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# His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside

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His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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Updated on: 28 Apr 2018, 05:55
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Question Stats:

57% (01:01) correct 43% (01:09) wrong based on 1985 sessions

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The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 11th Edition, 2005

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 59
Page: 646

The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 2015

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 72
Page: 685

His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas

(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas

(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate

(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas

(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

Please give some help full tips to spot the adverb in a sentence also let me know the rules of placing the adverb.

Originally posted by kiranjith on 15 Jan 2014, 23:46.
Last edited by hazelnut on 28 Apr 2018, 05:55, edited 8 times in total.
Formatted the question.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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Updated on: 21 Sep 2017, 03:31
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17
‘In which’ is used in cases, where we cannot use which directly in the context for some genuine reasons. Otherwise, ‘in which’ means the same as ‘which’. For example, we cannot use ‘which’ when we refer to a period; we cannot use which when referring to a place. In such cases we can still use the prepositional phrase ‘in which’ and make the correct meaning.

Ex 1: I belong to the golden times when elders were respected rather than unwelcome.
I belong to the golden times in which elders were respected rather than unwelcome

Ex 2: In the olden Kerala where Matriarchy was in practice, women were dominant.
The olden Kerala in which Matriarchy was in practice, women were dominant.

The additional factor in favor of ‘in which’ is that the prepositional phrase can be used gainfully to replace the relative pronouns 'when' and 'where' as in the given a case.
Here in the context, ‘when’ has a problem. It might mean that Louis made the proposal in 1837 when Ice sheets had existed. This twisted meaning renders the use of ‘When’ as inappropriate. Hence C, D, and E can be dumped even without proceeding further. The correct choice should be between A and B. , Of course, A is wrong because ‘now currently’ is redundancy. B is the correct choice.
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Originally posted by daagh on 12 Oct 2015, 21:17.
Last edited by daagh on 21 Sep 2017, 03:31, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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15 Jun 2015, 08:29
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7
"When and in which" both are used to modify a time period but here the period is already defined by the word "age".

"age in which" is correct and not "age when"

this gives us 3-2 split.

past perfect is only used when we want to sequence 2 events. Since only 1 event is described here, so no need of past perfect.

we are left with only B.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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Updated on: 02 May 2015, 23:43
2
1
2
Kiranjith:

1. You have not underlined the relevant portion;

2. Please appreciate that Chocie A has to be exactly ditto as found in the text; Else, this question wouldn't make GMAT grade; We are spending lot of time on these questions

3. Generally, Your topics and queries are good.

Adverbs modify verbs or adjectives. Here in the text, - now -, an adverb, modifies- temperate,- an adjective. Adverbs normally answer such questions as when, where, what extent etc;

Some adverbs are called restrictive adverbs as they limit the extent of action or proportion –examples- exclusively, only, now, solely, and just, etc.

Many of the adverbs are easy to identify since they end in ‘ly’
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Originally posted by daagh on 16 Jan 2014, 08:34.
Last edited by daagh on 02 May 2015, 23:43, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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24 Jan 2014, 11:24
Hi Kiranjith,

Which adverbs are you referring to in this case? Could you state your query in a more detailed and specific way, and try to present your understanding of the question?

Thanks!

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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02 May 2015, 23:34
1
past perfect, according to gmat standard, have only one usage. do not take the standards from grammar book for the use of had done.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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Updated on: 13 Jun 2015, 22:53
1
1) should be past simple
2)adverb "now" should be properly placed , after verb, not as an adjective

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Originally posted by hamdam on 05 May 2015, 14:30.
Last edited by hamdam on 13 Jun 2015, 22:53, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2015, 02:19
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aakashbaweja wrote:
"When and in which" both are used to modify a time period but here the period is already defined by the word "age".

"age in which" is correct and not "age when"

this gives us 3-2 split.

past perfect is only used when we want to sequence 2 events. Since only 1 event is described here, so no need of past perfect.

we are left with only B.

WHEN CLAUSE can work as adverb: I learn gmat when you come
WHEN CLAUSE can work as an adjective, the age when you came is good.

"the age when" is correct
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2016, 05:36
1
1
snorkeler wrote:
Q)His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine
homeland, far outside the range of present-day
glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the
concept of an age in which great ice sheets had
existed in now currently temperate areas

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now
currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are
now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were
areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current
temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that
are temperate

hi,
if you are referring to existed and had existed....
when do we use past perfect :-
" It is used to make it clear that one event happened before another in the past. It does not matter which event is mentioned first - the tense makes it clear which one happened first."

but here there is only one age we are talking of ...
One may feel that it is prior to the present age, but we do not have two actions in the sentence and thus there is no confusion of which action happened earlier..
So, we should keep our sentence in simple past..
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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17 Jan 2016, 05:54
4
Isn't that existence of great ice sheets occurred prior to his proposal of concept?, Do I need to consider them as two different events occurred in different time scale or is it a single event? I'm bit confused here.. Pls let me know where my logic goes wrong..
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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21 Jan 2016, 05:34
5
snorkeler wrote:
Isn't that existence of great ice sheets occurred prior to his proposal of concept?, Do I need to consider them as two different events occurred in different time scale or is it a single event? I'm bit confused here.. Pls let me know where my logic goes wrong..

yeah you are correct that proposal of a concept and existence of great ice sheets were at two different times..

But the moment you say he proposed the concept of an age after going through some studies of..., it clearly shows that the age was naturally before he proposed about it existing..
There is no ambiguity in the chronological order..

And when there is no ambiguity, we can avoid the past perfect..

some more example,
The scientist proposed in 1976 that the dinosaurs became extinct during ice age..
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2016, 01:21
hi instructors,

I am always sunk in the issue that clause + prep + WH- pronouns

I am have no idea that
1/
relative pronoun stands for. the noun proceeding WH- or noun after WH-,

2/
what's the order of the prep + WH- clause ,

in this case, please help clarify.
it will be great if provide more examples.

thanks a lot
have a nice day

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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2016, 01:09
2
Top Contributor
Here the 'in which' refers to the word 'age'. And the subject of the 'in which' is 'great ice sheets'.

In general, when you encounter a 'preposition + which' construction, the subject can be found in the clause that follows 'which'.
But, in a 'which' construction, the subject occurs before the 'which'.

For example - 1. the box of toffees, which is on the table, is expensive. Note that the subject of the which clause occurs before the which clause. Also, 'which' modifies that subject (the box).
(the subject is 'the box'; also note that since 'which' is followed by a singular verb, it cannot refer to 'toffees').

2. the box, in which toffees are kept, is made of aluminum. Here, the subject of the 'in which' clause is 'toffees'. But the 'in which' clause modifies 'the box'.

Hope this helps
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2017, 12:24
His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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29 Oct 2017, 22:07
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kiranjith wrote:
The Official Guide for GMAT Review, 2015

Practice Question
Question No.: SC 72
Page: 685

His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside the range of present-day glaciers, led Louis Agassiz in 1837 to propose the concept of an age in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas.

(A) in which great ice sheets had existed in now currently temperate areas
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) when great ice sheets existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) when great ice sheets had existed in current temperate areas
(E) when great ice sheets existed in areas now that are temperate

First Glance

The underline starts with in which. Glance at the answers to notice that other choices offer when instead. The sentence might contain a Modifier issue.

Issues

(1) Verb: had existed

The original sentence uses the past perfect: Ice sheets had existed. Other answers use the simple past existed. Which is correct?

Past perfect is used to denote the longer-ago of two past actions. In this case, the had existed action is paired with a comment about the climate in those same areas now. It's acceptable, then, to use simple past existed; don't use a more complex tense when a simple tense is acceptable. Eliminate answers (A) and (D).

(2) Meaning

In answer (A), now currently is redundant—both words mean the same thing. Eliminate answer (A), and examine the meaning in the other answers:

(B) existed in what are now temperate areas
(C) existed where there were areas now temperate
(D) existed in current temperate areas
(E) existed in areas now that are temperate

Answer (D) drops now and switches from currently to current. That word is modifying the adjective temperate, so it needs to be in the adverb form (currently). The adjective form current can only be used to modify nouns. Eliminate answer (D).

The other answers drop currently and use only now. Answers (B) and (C) are okay, but answer (E) has a meaning problem. The word now must be tied to a particular action or event: Something happened now. In answer (E), the word now is actually tied to existed: Sheets existed now that are temperate. Something can't be simultaneously in the past (existed) and happening now. Eliminate answer (E).

Answer (C) also mixes two time frames: were and now. They were [not] temperate before; they are temperate now. Eliminate answer (C).

The Correct Answer

Correct answer (B) fixes the initial verb error by switching to the simple past existed. The construction in what are now temperate areas properly indicates that the climate has changed in these areas. they used to be cold; they are now temperate.

Miscellaneous

Note: The in which versus when split turned out be a red herring! Both versions are acceptable.
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2018, 05:00
Quote:
(B) in which great ice sheets existed in what are now temperate areas

Hi mikemcgarry, GMATNinjaTwo, GMATNinja, MagooshExpert Carolyn,
sayantanc2
VeritasPrepKarishma

Anyone can help to understand the option B ?

I read a lot of posts, No one mentioned "what",
I crossed off B because i think it is illogical if say "what are now temperate areas", areas are a geographocal location, what are areas sounds weird for me, but B is correct, so i think i must miss something.

Would you please help point out?

Thanks in advance
Have a nice day

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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2018, 12:02
Quote:
I read a lot of posts, No one mentioned "what",
I crossed off B because i think it is illogical if say "what are now temperate areas", areas are a geographocal location, what are areas sounds weird for me, but B is correct, so i think i must miss something.

I have the same question ..
if c is not clearly wrong , (in general ) shouldn't we prefer "where" to "what" to describe areas ?
I think that this was mentioned in one of the GMAT OG questions , not sure which one
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Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside [#permalink]

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11 Jul 2018, 15:03
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Request to reply on the use of in which and when
Re: His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside   [#permalink] 11 Jul 2018, 15:03
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# His studies of ice-polished rocks in his Alpine homeland, far outside

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