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Global strategies to control infectious disease have historically incl

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Global strategies to control infectious disease have historically incl  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 03 Oct 2019, 00:20
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New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 203, Date : 13-Jul-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


Global strategies to control infectious disease have historically included the erection of barriers to international travel and immigration. Keeping people with infectious diseases outside national borders has reemerged as an important public health policy in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Between 29 and 50 countries are reported to have introduced border restrictions on HIV-positive foreigners, usually those planning an extended stay in the country, such as students, workers, or seamen.

Travel restrictions have been established primarily by countries in the western Pacific and Mediterranean regions, where HIV seroprevalence is relatively low. However, the country with the broadest policy of testing and excluding foreigners is the United States. From December 1, 1987, when HIV infection was first classified in the United States as a contagious disease, through September 30, 1989, more than 3 million people seeking permanent residence in this country were tested for HIV antibodies. The U.S. policy has been sharply criticized by national and international organizations as being contrary to public health goals and human-rights principles. Many of these organizations are boycotting international meetings in the United States that are vital for the study of prevention, education, and treatment of HIV infection.

The Immigration and Nationality Act requires the Public Health Service to list “dangerous contagious diseases” for which aliens can be excluded from the United States. By 1987 there were seven designated diseases—five of them sexually transmitted (chancroid, gonorrhea, granuloma inguinale, lymphog-ranuloma venereum, and infectious syphilis) and two non-venereal (active tuberculosis and infectious leprosy). On June 8, 1987, in response to a Congressional direction in the Helms Amendment, the Public Health Service added HIV infection to the list of dangerous contagious diseases.

A just and efficacious travel and immigration policy would not exclude people because of their serologic status unless they posed a danger to the community through casual transmission. U.S. regulations should list only active tuberculosis as a contagious infectious disease. We support well-funded programs to protect the health of travelers infected with HIV through appropriate immunizations and prophylactic treatment and to reduce behaviors that may transmit infection.

We recognize that treating patients infected with HIV who immigrate to the United States will incur costs for the public sector. It is inequitable, however, to use cost as a reason to exclude people infected with HIV, for there are no similar exclusionary policies for those with other costly chronic diseases, such as heart disease or cancer. Rather than arbitrarily restrict the movement of a subgroup of infected people, we must dedicate ourselves to the principles of justice, scientific cooperation, and a global response to the HIV pandemic.

1. According to the passage, countries in the western Pacific have

(A) a very high frequency of HIV-positive immigrants and have a greater reason to be concerned over this issue than other countries.
(B) opposed efforts on the part of Mediterranean states to establish travel restrictions on HIV-positive residents.
(C) a low HIV seroprevalence and, in tandem with Mediterranean regions, have established travel restrictions on HIV-positive foreigners.
(D) continued to obstruct efforts to unify policy concerning immigrant screening.
(E) joined with the United States in sharing information about HIV-positive individuals.


2. The authors of the passage conclude that

(A) it is unjust to exclude people based on their serological status without the knowledge that they pose a danger to the public.
(B) U.S. regulations should require more stringent testing to be implemented at all major border crossings.
(C) it is the responsibility of the public sector to absorb costs incurred by treatment of immigrants infected with HIV.
(D) the HIV pandemic is largely overstated and that, based on new epidemiological data, screening immigrants is not indicated.
(E) only the non-venereal diseases active tuberculosis and infectious leprosy should be listed as dangerous and contagious diseases.


3. It can be inferred from the passage that

(A) more than 3 million HIV-positive people have sought permanent residence in the United States.
(B) countries with a low seroprevalence of HIV have a disproportionate and unjustified concern over the spread of AIDS by immigration.
(C) the United States is more concerned with controlling the number of HIVpositive immigrants than with avoiding criticism from outside its borders.
(D) current law is meeting the demand for prudent handling of a potentially hazardous international issue.
(E) actions by countries in the western Pacific and Mediterranean regions to restrict travel are ineffective.


4. Before the Helms Amendment in 1987, seven designated diseases were listed as being cause for denying immigration. We can conclude from the passage that

(A) the authors agree fully with this policy but disagree with adding HIV to the list.
(B) the authors believe that sexual diseases are appropriate reasons for denying immigration but not nonvenereal diseases.
(C) the authors disagree with the amendment.
(D) the authors believe that non-venereal diseases are justifiable reasons for exclusion, but not sexually transmitted diseases.
(E) the authors believe that no diseases should be cause for denying immigration.


5. In referring to the “costs” incurred by the public (Highlighted), the authors apparently mean

(A) financial costs.
(B) costs to the public health.
(C) costs in manpower.
(D) costs in international reputation.
(E) costs in public confidence.



Source: Nova GMAT
Difficulty Level: 650

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Originally posted by SajjadAhmad on 13 Jul 2019, 08:02.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 03 Oct 2019, 00:20, edited 1 time in total.
Updated - Complete topic (779).
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Re: Global strategies to control infectious disease have historically incl  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2019, 09:47
Finished it within 6 minutes including the passage read.

Got 3 correct out of the five. Can someone explain the 3rd and 4th question?

Also, what level question is this?
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Re: Global strategies to control infectious disease have historically incl  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Jul 2019, 21:23
AditiJain098 wrote:
Finished it within 6 minutes including the passage read.

Got 3 correct out of the five. Can someone explain the 3rd and 4th question?

Also, what level question is this?



For the 3rd question, the answer lies in the first few lines of last paragraph. It states that US is ready to accept foreigners with HIV diseases and trying to control the HIV diseases despite the cost to it's public sector.
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Re: Global strategies to control infectious disease have historically incl  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2019, 10:21
3
Official Explanation


3. It can be inferred from the passage that

Explanation

This is an extension question. Lines 18–19 state “U.S. policy has been sharply criticized by national and international organizations.” Given that this criticism has not caused the United States to change its policies, it must be more concerned with controlling the number of HIV-positive immigrants than with avoiding criticism. The answer, therefore, is (C). Don’t be tempted by (A); it’s a same language trap. Every word in it is taken from the passage. However, the passage states that over 3 million people were tested for HIV antibodies (lines 16–17), not that they were tested “positive” for HIV antibodies.

Answer: C


4. Before the Helms Amendment in 1987, seven designated diseases were listed as being cause for denying immigration. We can conclude from the passage that

Explanation

This is another extension question. In lines 36–38, the authors state that only active tuberculosis should be listed as a dangerous contagious disease. We expect that they would oppose adding HIV to the list. The answer is (C).


Hope it helps

AditiJain098 wrote:
Finished it within 6 minutes including the passage read.

Got 3 correct out of the five. Can someone explain the 3rd and 4th question?

Also, what level question is this?

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Re: Global strategies to control infectious disease have historically incl  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Jul 2019, 06:08
2
All correct within 9 mins, including 4 mins to read
1. According to the passage, countries in the western Pacific have

(C) a low HIV seroprevalence and, in tandem with Mediterranean regions, have established travel restrictions on HIV-positive foreigners.- Correct
Travel restrictions have been established primarily by countries in the western Pacific and Mediterranean regions, where HIV seroprevalence is relatively low.

2. The authors of the passage conclude that

(A) it is unjust to exclude people based on their serological status without the knowledge that they pose a danger to the public.- Correct
A just and efficacious travel and immigration policy would not exclude people because of their serologic status unless they posed a danger to the community through casual transmission.

3. It can be inferred from the passage that

(A) more than 3 million HIV-positive people have sought permanent residence in the United States.- incorrect,
through September 30, 1989, more than 3 million people seeking permanent residence in this country were tested for HIV antibodies.
(B) countries with a low seroprevalence of HIV have a disproportionate and unjustified concern over the spread of AIDS by immigration.- incorrect; we do not know whether their concerns are disproportionate and unjustified
(C) the United States is more concerned with controlling the number of HIVpositive immigrants than with avoiding criticism from outside its borders.- Correct
The U.S. policy has been sharply criticized by national and international organizations as being contrary to public health goals and human-rights principles. Many of these organizations are boycotting international meetings in the United States that are vital for the study of prevention, education, and treatment of HIV infection.
(D) current law is meeting the demand for prudent handling of a potentially hazardous international issue.- incorrect
(E) actions by countries in the western Pacific and Mediterranean regions to restrict travel are ineffective. - incorrect- the actions might be effective but might be unjust

4. Before the Helms Amendment in 1987, seven designated diseases were listed as being cause for denying immigration. We can conclude from the passage that

(A) the authors agree fully with this policy but disagree with adding HIV to the list.- incorrect,
U.S. regulations should list only active tuberculosis as a contagious infectious disease.
(B) the authors believe that sexual diseases are appropriate reasons for denying immigration but not nonvenereal diseases.- incorrect,
U.S. regulations should list only active tuberculosis as a contagious infectious disease.
(C) the authors disagree with the amendment.- Correct
(D) the authors believe that non-venereal diseases are justifiable reasons for exclusion, but not sexually transmitted diseases.- incorrect, as per the author the US list should include (active tuberculosis (one of the non-venereal diseases to the list) and exclude infectious leprosy and sexually transmitted diseases
(E) the authors believe that no diseases should be cause for denying immigration.- incorrect

5. In referring to the “costs” incurred by the public (Highlighted), the authors apparently mean
We recognize that treating patients infected with HIV who immigrate to the United States will incur costs for the public sector. It is inequitable, however, to use cost as a reason to exclude people infected with HIV, for there are no similar exclusionary policies for those with other costly chronic diseases, such as heart disease or cancer.
(A) financial costs.- Correct
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Re: Global strategies to control infectious disease have historically incl   [#permalink] 28 Jul 2019, 06:08

Global strategies to control infectious disease have historically incl

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