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In 1938, at the government-convened National Health Conference

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In 1938, at the government-convened National Health Conference [#permalink]

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New post 07 Sep 2015, 03:44
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E

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38% (02:50) correct 62% (02:20) wrong based on 118

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Question 2
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D
E

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83% (00:28) correct 17% (00:30) wrong based on 106

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E

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83% (00:38) correct 17% (00:32) wrong based on 105

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In 1938, at the government-convened National Health Conference, organized labor emerged as a major proponent of legislation to guarantee universal health care in the United States. The American Medical Association, representing physicians’ interests, argued for preserving physicians’ free-market prerogatives. Labor activists countered these arguments by insisting that health care was a fundamental right that should be guaranteed by government programs.

The labor activists’ position represented a departure from the voluntarist view held until 1935 by leaders of the American Federation of labor (AFL), a leading affiliation of labor unions; the voluntarist view stressed workers’ right to freedom from government intrusions into their lives and represented national health insurance as a threat to workers’ privacy. AFL president Samuel Gompers, presuming to speak for all workers, had positioned the AFL as a leading opponent of the proposals for national health insurance that were advocated beginning in 1915 by the American Association for Labor Legislation (AALL), an organization dedicated to the study and reform of labor laws. Gompers’ opposition to national health insurance was partly principled, arising from the premise that governments under capitalism invariably served employers’, not workers’, interests. Gompers feared the probing of government bureaucrats into workers’ lives, as well as the possibility that government-mandated health insurance, financed in part by employers, could permit companies to require employee medical examinations that might be used to discharge disabled workers.

Yet the AFL’s voluntarism had accommodated certain exceptions: the AFL had supported government intervention on behalf of injured workers and child laborers. AFL officials drew the line at national health insurance, however, partly out of concern for their own power. The fact that AFL outsiders such as the AALL had taken the most prominent advocacy roles antagonized Gompers. That this reform threatened union-sponsored benefit programs championed by Gompers made national health insurance even more objectionable.

Indeed, the AFL leadership did face serious organizational divisions. Many unionists, recognizing that union-run health programs covered only a small fraction of union members and that unions represented only a fraction of the nation’s workforce, worked to enact compulsory health insurance in their state legislatures. This activism and the views underlying it came to prevail in the United States labor movement and in 1935 the AFL unequivocally reversed its position on health legislation.


1) The passage suggests which of the following about the voluntarist view held by leaders of the AFL regarding health care?
(A) It was opposed by the AALL.
(B) It was shared by most unionists until 1935.
(C) It antagonized the American Medical Association.
(D) It maintained that employer-sponsored health care was preferable to union-run health programs.
(E) It was based on the premise that the government should protect child laborers but not adult workers.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:A


2) According to the passage, Gompers' objection to national health insurance was based in part on his belief that
(A) union-sponsored health programs were less expensive than government-sponsored programs
(B) most unionists were covered by and satisfied with union-sponsored health programs
(C) it would lead some employers to reduce company-sponsored benefits
(D) it could result in certain workers unfairly losing their jobs
(E) the AFL should distance itself from the views of the American Medical Association
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:D


3) Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 42-45 (“Yet … child laborers”)?
(A) It elaborates a point about why the AFL advocated a voluntarist approach to health insurance.
(B) It identifies issues on which the AFL took a view opposed to that of the AALL.
(C) It introduces evidence that appears to be inconsistent with the voluntarist view held by AFL leaders.
(D) It suggests that a view described in the previous sentence is based on faulty evidence.
(E) It indicates why a contradiction described in the previous paragraph has been overlooked by historians.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:C


4) The primary purpose of this passage is to
(A) account for the labor organization's success in achieving a particular goal
(B) discuss how a labor organization came to reverse its position on a particular issue
(C) explain how disagreement over a particular issue eroded the power of a labor organization
(D) outline the arguments used by a labor organization`s leadership in a particular debate
(E) question the extend to which a labor organization changed its position on a particular issue
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:B

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
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Re: In 1938, at the government-convened National Health Conference [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2015, 11:43
P1: In 1938, at the government-convened NHC. The American Medical Association argued for preserving physicians’ free-market prerogatives. Labor activists countered them.
P2: AFL president Samuel Gompers opposed the proposals for national health insurance. Gompers’ opposition to national health insurance was partly principled
P3: AFL’s voluntarism had accommodated certain exception but drew the line at national health insurance, however, partly out of concern for their own power.
P4: AFL unequivocally reversed its position on health legislation.

Got 1 and 3 wrong

1) The passage suggests which of the following about the voluntarist view held by leaders of the AFL regarding health care?
(A) It was opposed by the AALL.
(AFL president Samuel Gompers had positioned the AFL as a leading [b]opponent of the proposals for national health insurance that were advocated beginning in 1915 by the American Association for Labor Legislation (AALL).
I understand that AFL opposes AALL. but opposite is the option A.)[/b]
(B) It was shared by most unionists until 1935.(The labor activists’ position represented a departure from the voluntarist view held until 1935 by leaders of the American Federation of labor (AFL).)
(C) It antagonized the American Medical Association.(This is only mentioned in 1st para.wrong)
(D) It maintained that employer-sponsored health care was preferable to union-run health programs.(No such preference is mentioned)
(E) It was based on the premise that the government should protect child laborers but not adult workers.(adult workers is not mentioned)

Why A is right and B is wrong?

3) Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 42-45 (“Yet … child laborers”)?
(A) It elaborates a point about why the AFL advocated a voluntarist approach to health insurance.(No such explanation)
(B) It identifies issues on which the AFL took a view opposed to that of the AALL.(not opp but supportive as well)
(C) It introduces evidence that appears to be inconsistent with the voluntarist view held by AFL leaders.
(D) It suggests that a view described in the previous sentence is based on faulty evidence.
(E) It indicates why a contradiction described in the previous paragraph has been overlooked by historians.

could not understand C, D and E options clearly. can someone explain?
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Re: In 1938, at the government-convened National Health Conference [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2016, 19:27
RaviChandra wrote:
In 1938, at the government-convened National Health Conference, organized labor emerged as a major proponent of legislation to guarantee universal health care in the United States. The American Medical Association, representing physicians’ interests, argued for preserving physicians’ free-market prerogatives. Labor activists countered these arguments by insisting that health care was a fundamental right that should be guaranteed by government programs.

The labor activists’ position represented a departure from the voluntarist view held until 1935 by leaders of the American Federation of labor (AFL), a leading affiliation of labor unions; the voluntarist view stressed workers’ right to freedom from government intrusions into their lives and represented national health insurance as a threat to workers’ privacy. AFL president Samuel Gompers, presuming to speak for all workers, had positioned the AFL as a leading opponent of the proposals for national health insurance that were advocated beginning in 1915 by the American Association for Labor Legislation (AALL), an organization dedicated to the study and reform of labor laws. Gompers’ opposition to national health insurance was partly principled, arising from the premise that governments under capitalism invariably served employers’, not workers’, interests. Gompers feared the probing of government bureaucrats into workers’ lives, as well as the possibility that government-mandated health insurance, financed in part by employers, could permit companies to require employee medical examinations that might be used to discharge disabled workers.

Yet the AFL’s voluntarism had accommodated certain exceptions: the AFL had supported government intervention on behalf of injured workers and child laborers. AFL officials drew the line at national health insurance, however, partly out of concern for their own power. The fact that AFL outsiders such as the AALL had taken the most prominent advocacy roles antagonized Gompers. That this reform threatened union-sponsored benefit programs championed by Gompers made national health insurance even more objectionable.

Indeed, the AFL leadership did face serious organizational divisions. Many unionists, recognizing that union-run health programs covered only a small fraction of union members and that unions represented only a fraction of the nation’s workforce, worked to enact compulsory health insurance in their state legislatures. This activism and the views underlying it came to prevail in the United States labor movement and in 1935 the AFL unequivocally reversed its position on health legislation.


1) The passage suggests which of the following about the voluntarist view held by leaders of the AFL regarding health care?
(A) It was opposed by the AALL.
(B) It was shared by most unionists until 1935.
(C) It antagonized the American Medical Association.
(D) It maintained that employer-sponsored health care was preferable to union-run health programs.
(E) It was based on the premise that the government should protect child laborers but not adult workers.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:A


2) According to the passage, Gompers' objection to national health insurance was based in part on his belief that
(A) union-sponsored health programs were less expensive than government-sponsored programs
(B) most unionists were covered by and satisfied with union-sponsored health programs
(C) it would lead some employers to reduce company-sponsored benefits
(D) it could result in certain workers unfairly losing their jobs
(E) the AFL should distance itself from the views of the American Medical Association
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:D


3) Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 42-45 (“Yet … child laborers”)?
(A) It elaborates a point about why the AFL advocated a voluntarist approach to health insurance.
(B) It identifies issues on which the AFL took a view opposed to that of the AALL.
(C) It introduces evidence that appears to be inconsistent with the voluntarist view held by AFL leaders.
(D) It suggests that a view described in the previous sentence is based on faulty evidence.
(E) It indicates why a contradiction described in the previous paragraph has been overlooked by historians.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:C


4) The primary purpose of this passage is to
(A) account for the labor organization's success in achieving a particular goal
(B) discuss how a labor organization came to reverse its position on a particular issue
(C) explain how disagreement over a particular issue eroded the power of a labor organization
(D) outline the arguments used by a labor organization`s leadership in a particular debate
(E) question the extend to which a labor organization changed its position on a particular issue
[Reveal] Spoiler:
OA:B




Experts mikemcgarry, Abhishek009 chetan2u EMPOWERgmatMax Could you please tell me how to tackle this long passage and eliminate worng answer choice?

I'm struggling with RC Could you please help me?
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Re: In 1938, at the government-convened National Health Conference [#permalink]

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New post 06 May 2017, 08:16
Need some explanation for Q1 of this passage.

Although not fully convinced with my choice (b), I found it the best, especially because of this phrase "Samuel Gompers, presuming to speak for all workers". However, I do not fully agree with choice (a), because the passage expressly states that Samuel was a leading opponent of AALL, while being silent on AALL's position. It may be completely neutral not knowing Samuel's position, even more so because Samuel could have opined his position only after AALL expressed it.

Pls elaborate.
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Re: In 1938, at the government-convened National Health Conference [#permalink]

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Quote:
Need some explanation for Q1 of this passage.

Although not fully convinced with my choice (b), I found it the best, especially because of this phrase "Samuel Gompers, presuming to speak for all workers". However, I do not fully agree with choice (a), because the passage expressly states that Samuel was a leading opponent of AALL, while being silent on AALL's position. It may be completely neutral not knowing Samuel's position, even more so because Samuel could have opined his position only after AALL expressed it.

Pls elaborate.

Quote:
1) The passage suggests which of the following about the voluntarist view held by leaders of the AFL regarding health care?
(A) It was opposed by the AALL.
(B) It was shared by most unionists until 1935.
(C) It antagonized the American Medical Association.
(D) It maintained that employer-sponsored health care was preferable to union-run health programs.
(E) It was based on the premise that the government should protect child laborers but not adult workers.

First, let's consider choice B. From the first sentence of the second paragraph, we know that the leaders of the AFL held the voluntarist view until 1935, but what about most unionists? From the final paragraph, we know that many unionists "worked to enact compulsory health insurance in their state legislatures," something that goes against the voluntarist view held by leaders of the AFL... but when? The next sentence tells us that this activism came to prevail in the US labor movement in 1935, which implies that the activism of the unionists (which opposed the voluntarist view) was going on prior to 1935. This suggests that most unionists did NOT share the voluntarist view held by leaders of the AFL, and that, even though Samuel Gompers presumed to speak for all workers, he actually did not speak for most unionists. Choice B can be eliminated.

As for choice A, the second paragraph tells us that Gompers "had positioned the AFL as a leading opponent of the proposals for national health insurance that were advocated beginning in 1915 by the American Association for Labor Legislation (AALL)" This tells us that the AALL advocated FOR national health insurance, and this directly opposes the voluntarist view, which "represented national health insurance as a threat to workers’ privacy." Thus, the passage suggests that the voluntarist view was opposed by the AALL (choice A).
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Re: In 1938, at the government-convened National Health Conference [#permalink]

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New post 08 May 2017, 18:24
Hi GMATNinja,

Could you please explain how to tackle this long passage? Could you please explain below questions?

3) Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 42-45 (“Yet … child laborers”)?
(A) It elaborates a point about why the AFL advocated a voluntarist approach to health insurance.
(B) It identifies issues on which the AFL took a view opposed to that of the AALL.
(C) It introduces evidence that appears to be inconsistent with the voluntarist view held by AFL leaders.
(D) It suggests that a view described in the previous sentence is based on faulty evidence.
(E) It indicates why a contradiction described in the previous paragraph has been overlooked by historians.

4) The primary purpose of this passage is to
(A) account for the labor organization's success in achieving a particular goal
(B) discuss how a labor organization came to reverse its position on a particular issue
(C) explain how disagreement over a particular issue eroded the power of a labor organization
(D) outline the arguments used by a labor organization`s leadership in a particular debate
(E) question the extend to which a labor organization changed its position on a particular issue
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Re: In 1938, at the government-convened National Health Conference [#permalink]

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New post 15 May 2017, 11:41
I too need a good explanation for question 3.
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Re: In 1938, at the government-convened National Health Conference [#permalink]

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New post 23 May 2017, 06:32
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NandishSS wrote:
Hi GMATNinja,

Could you please explain how to tackle this long passage? Could you please explain below questions?

3) Which of the following best describes the function of the sentence in lines 42-45 (“Yet … child laborers”)?
(A) It elaborates a point about why the AFL advocated a voluntarist approach to health insurance.
(B) It identifies issues on which the AFL took a view opposed to that of the AALL.
(C) It introduces evidence that appears to be inconsistent with the voluntarist view held by AFL leaders.
(D) It suggests that a view described in the previous sentence is based on faulty evidence.
(E) It indicates why a contradiction described in the previous paragraph has been overlooked by historians.

4) The primary purpose of this passage is to
(A) account for the labor organization's success in achieving a particular goal
(B) discuss how a labor organization came to reverse its position on a particular issue
(C) explain how disagreement over a particular issue eroded the power of a labor organization
(D) outline the arguments used by a labor organization`s leadership in a particular debate
(E) question the extend to which a labor organization changed its position on a particular issue

When tackling a long RC passage (or any RC passage, for that matter), a good first step is to determine the purpose of each individual paragraph. Don't worry about understanding every little detail, argument, or piece of evidence in the paragraph. As long as you understand why that paragraph is there, you can always go back to it if you need further detail.

So why is the first paragraph there? It tells us that, in 1938, one group (organized labor) supported universal healthcare, and we can infer that the American Medical Association (representing physicians interests) opposed universal healthcare at that time. Cool, moving on...

The second paragraph tells us that, at least from 1915 until 1935, the AALL supported national (i.e. "universal") healthcare, while the leaders of the AFL, which supposedly represented the interests of organized labor, actually opposed the universal healthcare that organized labor would come to support by 1938. Instead, the leaders of the AFL supported voluntarism (freedom from government intrusions). Again, don't worry about every little detail; just make sure you have an idea of why that paragraph is there, which is to let us know that a major labor organization (the AFL) had opposed universal healthcare from 1915 until 1935, even though, as described in paragraph one, organized labor had come to support universal healthcare.

The purpose of paragraph three is to show that the AFL leaders made some exceptions to the voluntarism they supported from 1915 through 1935 and that part of the reason AFL leaders opposed universal healthcare was out of concern for their own power.

The fourth paragraph tells us that, while some of the AFL leaders opposed universal healthcare from 1915 to 1935, many of the unionists represented by the AFL actually supported universal healthcare. Eventually, support for universal healthcare became so prevalent among unionists that, by 1935, the AFL had officially changed its position.

Now that we know the purpose of each paragraph, we can think about the purpose of the entire passage. We have a labor organization (the AFL) that started off supporting voluntarism and opposing universal healthcare and that gradually changed its position between 1915 and 1935. The main purpose of the passage seems to be to describe the evolution of the AFL's stance on universal healthcare; this purpose fits nicely with choice (B) in question #4:
Quote:
(B) discuss how a labor organization came to reverse its position on a particular issue

As for question #3, let's start with the purpose of that paragraph, which was to show that the AFL leaders made some exceptions to the voluntarism they supported from 1915 through 1935 and that part of the reason AFL leaders opposed universal healthcare was out of concern for their own power. Because the highlighted sentence cites examples of exceptions made by the AFL leaders to the voluntarism they supported, choice (C) is the best answer:
Quote:
(C) It introduces evidence that appears to be inconsistent with the voluntarist view held by AFL leaders.

By taking such passages one paragraph at a time, understanding the purpose of each paragraph, and then thinking about the purpose of the entire passage, you can engage with the passage and get something out of it even if you don't understand all of the details. Since those details will always be there on the screen, you can always go back to them if needed.

I hope this helps!
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Re: In 1938, at the government-convened National Health Conference   [#permalink] 23 May 2017, 06:32
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