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In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of

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In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of the Himalayan mountains. Like the British in 1852, they used the age-old technique of “carrying in” sea level: surveyors marched inland from the coast for thousands of miles, stopping at increments of as little as a few feet to measure their elevation, and marking each increment with two poles. To measure the difference in elevation between poles, surveyors used an optical level—a telescope on a level base—placed halfway between the poles. They sighted each pole, reading off measurements that were then used to calculate the change in elevation over each increment. In sight of the peaks the used theodolites telescopes for measuring vertical and horizontal angles—to determine the elevation of the summit.

The Chinese, however, made efforts to correct for the errors that had plagued the British. One source of error is refraction, the bending of light beams as they pass through air layers of different temperature and pressure. Because light traveling. down from a summit passes through many such layers, a surveyor could sight a mirage rather than the peak itself. To reduce refraction errors, the Chinese team carried in sea level to within five to twelve miles of Everest’s summit, decreasing the amount of air that light passed through on its way to their theodolites. The Chinese also launched weather balloons near their theodolites to measure atmospheric temperature and pressure changes to better estimate refraction errors. Another hurdle is the peak’s shape. When surveyors sight the summit. there is a risk they might not all measure the same point. In 1975 the Chinese installed the first survey beacon on Everest, a red reflector visible through a theodolite for ten miles, as a reference point. One more source of error is the unevenness of sea level. The British assumed that carrying in sea level would extend an imaginary line from the shore along Earth’s curve to a point beneath the Himalaya. In reality, sea level varies according to the irregular interior of the planet. The Chinese used a gravity meter to correct for local deviations in sea level.
Q32 It can be inferred from the passage that refraction would be most likely to cause errors in measurements of a mountain’s elevation under which of the following conditions?
A. When there are local variations in sea level
B. When light passes through humid air
C. When theodolites are used relatively far from the mountain peak.
D. When weather balloons indicate low air temperature and pressure.
E. When sea level has been carried in to Within five to twelve miles of the summit.



Which of the following best describes the purpose of the sentence in lines 23-25 (“The Chinese , however,…the British”)?
A. Introduce a definition
B. Signal a transition in focus
C. Summarize the preceding paragraph
D. Draw a contrast between two different theories.
E. Present information that contradicts the Preceding paragraph.



Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a possible source of error in surveying mountain elevation?
A. Mirages
B. Refraction
C. Inaccurate instruments
D. Variations in sea level
E. Uncertainty about the exact point to be Measured



Q35 The primary purpose of the passage is to
A. provide details about improvements to a process
B. challenge the assumptions underlying a new method
C. criticize the way in which a failed project was carried out
D. call for new methods to solve an existing problem
E. explain the theory behind a new technique



The passage suggests which of the following about the technique used by the Chinese in their measurement of Mount Everest?

A. The Chinese employed the same assumptions about sea level as the British but used more accurate methods.
B. The Chinese used a different instrument for measuring the difference in elevation between increments than the British had.
C. The Chinese used the same basic technique as the British, supplementing it with modern refinements to knowledge and methods.
D. Since the accuracy of the technique of carrying in sea level had been challenged, the Chinese were obliged to develop a new technique to replace it.
E. Since few advances had been made in the field of mountain surveying, the Chinese used no equipment in addition to what the British had used.



Originally posted by IEsailor on 19 May 2011, 01:10.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 17 Aug 2019, 22:58, edited 4 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (189).
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2011, 02:54
I also got CBCA.

For the first question, Since its an inference question, the passage must contain proof sentences for the inference.

To reduce refraction errors, the Chinese team carried in sea level to
within five to twelve miles of Everest’s summit, decreasing the amount of air
that light passed through on its way to their theodolites


The above effectively means that the refraction error is closely related to distance of theodolite from the peak.==> C

D cannot be the answer, definition of refraction mentions bending of light due to difference in pressure and temperature and not absolute low pressure and low temperature.

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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Sep 2012, 08:38
This RC is from Set 26 Verbal.
Official Answer there : is D,B,C,A.
I marked : C,D,C,A

I disagree with Official Answer for 32 and I am not clear about 33.

32
==
Quoting Line 33-38 from the passage
To reduce refraction errors, the
Chinese team carried in sea level to
(35) within five to twelve miles of Everest’s
summit, decreasing the amount of air
that light passed through on its way to
their theodolites
This indicates that greater the distance of the point of measurement from Everest more is the refraction error. Option C satisfies this.
Let us try to see other options
A. When there are local variations in sea level
-> This is cited as a diff problem from refraction. Line 50-52 indicate this.
B. When light passes through humid air
-> Doesn't have a bearing on refraction as presence of humid air, without it resulting in several layers of diff temp and pressure zones, cannot result in refraction.
D. When weather balloons indicate low air temperature and pressure.
-> Variance in pressure and temp betweern the measured object and point of measurement is the reason for refraction. Low pressure and temp as long as it is constant won't make a difference.
E. When sea level has been carried in to Within five to twelve miles of the summit.
-> This resulted in a decrease in refraction.

33
===
I am not sure why Official Answer for 33 is
B. Signal a transition in focus

IMO transition in focus would have been applicable if
(1) We were introducing one of the subjects, Chinese or British, in Lines 23-25.
(2) We were discussing about one subject and moving on to the next subject from Line 25 onwards.

"(1)" is not true as there is mention of British and Chinese already in the passage. Line 1 for Chinese and Line 4 for British.
"(2)" is not true as we continue to discuss Chinese approach before and after these lines.

IMO "The Chinese" and "The British" indicate the approach followed and option (D) ." Draw a contrast between two different theories." comes closest to being the right answer.
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Dec 2015, 22:16
32.It can be inferred from the passage that refraction would be most likely to cause errors in measurements of a mountain’s elevation under which of the following conditions?
D. When weather balloons indicate low air temperature and pressure.
" The Chinese also launched weather balloons near their theodolites to measure atmospheric temperature and pressure changes to better estimate refraction errors."
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2016, 08:06
I know it's useless to disagree with Official answers and all that, but please allow me,

Q32.

The official answer is D, but it says "When weather balloons indicate low air temperature and pressure." so, same level of temp and pressure.

according to the text,

"One source of error is refraction, the bending of light beams as they pass through air layers of different temperature and pressure. " so the refraction is the result of passing through DIFFERENT T and P, Therefore D just can't be correct here. ~

Am I missing something?
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2017, 10:01
iliavko wrote:
I know it's useless to disagree with Official answers and all that, but please allow me,

Q32.

The official answer is D, but it says "When weather balloons indicate low air temperature and pressure." so, same level of temp and pressure.

according to the text,

"One source of error is refraction, the bending of light beams as they pass through air layers of different temperature and pressure. " so the refraction is the result of passing through DIFFERENT T and P, Therefore D just can't be correct here. ~

Am I missing something?


Hi, I would like to add my 2 cents on your concern. As per my understanding, (D) is not wrong, or if any, not wrong for the reason you cited.

First of all, in the passage: "One source of error is refraction, the bending of light beams as they pass through air layers of different temperature and pressure. ---> It is mentioned that temperature and pressure of one layer is different from those of another layer.

In option D: "When weather balloons indicate low air temperature and pressure." --->In my initial reading, I thought this sentence meant that there is a difference in air temperature and pressure of different layers. In more details, temperate and pressure of one layer is lower than those of another layer. That's why there is no inconsistence between option (D) and information given in the passage.

Btw, I've got this passage in GMATPrep practice but did not face with question no.1. And then when I attempted this question for the first time on this forum, I chose D. I must admit that IMHO this is a difficult question, but what surprised me the most is that almost everyone commented above argued for another option. I did bookmark this post to read further comments from experts.

Hi expert GMATNinja, could you share some thoughts on Question no.1? Thank you so much!
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Jul 2017, 12:27
2
Quite a controversial question. Though, my reasoning is more inclined towards answer choice C for the first problem. But, I still don't understand how come OA is D.

A -> not an issue
B -> type of air that would cause disturbance is not mentioned
D -> see B
E -> confuses info (see C)
C -> "To reduce refraction errors, the Chinese team carried in sea level to within five to twelve miles of Everest’s summit, decreasing the amount of air that light passed through on its way to their theodolites." so they needed to get close to get a good measurement.
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Dec 2017, 23:15
Took around 8 mins 20 seconds , including 4 mins to read . Got the first question incorrect . In my opinion, OA D seems contentious .

Q32. It can be inferred from the passage that refraction would be most likely to cause errors in measurements of a mountain’s elevation under which of the following conditions?

One source of error is refraction, the bending of light beams as they pass through air layers of different temperature and pressure. Because light traveling. down from a summit passes through many such layers, a surveyor could sight a mirage rather than the peak itself. To reduce refraction errors, the Chinese team carried in sea level to within five to twelve miles of Everest’s summit, decreasing the amount of air that light passed through on its way to their theodolites. The Chinese also launched weather balloons near their theodolites to measure atmospheric temperature and pressure changes to better estimate refraction errors.

A. When there are local variations in sea level -- Incorrect
B. When light passes through humid air -- Irrelevant -- the cause of refraction is passage of light through air layers of different temperature and pressure
C. When theodolites are used relatively far from the mountain peak. -- greater distance itself won't cause refraction, but with increasing distance the probability of light passing through air layers of different temperature and pressure
D. When weather balloons indicate low air temperature and pressure. -- here we have to assume that a few layers of air through which the light passes will have air temperature and pressure that is not low -- maybe normal or high ?
E. When sea level has been carried in to Within five to twelve miles of the summit. -- This was a way to reduce refraction errors that was adopted by Chinese



AjiteshArun , mikemcgarry ,daagh ,egmat , GMATNinja , sayantanc2k , RonPurewal ,ChiranjeevSingh other experts -- can you please help with Q32 ?
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Dec 2017, 18:49
1
Skywalker18 wrote:
Took around 8 mins 20 seconds , including 4 mins to read . Got the first question incorrect . In my opinion, OA D seems contentious .

Q32. It can be inferred from the passage that refraction would be most likely to cause errors in measurements of a mountain’s elevation under which of the following conditions?

One source of error is refraction, the bending of light beams as they pass through air layers of different temperature and pressure. Because light traveling. down from a summit passes through many such layers, a surveyor could sight a mirage rather than the peak itself. To reduce refraction errors, the Chinese team carried in sea level to within five to twelve miles of Everest’s summit, decreasing the amount of air that light passed through on its way to their theodolites. The Chinese also launched weather balloons near their theodolites to measure atmospheric temperature and pressure changes to better estimate refraction errors.

A. When there are local variations in sea level -- Incorrect
B. When light passes through humid air -- Irrelevant -- the cause of refraction is passage of light through air layers of different temperature and pressure
C. When theodolites are used relatively far from the mountain peak. -- greater distance itself won't cause refraction, but with increasing distance the probability of light passing through air layers of different temperature and pressure
D. When weather balloons indicate low air temperature and pressure. -- here we have to assume that a few layers of air through which the light passes will have air temperature and pressure that is not low -- maybe normal or high ?
E. When sea level has been carried in to Within five to twelve miles of the summit. -- This was a way to reduce refraction errors that was adopted by Chinese

AjiteshArun , mikemcgarry ,daagh ,egmat , GMATNinja , sayantanc2k , RonPurewal ,ChiranjeevSingh other experts -- can you please help with Q32 ?


Hi Skywalker18! I'll jump in for Mike here :-)

In my opinion, this is not a very well written question, and not up to GMAT standards. As you and others have pointed out, both C and D have elements that could be considered correct. I think your analysis is correct here - for choice C, with increasing distance, there is a higher probability that light will have to pass through regions of different temperature and pressure, causing refraction. This is supported by the part of the passage that states "To reduce refraction errors, the Chinese team carried in sea level to within five to twelve miles of Everest’s summit, decreasing the amount of air that light passed through on its way to their theodolites."

For choice D, we can assume that if there is low temperature and pressure closer to the summit, there are likely different layers of temperature and pressure that the light has to travel through, which also will cause refraction errors.

So both answer choices have some merit here; again, I don't think this is a very well-written question. I wouldn't say that either C or D is substantially more supported by the passage.

Hope that's helpful! :-)
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Jul 2018, 05:40
1
This is another question that belongs to the same passage.I have come across this question in Exam pack 1.please add it.

"The passage suggests which of the following about the technique used by the Chinese in their measurement of Mount Everest?

A. The Chinese employed the same assumptions about sea level as the British but used more accurate methods.
B. The Chinese used a different instrument for measuring the difference in elevation between increments than the British had.
C. The Chinese used the same basic technique as the British, supplementing it with modern refinements to knowledge and methods.
D. Since the accuracy of the technique of carrying in sea level had been challenged, the Chinese were obliged to develop a new technique to replace it.
E. Since few advances had been made in the field of mountain surveying, the Chinese used no equipment in addition to what the British had used."


OA: C
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2018, 23:26
i think OA for question 1 is wrong it should be C not D , nowhere in the passage it is mentioned that low air temperature and pressure causes errors .it is mentioned that light beams as they pass through air layers of DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES AND PRESSURE causes refraction.it can also be inferred from para 2 line 4 that C is the right answer
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Mar 2019, 18:14
Hi expert,

I would like to ask for OE for Q1.

Thank you.
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Apr 2019, 00:42
2
ballest127 wrote:
Hi expert,

I would like to ask for OE for Q1.

Thank you.

This one doesn't seem to actually come from an official source, so I wouldn't worry about it too much. It was originally tagged as coming from the GMAC Paper Tests, but I just searched all of the publicly available exams, and it isn't in there. I changed the source to "other" -- if someone does find the source of this passage, please take a screenshot and post it!

Until then, please don't waste too much of your precious study time worrying about it.
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 21 Apr 2019, 04:19
I think Question no 32 has some problems? the OA provided is wrong?
or I am not clear about the question.
Can someone explain it to me?

Originally posted by aankit on 21 Apr 2019, 00:58.
Last edited by aankit on 21 Apr 2019, 04:19, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Sep 2019, 14:10
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GMATNinja, GMATNinjaTwo

Hi - Can you please explain what is wrong with Option E in the below Q? Why is option B preferred? Thanks.

Which of the following best describes the purpose of the sentence in lines 23-25 (“The Chinese , however,…the British”)?
A. Introduce a definition
B. Signal a transition in focus
C. Summarize the preceding paragraph
D. Draw a contrast between two different theories.
E. Present information that contradicts the Preceding paragraph.
Question 2
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of  [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2019, 13:23
1
GMATNinja wrote:
ballest127 wrote:
Hi expert,

I would like to ask for OE for Q1.

Thank you.

This one doesn't seem to actually come from an official source, so I wouldn't worry about it too much. It was originally tagged as coming from the GMAC Paper Tests, but I just searched all of the publicly available exams, and it isn't in there. I changed the source to "other" -- if someone does find the source of this passage, please take a screenshot and post it!

Until then, please don't waste too much of your precious study time worrying about it.


This question is from GMAT Practice Exam pack. I can't upload a screenshot because I don't have 5 posts.
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Re: In 1975 Chinese survey teams remeasured Mount Everest, the highest of   [#permalink] 13 Oct 2019, 13:23
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