January 19, 2019 January 19, 2019 07:00 AM PST 09:00 AM PST Aiming to score 760+? Attend this FREE session to learn how to Define your GMAT Strategy, Create your Study Plan and Master the Core Skills to excel on the GMAT. January 20, 2019 January 20, 2019 07:00 AM PST 07:00 AM PST Get personalized insights on how to achieve your Target Quant Score.
Author 
Message 
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Intern
Joined: 10 Jul 2010
Posts: 1

If 40 people get the chance to pick a card from a canister
[#permalink]
Show Tags
10 Jul 2010, 05:08
Question Stats:
67% (00:11) correct 33% (00:24) wrong based on 36 sessions
HideShow timer Statistics
If 40 people get the chance to pick a card from a canister that contains 5 free passes to an amusement park mixed in with 35 blank cards what is the probability that the 40th person who picks will win?




Math Expert
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 52294

Re: probability of picking last
[#permalink]
Show Tags
10 Jul 2010, 07:54
mpevans wrote: if 40 people get the chance to pick a card from a canister that contains 5 free passes to an amusement park mixed in with 35 blank cards what is the probability that the 40th person who picks will win? I guess we have the situation when 40 people standing in a row and picking the cards one after another and check them in the end. We are asked what is the probability that 40th person win the pass? If so, then probability of picking the pass will be the same for all 40 people  \(\frac{5}{40}\), (initial probability of picking the pass (\(\frac{5}{40}\)) will be the same for any person in a row). AbhayPrasanna wrote: 35  lose, 5  win
Pick 5 people to win => 40C5 = total number of outcomes.
Favorable outcome is : First pick the 40th person, then pick any other 4. => 1*40C4
So, probability = 40C5 / 40C4
= 40!*36!*4! / (35!*5!*40!)
= 36/(35*5)
= 36 / 175 This way is also valid and must give the same result. The problem is that you calculated favorable outcomes incorrectly: when you pick 40th person to win, then you have only 39 left to pick 4 from, so # of favorable outcomes is \(1*C^4_{39}\). Also \(probability=\frac{# \ of \ favorable \ outcomes}{total \ # \ of \ outcomes}\) and you wrote viseversa. So \(P=\frac{1*C^4_{39}}{C^5_{40}}=\frac{36*37*38*39}{4!}*\frac{5!}{36*37*38*39*40}=\frac{5}{40}\). Hope it helps.
_________________
New to the Math Forum? Please read this: Ultimate GMAT Quantitative Megathread  All You Need for Quant  PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW: 12 Rules for Posting!!! Resources: GMAT Math Book  Triangles  Polygons  Coordinate Geometry  Factorials  Circles  Number Theory  Remainders; 8. Overlapping Sets  PDF of Math Book; 10. Remainders  GMAT Prep Software Analysis  SEVEN SAMURAI OF 2012 (BEST DISCUSSIONS)  Tricky questions from previous years.
Collection of Questions: PS: 1. Tough and Tricky questions; 2. Hard questions; 3. Hard questions part 2; 4. Standard deviation; 5. Tough Problem Solving Questions With Solutions; 6. Probability and Combinations Questions With Solutions; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 12 Easy Pieces (or not?); 9 Bakers' Dozen; 10 Algebra set. ,11 Mixed Questions, 12 Fresh Meat DS: 1. DS tough questions; 2. DS tough questions part 2; 3. DS tough questions part 3; 4. DS Standard deviation; 5. Inequalities; 6. 700+ GMAT Data Sufficiency Questions With Explanations; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 The Discreet Charm of the DS; 9 Devil's Dozen!!!; 10 Number Properties set., 11 New DS set.
What are GMAT Club Tests? Extrahard Quant Tests with Brilliant Analytics




Manager
Joined: 03 May 2010
Posts: 85
WE 1: 2 yrs  Oilfield Service

Re: probability of picking last
[#permalink]
Show Tags
10 Jul 2010, 07:17
35  lose, 5  win
Pick 5 people to win => 40C5 = total number of outcomes.
Favorable outcome is : First pick the 40th person, then pick any other 4. => 1*40C4
So, probability = 40C5 / 40C4
= 40!*36!*4! / (35!*5!*40!)
= 36/(35*5)
= 36 / 175



Manager
Joined: 03 Jun 2010
Posts: 143
Location: United States (MI)
Concentration: Marketing, General Management
WE: Business Development (Consumer Products)

Re: probability of picking last
[#permalink]
Show Tags
10 Jul 2010, 21:13
I made the same. 4C39/5C40. Where 5C40  total # of outcomes. 4C39 means that 4 winning tickets were taken out by 39 persons.



Manager
Joined: 11 Jul 2010
Posts: 187

Re: probability of picking last
[#permalink]
Show Tags
11 Jul 2010, 05:03
The number of passes here is 40 (35 +5) And the number of people is also 40
How will this problem change if there are 10 passes available and 45 blank passes mixed in and there are 40 people?
will the probability of 40th person picking the pass be 10/55 = 2/11?
Can someone explain the favorable outcomes/total outcomes setup using combination's formula? thanks.



Math Expert
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 52294

Re: probability of picking last
[#permalink]
Show Tags
11 Jul 2010, 06:41
gmat1011 wrote: The number of passes here is 40 (35 +5) And the number of people is also 40
How will this problem change if there are 10 passes available and 45 blank passes mixed in and there are 40 people?
will the probability of 40th person picking the pass be 10/55 = 2/11?
Can someone explain the favorable outcomes/total outcomes setup using combination's formula? thanks. Yes, if there are 10 passes and 45 blank cards and only 40 people are to pick the cards the probability that 40th person will pick the pass will still be 10/55. Consider another example the deck of 52 cards. If we put them in a line, what is the probability that 40th card will be an ace? As there are 4 aces then probability that any particular card in a line is an ace is 4/52. Hope it helps.
_________________
New to the Math Forum? Please read this: Ultimate GMAT Quantitative Megathread  All You Need for Quant  PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW: 12 Rules for Posting!!! Resources: GMAT Math Book  Triangles  Polygons  Coordinate Geometry  Factorials  Circles  Number Theory  Remainders; 8. Overlapping Sets  PDF of Math Book; 10. Remainders  GMAT Prep Software Analysis  SEVEN SAMURAI OF 2012 (BEST DISCUSSIONS)  Tricky questions from previous years.
Collection of Questions: PS: 1. Tough and Tricky questions; 2. Hard questions; 3. Hard questions part 2; 4. Standard deviation; 5. Tough Problem Solving Questions With Solutions; 6. Probability and Combinations Questions With Solutions; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 12 Easy Pieces (or not?); 9 Bakers' Dozen; 10 Algebra set. ,11 Mixed Questions, 12 Fresh Meat DS: 1. DS tough questions; 2. DS tough questions part 2; 3. DS tough questions part 3; 4. DS Standard deviation; 5. Inequalities; 6. 700+ GMAT Data Sufficiency Questions With Explanations; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 The Discreet Charm of the DS; 9 Devil's Dozen!!!; 10 Number Properties set., 11 New DS set.
What are GMAT Club Tests? Extrahard Quant Tests with Brilliant Analytics



Manager
Joined: 26 Mar 2010
Posts: 93

Re: probability of picking last
[#permalink]
Show Tags
12 Jul 2010, 10:41
Bunuel wrote: mpevans wrote: if 40 people get the chance to pick a card from a canister that contains 5 free passes to an amusement park mixed in with 35 blank cards what is the probability that the 40th person who picks will win? I guess we have the situation when 40 people standing in a row and picking the cards one after another and check them in the end. We are asked what is the probability that 40th person win the pass? If so, then probability of picking the pass will be the same for all 40 people  \(\frac{5}{40}\), (initial probability of picking the pass (\(\frac{5}{40}\)) will be the same for any person in a row). AbhayPrasanna wrote: 35  lose, 5  win
Pick 5 people to win => 40C5 = total number of outcomes.
Favorable outcome is : First pick the 40th person, then pick any other 4. => 1*40C4
So, probability = 40C5 / 40C4
= 40!*36!*4! / (35!*5!*40!)
= 36/(35*5)
= 36 / 175 This way is also valid and must give the same result. The problem is that you calculated favorable outcomes incorrectly: when you pick 40th person to win, then you have only 39 left to pick 4 from, so # of favorable outcomes is \(1*C^4_{39}\). Also \(probability=\frac{# \ of \ favorable \ outcomes}{total \ # \ of \ outcomes}\) and you wrote viseversa. So \(P=\frac{1*C^4_{39}}{C^5_{40}}=\frac{36*37*38*39}{4!}*\frac{5!}{36*37*38*39*40}=\frac{5}{40}\). Hope it helps. Hi... thanks for the explanation Bunuel But I do not understand how can the probability of selecting a free pass =5/40 for all in case we assume the people are picking the cards and keeping it with them. won't it keep reducing as 4/39 for the second successfull fick of a free card... Please explain it seems i am missing some logic somewhere.



Math Expert
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 52294

Re: probability of picking last
[#permalink]
Show Tags
12 Jul 2010, 10:54
utin wrote: Hi... thanks for the explanation Bunuel
But I do not understand how can the probability of selecting a free pass =5/40 for all in case we assume the people are picking the cards and keeping it with them.
won't it keep reducing as 4/39 for the second successfull fick of a free card... Please explain it seems i am missing some logic somewhere. Consider this: put 40 cards on the table and 40 people against them. What is the probability that the card which is against the 40th person is the winning one? 5/40, it's the same probability as for the first, second, ... for any. When we pick the cards from a canister and not knowing the results till the end then it's basically the same scenario.
_________________
New to the Math Forum? Please read this: Ultimate GMAT Quantitative Megathread  All You Need for Quant  PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW: 12 Rules for Posting!!! Resources: GMAT Math Book  Triangles  Polygons  Coordinate Geometry  Factorials  Circles  Number Theory  Remainders; 8. Overlapping Sets  PDF of Math Book; 10. Remainders  GMAT Prep Software Analysis  SEVEN SAMURAI OF 2012 (BEST DISCUSSIONS)  Tricky questions from previous years.
Collection of Questions: PS: 1. Tough and Tricky questions; 2. Hard questions; 3. Hard questions part 2; 4. Standard deviation; 5. Tough Problem Solving Questions With Solutions; 6. Probability and Combinations Questions With Solutions; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 12 Easy Pieces (or not?); 9 Bakers' Dozen; 10 Algebra set. ,11 Mixed Questions, 12 Fresh Meat DS: 1. DS tough questions; 2. DS tough questions part 2; 3. DS tough questions part 3; 4. DS Standard deviation; 5. Inequalities; 6. 700+ GMAT Data Sufficiency Questions With Explanations; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 The Discreet Charm of the DS; 9 Devil's Dozen!!!; 10 Number Properties set., 11 New DS set.
What are GMAT Club Tests? Extrahard Quant Tests with Brilliant Analytics



Intern
Joined: 12 Jan 2012
Posts: 21

Re: If 40 people get the chance to pick a card from a canister
[#permalink]
Show Tags
21 Dec 2012, 22:35
Consider 40 places to arrange the 40 cards with 35 blank and 5 passes = 40!/(35!*5!) Favorable outcome is when the 40th place contains a pass, so we have 39 places to arrange 35 blanks and 4 passes = 39!/(4!*35!) =(39!*35!*5!)/(40!*35!*4!) = 1/8



Intern
Joined: 20 Dec 2012
Posts: 17

Re: If 40 people get the chance to pick a card from a canister
[#permalink]
Show Tags
22 Dec 2012, 05:43
geneticsgene wrote: Consider 40 places to arrange the 40 cards with 35 blank and 5 passes = 40!/(35!*5!) Favorable outcome is when the 40th place contains a pass, so we have 39 places to arrange 35 blanks and 4 passes = 39!/(4!*35!) =(39!*35!*5!)/(40!*35!*4!) = 1/8 Hello! I am unfamiliar with ! in math, what does it mean? Thanks in advance



Math Expert
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 52294

Re: If 40 people get the chance to pick a card from a canister
[#permalink]
Show Tags
22 Dec 2012, 05:52



Intern
Joined: 20 Dec 2012
Posts: 17

Re: If 40 people get the chance to pick a card from a canister
[#permalink]
Show Tags
22 Dec 2012, 06:22
Bunuel wrote: Hiho wrote: geneticsgene wrote: Consider 40 places to arrange the 40 cards with 35 blank and 5 passes = 40!/(35!*5!) Favorable outcome is when the 40th place contains a pass, so we have 39 places to arrange 35 blanks and 4 passes = 39!/(4!*35!) =(39!*35!*5!)/(40!*35!*4!) = 1/8 Hello! I am unfamiliar with ! in math, what does it mean? Thanks in advance The factorial of a nonnegative integer \(n\), denoted by \(n!\), is the product of all positive integers less than or equal to \(n\). For example: \(4!=1*2*3*4=24\). Hope it helps. Yes, it does. Thanks. I understand the concept, but not the use of it in this particular case. Is it tested on the GMAT, or is it just additional help on some questions for those who are familiar with it?



Intern
Joined: 22 Dec 2012
Posts: 16

Re: probability of picking last
[#permalink]
Show Tags
22 Dec 2012, 10:38
Hi, Please help me out here... we have 40 cards with 5 valid passes and rest junks we have 40 people ... The probability of 1st person picking junk is 35/40 and then he doesnt replace the card rite.. he takes it with him.. so now we are left with 39 cards.. The probability of 2nd person taking a junk card is 34/39 right??? so wont it be 35/40 x 34/39 x 33/38 x ...... 1/5??? what am I missing here pls? Bunuel wrote: mpevans wrote: if 40 people get the chance to pick a card from a canister that contains 5 free passes to an amusement park mixed in with 35 blank cards what is the probability that the 40th person who picks will win? I guess we have the situation when 40 people standing in a row and picking the cards one after another and check them in the end. We are asked what is the probability that 40th person win the pass? If so, then probability of picking the pass will be the same for all 40 people  \(\frac{5}{40}\), (initial probability of picking the pass (\(\frac{5}{40}\)) will be the same for any person in a row). AbhayPrasanna wrote: 35  lose, 5  win
Pick 5 people to win => 40C5 = total number of outcomes.
Favorable outcome is : First pick the 40th person, then pick any other 4. => 1*40C4
So, probability = 40C5 / 40C4
= 40!*36!*4! / (35!*5!*40!)
= 36/(35*5)
= 36 / 175 This way is also valid and must give the same result. The problem is that you calculated favorable outcomes incorrectly: when you pick 40th person to win, then you have only 39 left to pick 4 from, so # of favorable outcomes is \(1*C^4_{39}\). Also \(probability=\frac{# \ of \ favorable \ outcomes}{total \ # \ of \ outcomes}\) and you wrote viseversa. So \(P=\frac{1*C^4_{39}}{C^5_{40}}=\frac{36*37*38*39}{4!}*\frac{5!}{36*37*38*39*40}=\frac{5}{40}\). Hope it helps.



Math Expert
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 52294

Re: If 40 people get the chance to pick a card from a canister
[#permalink]
Show Tags
23 Dec 2012, 05:18



Math Expert
Joined: 02 Sep 2009
Posts: 52294

Re: probability of picking last
[#permalink]
Show Tags
23 Dec 2012, 05:22
SpotlessMind wrote: Hi, Please help me out here... we have 40 cards with 5 valid passes and rest junks we have 40 people ... The probability of 1st person picking junk is 35/40 and then he doesnt replace the card rite.. he takes it with him.. so now we are left with 39 cards.. The probability of 2nd person taking a junk card is 34/39 right??? so wont it be 35/40 x 34/39 x 33/38 x ...... 1/5??? what am I missing here pls? Bunuel wrote: mpevans wrote: if 40 people get the chance to pick a card from a canister that contains 5 free passes to an amusement park mixed in with 35 blank cards what is the probability that the 40th person who picks will win? I guess we have the situation when 40 people standing in a row and picking the cards one after another and check them in the end. We are asked what is the probability that 40th person win the pass? If so, then probability of picking the pass will be the same for all 40 people  \(\frac{5}{40}\), (initial probability of picking the pass (\(\frac{5}{40}\)) will be the same for any person in a row). AbhayPrasanna wrote: 35  lose, 5  win
Pick 5 people to win => 40C5 = total number of outcomes.
Favorable outcome is : First pick the 40th person, then pick any other 4. => 1*40C4
So, probability = 40C5 / 40C4
= 40!*36!*4! / (35!*5!*40!)
= 36/(35*5)
= 36 / 175 This way is also valid and must give the same result. The problem is that you calculated favorable outcomes incorrectly: when you pick 40th person to win, then you have only 39 left to pick 4 from, so # of favorable outcomes is \(1*C^4_{39}\). Also \(probability=\frac{# \ of \ favorable \ outcomes}{total \ # \ of \ outcomes}\) and you wrote viseversa. So \(P=\frac{1*C^4_{39}}{C^5_{40}}=\frac{36*37*38*39}{4!}*\frac{5!}{36*37*38*39*40}=\frac{5}{40}\). Hope it helps. You are finding the probability that the first 34 people will not win and the 35th person wins, which is clearly not what we were asked to get.
_________________
New to the Math Forum? Please read this: Ultimate GMAT Quantitative Megathread  All You Need for Quant  PLEASE READ AND FOLLOW: 12 Rules for Posting!!! Resources: GMAT Math Book  Triangles  Polygons  Coordinate Geometry  Factorials  Circles  Number Theory  Remainders; 8. Overlapping Sets  PDF of Math Book; 10. Remainders  GMAT Prep Software Analysis  SEVEN SAMURAI OF 2012 (BEST DISCUSSIONS)  Tricky questions from previous years.
Collection of Questions: PS: 1. Tough and Tricky questions; 2. Hard questions; 3. Hard questions part 2; 4. Standard deviation; 5. Tough Problem Solving Questions With Solutions; 6. Probability and Combinations Questions With Solutions; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 12 Easy Pieces (or not?); 9 Bakers' Dozen; 10 Algebra set. ,11 Mixed Questions, 12 Fresh Meat DS: 1. DS tough questions; 2. DS tough questions part 2; 3. DS tough questions part 3; 4. DS Standard deviation; 5. Inequalities; 6. 700+ GMAT Data Sufficiency Questions With Explanations; 7 Tough and tricky exponents and roots questions; 8 The Discreet Charm of the DS; 9 Devil's Dozen!!!; 10 Number Properties set., 11 New DS set.
What are GMAT Club Tests? Extrahard Quant Tests with Brilliant Analytics



NonHuman User
Joined: 09 Sep 2013
Posts: 9445

Re: If 40 people get the chance to pick a card from a canister
[#permalink]
Show Tags
13 Mar 2018, 03:47
Hello from the GMAT Club BumpBot! Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up  doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos). Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
_________________
GMAT Books  GMAT Club Tests  Best Prices on GMAT Courses  GMAT Mobile App  Math Resources  Verbal Resources




Re: If 40 people get the chance to pick a card from a canister &nbs
[#permalink]
13 Mar 2018, 03:47






