Bunuel wrote:
If x and y are positive integers, is x/y < (x+2)/(y+3)?
(1) y > 20
(2) x < 5
Kudos for a correct solution.
MAGOOSH OFFICIAL SOLUTION:Statement #1: We are adding 2 to the numerator and 3 to the denominator, so we know the resultant fraction will move closer to 2/3. If all we know is that the denominator of the starting fraction is greater than 20, then we have no idea what the size of the starting fraction is: it could be much greater than 2/3, or much smaller than 2/3, depending on the numerator, of which we have no idea. We can draw no conclusion right now. This statement, alone, by itself, is insufficient.
Statement #2: Now, all we know is that the numerator of the starting fraction is less than 5 — it could be 4, 3, 2, or 1. We have no idea of the denominator. If y = 50, then we get a very small fraction. But if x = 4 and y = 1, the fraction equals 4, much larger than 2/3. In this statement, we have no information about the denominator, and since we know nothing about the denominator, we know nothing about the size of the starting fraction: it could be either greater or less than 2/3. Therefore, we can draw no conclusion. This statement, alone, by itself, is also insufficient.
Now, combine the statements. We know y > 20 and x < 5. Well no matter what values we choose, we are going to have a denominator much smaller than the numerator. The larger possible fraction we could have under these constraints would be 4/21 (largest possible numerator with smallest possible denominator). The fraction 4/21 is much smaller than 1/2, so it’s definitely smaller than 2/3. Any fraction with y > 20 and x < 5 will be less than 2/3. Therefore, adding 2 to the numerator and 3 to the denominator will move the resultant fraction closer to 2/3, which has the net effect of increasing its value. Therefore, the answer to the prompt question is “yes.” Because we can give a definite answer to the prompt, we have sufficient information.
Neither statement is sufficient individually, but together, they are sufficient. Answer = C.