memory trap. The passage states that most physicists now agree that, at absolute zero, atoms will condense into a single entity, in effect becoming one large atom. The passage indicates that scientists don’t know how a Bose-Einstein condensate will behave by asking will a Bose-Einstein condensate behave in a super-orderly manner in other hyper-cold states?

Choice C: No. The recycled language orderly manner may make this answer choice seem tempting. However, this choice is a memory trap. The passage asks will a Bose-Einstein condensate behave in a super-orderly manner in other hyper-cold states? Some scientists theorize that its state will be extremely unstable, while others maintain that matter in absolute zero will be tremendously stable because it will be free from motion. Thus, the passage indicates that scientists don’t know how a Bose-Einstein condensate will behave.

Choice D: No. This answer may be appealing because the passage states both superfluidity and superconductivity allow phenomena that are usually prevented by the randomness of atomic motion. However the phrase regain their randomness of motion is a reversal. The passage states that some scientists theorize that its state will be extremely unstable, while others maintain that matter in absolute zero will be tremendously stable because it will be free from motion.

Choice E: No. The recycled language one microkelvin may make this answer choice seem tempting. However, the phrase maintain a constant temperature is a reversal. The passage states the colder atoms get, the more prone they are to soaking up energy from any surrounding source, thereby raising their temperatures.

The correct answer is choice A.

Hope it helps

navderm wrote:
+1 Kudos to posts containing answer explanation of all questions

In Q 3, Why is B not the right answer ?

In A, it mentions that they individual atoms will loose their identities. That is never mentioned in the passage that individual atoms will loose any properties and hence identities.

Whereas B, that's universal for any atom/BE Condensate that i would take up energy from nearby heat source, if any is present.

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Re: For nearly a century, scientists have known and hypothesized about   [#permalink] 06 Oct 2019, 09:02
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