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In 1978, as public reaction to the Love Canal....

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In 1978, as public reaction to the Love Canal....  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Apr 2017, 09:27
1
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Question 1
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based on 206 sessions

68% (04:00) correct 32% (03:48) wrong

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Question 2
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based on 195 sessions

29% (01:57) correct 71% (01:59) wrong

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Question 3
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based on 183 sessions

44% (01:33) correct 56% (02:07) wrong

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Question 4
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based on 170 sessions

45% (01:32) correct 55% (01:44) wrong

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Tough one

In 1978, as public reaction to the Love Canal landfill leak snowballed, the Environmental Protection Agency counted 425,000 industrial plants across the country jointly producing 45 million tons of toxic waste per year. Well over 50 percent of these wastes were not being disposed of according to existing public health standards. In November 1981, a ban was placed on burial of toxic wastes. This ban provided at best a stopgap to permit debate on long-term approaches to landfill regulation. At the same time, it exacerbated the problem of illicit abandonment of wastes. Unmarked barrels of toxic products, which could not be opened to determine their contents, were abandoned in deserted factories by bankrupt manufacturing firms or dropped off in empty fields by fly-by-night disposal companies, which multiplied as an indirect result of the ban.
The underlying reason for industry irresponsibility with regard to waste is economic. The Chemical Manufacturers’ Association denounced the landfill ban as unworkable and costly, while contending that even the currently permissible landfill techniques are unrealistically capital-intensive. Specifically, industry representatives claim that the EPA requires unnecessarily frequent and extensive site monitoring.
The Hazardous Waste Treatment Council, which represents companies involved in recovering, recycling, incinerating, biodegrading, evaporating, and chemically treating wastes, supports permanent landfill restrictions. The processes utilized by these companies face relatively little public opposition. Their sites tend to look from the outside like normal industrial plants, in contrast to the fenced-off "fallout zone” appearance of a landfill. Less appealing activities, such as landfarming (whereby wastes are handled in the traditional manner of horse manure—mixed with soil, aerated, and biodegraded by microorganisms) are generally located well away from cities. Most important, these processes leave no toxic endproduct which must be containerized and stored underground.
These procedures span a wide range of availability and cost-effectiveness. The electroplating industry, for example, produces some acidic wastes that can be neutralized by combination with everyday lime. At the opposite end of the cost-effectiveness spectrum, ion exchange chromatography provides an extremely costly, though safe, solution for other plating effluvia. Cooperative recycling, whereby a waste treatment company utilizes the wastes of one manufacturing process to neutralize those produced by another industry, has proved a great success in Germany. Its development in the United States has, unfortunately, been retarded by secrecy about product components.
Even if all known waste alternatives were operating at maximum potential, they still would not obviate the need for landfill. They would, however, provide a partial solution for the petrochemical and chemical manufacturing industries in the face of regulatory stringency.
1. It can be inferred that the petrochemical and chemical manufacturing industries
A have offered compelling arguments against EPA regulations
B have largely relied until now on containerization and burial to dispose of toxic wastes
C are responsible for more public health violations than other industries
D are opposed on principle to government regulation of waste disposal
E are more competitive and secretive about their processes than most U.S. industries

2. According to the passage, on which issue are the positions of the Chemical Manufacturers' Association and the Hazardous Waste Treatment Council opposed?
A The viability of the EPA ban on burial of containerized waste
B The necessity of containerization and underground storage
C The necessity of stringent EPA landfill guidelines
D The desirability of developing alternatives to current landfill technology
E The feasibility of using recovery/recycling processes in the U.S.

3.The alternatives to landfill mentioned in the third and fourth paragraphs are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT that
A they are not a major focus of conservationist protests
B some are not widely available in this country
C they require secrecy about product components
D their endproducts are nontoxic
E some are unrealistically expensive

4 According to the passage, all of the following statements are true of landfills EXCEPT that
A they were temporarily banned in late 1981
B the Chemical Manufacturers' Association opposes the present laws regulating them
C they tend to present an unsightly appearance
D their use is impeded by industrial secretiveness
E they cannot be completely eliminated at this time

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Re: In 1978, as public reaction to the Love Canal....  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2017, 03:27
According to OA , Question 4 has D as answer but it is already mentioned in second last paragraph that its use is retarded by secrecy about product components.
So why 'A' is correct coz there is no mention of temporary ban.

Also for question 2, Why 'C' is wrong? Please explain.
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Re: In 1978, as public reaction to the Love Canal....  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Apr 2017, 19:19
anshulmishra08@gmail.com wrote:
According to OA , Question 4 has D as answer but it is already mentioned in second last paragraph that its use is retarded by secrecy about product components.
So why 'A' is correct coz there is no mention of temporary ban.

Also for question 2, Why 'C' is wrong? Please explain.



The second last paragraph mentions :-

Cooperative recycling, whereby a waste treatment company utilizes the wastes of one manufacturing process to neutralize those produced by another industry, has proved a great success in Germany. Its development in the United States has, unfortunately, been retarded by secrecy about product components.


So the use of co-operative recycling is impeded by secrecy of product components. It is nowhere mentioned that alternative to landfills require secrecy about product components .

Hence D is not the answer. Regarding A , I agree it is not mentioned anywhere in the passage that the ban was 'temporary', but A is the most appropriate answer for the question.

@Experts:-
I too need an explanation for OA of question 2.
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Re: In 1978, as public reaction to the Love Canal....  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2017, 05:17
For question 3, where is the passage is landfill characterized as not a major focus of conservationist protests?
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Re: In 1978, as public reaction to the Love Canal....  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2017, 06:52
Very good passage.... took 12 mins,,, 3 correct....
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Re: In 1978, as public reaction to the Love Canal....  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2017, 19:10
Took 10mins...3 correct..1 wrong (Q2) :(
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Citius, Altius, Fortius

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Re: In 1978, as public reaction to the Love Canal....  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Apr 2017, 00:33
Here is the OE for Q2 (detail question):
In the second paragraph, the passage states that the CMA is opposed to the landfill ban for economic reasons. In the third paragraph, the passage reveals that HWTC "supports permanent landfill restrictions."
Since landfill disposal requires burial, (A) matches the prediction and is the correct choice.

(B) is incorrect because neither side actually disputes the need for some containerization and burial. The CMA is all for it, while the HWTC uses processes that do not require it.

(C) is tricky. The CMA does dispute the specific guidelines, but the author never says that it disputes the necessity for some such guidelines.

Both (D) and (E) focus on alternatives to current landfill and recycling techniques, which the CMA never discusses in the passage.

TAKEAWAY: When an Inference question provides specific clues, research the relevant parts of the passage to help evaluate the choices more effectively.
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Re: In 1978, as public reaction to the Love Canal....  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Feb 2018, 15:17
3.The alternatives to landfill mentioned in the third and fourth paragraphs are characterized by all of the following EXCEPT that
A they are not a major focus of conservationist protests
B some are not widely available in this country
C they require secrecy about product components
D their endproducts are nontoxic
E some are unrealistically expensive

Can anyone explain why the answer is C and not A.. option A is not mentioned in the passage.
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Re: In 1978, as public reaction to the Love Canal....  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2018, 09:02
Can anybody please explain why B is correct in Q1?

1. It can be inferred that the petrochemical and chemical manufacturing industries
B have largely relied until now on containerization and burial to dispose of toxic wastes
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Re: In 1978, as public reaction to the Love Canal.... &nbs [#permalink] 27 Feb 2018, 09:02
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In 1978, as public reaction to the Love Canal....

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