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# Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by

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Director
Joined: 05 Jan 2008
Posts: 636
Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 20 May 2017, 09:29
4
13
00:00

Difficulty:

5% (low)

Question Stats:

88% (01:16) correct 12% (01:37) wrong based on 986 sessions

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Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by overcutting trees and farming too intensively, and though some protective measures, like the establishment of national forests and wildlife sanctuaries, having been taken decades ago, great increases in population and in the intensity of industrialization are causing a worldwide ecological crisis.

A. though some protective measures, like the establishment of national forests and wildlife sanctuaries, having been taken decades ago, great increases in population

B. though some protective measures, such as the establishment of national forests and wildlife sanctuaries, were taken decades ago, great increases in population

C. though some protective measures, such as establishing national forests and wildlife sanctuaries having been taken decades ago, great population increases

D. with some protective measures, like establishing national forests and wildlife sanctuaries that were taken decades ago, great increases in population

E. with some protective measures, such as the establishment of national forests and wildlife sanctuaries, having been taken decades ago, great population increases

Originally posted by prasannar on 24 Apr 2008, 11:12.
Last edited by broall on 20 May 2017, 09:29, edited 1 time in total.
Reformatted question
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Joined: 02 Nov 2011
Posts: 2796
Re: Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by  [#permalink]

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07 May 2012, 11:43
10
1
2
Hi all,

Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by overcutting trees and farming too intensively, and though some protective measures, like the establishment
of national forests and wildlife sanctuaries, having been taken decades ago, great increases in population
and in the intensity of industrialization are causing a worldwide ecological crisis.

Error Analysis:
1. Use of “like” to present examples is incorrect.
2. “though” introduces a dependent clause with a subject and verb. “having been taken” is not a proper verb to make a dependent clause.

POE:

Choice A: though some protective measures, like the establishment of national forests and wildlife sanctuaries, having been taken decades ago, great increases in
population: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

Choice B: though some protective measures, such as the establishment of national forests and wildlife sanctuaries, were taken decades ago, great increases in population: Correct. This choice uses the correct idiom “such as” to show examples. “were taken” is a proper verb that makes a dependent clause with “though”.

Choice C: though some protective measures, such as establishing national forests and wildlife sanctuaries having been taken decades ago, great population increases: Incorrect. Firstly, it repeats the same “having been taken” error as in Choice A. Secondly, There is a list here. The entities of this list are, per the original choice, great increases “in population” and “in the intensity”. In this choice, these two entities are not parallel. We are left to ask what “in the intensity” of industrialization are causing the ecological crisis.

Choice D: with some protective measures, like establishing national forests and wildlife sanctuaries that were taken decades ago, great increases in population: Incorrect. Firstly, use of “with” is incorrect because it fails to establish the contrast that the original sentence presents. Secondly, use of “like” is incorrect.

Choice E: with some protective measures, such as the establishment of national forests and wildlife sanctuaries, having been taken decades ago, great population
increases: Incorrect. This choice repeats the wrong use of “with” as in Choice D, the “having been taken” error of choice A and the parallelism error of Choice C.

1. A clause, dependent or independent, must have an SV pair.
2. “Like” is used for comparison while “such as” is used to present examples.
3. The correct answer choice must convey the intended meaning.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Manager
Joined: 19 Oct 2011
Posts: 99
Location: India
Re: Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by  [#permalink]

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05 May 2012, 23:12
6
2
Option B correctly used such to introduce examples and uses the correct form of parallelism in the second part.. increases in x and in y

A. though some protective measures, like the establishment of national forests
and wildlife sanctuaries, having been taken decades ago, great increases in
population

B. though some protective measures, such as the establishment of national forests
and wildlife sanctuaries, were taken decades ago, great increases in population

C. though some protective measures, such as establishing national forests and
wildlife sanctuaries having been taken decades ago, great population increases

D. with some protective measures, like establishing national forests and wildlife
sanctuaries that were taken decades ago, great increases in population

E. with some protective measures, such as the establishment of national forests
and wildlife sanctuaries, having been taken decades ago, great population
increases
##### General Discussion
Manager
Joined: 02 Mar 2008
Posts: 195
Concentration: Finance, Strategy
Re: Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by  [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2008, 11:16
1
B
though some protective measures, such as the establishment of national forests
and wildlife sanctuaries, were taken decades ago, great increases in populatio
Intern
Joined: 04 Jun 2007
Posts: 46
Location: United Kingdom
Re: Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by  [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2008, 14:54
B,

Great increases should be subject of last sentence
Such as should be used to show examples
Manager
Joined: 13 May 2010
Posts: 110
Re: Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by  [#permalink]

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05 May 2012, 06:52
Here is my thinking -

d and e are out because we need a connecting word such as 'though' NOT 'with' to indicate the contrast mentioned in the sentence.

a is out because of 'like'

b vs c - I can't decide what is wrong with (c). In some forums they talk about c being a fragment. I don't understand how it is a fragment? Please explain how to rule out c.
Manager
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Re: Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by  [#permalink]

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05 May 2012, 23:18
3
akg wrote:
B,

Great increases should be subject of last sentence
Such as should be used to show examples

In options C, look at the elements joined by the word "AND" Are they parallel???
.
increase in population and in the intensity of industrialization --> correct form of parallelism increases correctly modifies both increase in population and increase in the intensity of industrialization.

AND is an important word in the GMAT. When you find "AND" on the GMAT, pick out the elements joined by AND and check if they are parallel or if they play the same role in the sentence ( nouns, phrases )

I hope the above explanation help. Press kudos if you like my explanation.
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Posts: 2796
Re: Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by  [#permalink]

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07 May 2012, 12:38
teal wrote:
Here is my thinking -

d and e are out because we need a connecting word such as 'though' NOT 'with' to indicate the contrast mentioned in the sentence.

a is out because of 'like'

b vs c - I can't decide what is wrong with (c). In some forums they talk about c being a fragment. I don't understand how it is a fragment? Please explain how to rule out c.

Hi,

This is the sentence with choice C: Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by overcutting trees and farming too intensively, and though some protective measures, such as establishing national forests and wildlife sanctuaries having been taken decades ago, great population increases and in the intensity of industrialization are causing a worldwide ecological crisis.

In this sentence, notice what appears after "increases and". It is "in the intensity...". This is not a complete phrase. What in the intensity of industrialization has caused ecological crisis? We do not know that. Hence, one of the subjects is not complete. Hence we have a fragment here.

Hope this helps.
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Manager
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Re: Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by  [#permalink]

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06 Oct 2014, 06:29
1
Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by overcutting trees and farming too intensively, and though some protective measures, like the establishment of national forests and wildlife sanctuaries, having been taken decades ago, great increases in population and in the intensity of industrialization are causing a worldwide ecological crisis.

A. though some protective measures, like the establishment of national forests and wildlife sanctuaries, having been taken decades ago, great increases in population : Absence of Verb and use of Like to give examples

B. though some protective measures, such as the establishment of national forests and wildlife sanctuaries, were taken decades ago, great increases in population

C. though some protective measures, such as establishing national forests and wildlife sanctuaries having been taken decades ago, great population increases - Absence of verb

D. with some protective measures, like establishing national forests and wildlife sanctuaries that were taken decades ago, great increases in population - No contrast and use of Like

E. with some protective measures, such as the establishment of national forests and wildlife sanctuaries, having been taken decades ago, great population increases - No contrast and absence of verb

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Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by  [#permalink]

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09 Jun 2017, 08:06
Top Contributor
The first decision point is to remove A and D for using like for denoting examples. The second point is to eliminate C for using 'having been taken' along with 'though', rendering the dependent clause a fragment. E has the problem of using 'population increases' that is not parallel with 'in the intensity of industrialization'

B remains and one can click it with aplomb.
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Re: Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by  [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2018, 10:18
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: Humans have been damaging the environment for centuries by   [#permalink] 02 Oct 2018, 10:18
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