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# In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most

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In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2017, 13:15
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In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most powerful generals in the Republic, shocked his supporters, enemies, and rivals by crossing the Rubicon river into Italy, leading towards Rome the nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as his most loyal troops.

A) leading towards Rome the nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as
B) leading towards Rome nearly the 4,000 soldiers regarded
C) and led towards Rome nearly 4,000 soldiers, who were regarded
D) and led towards Rome nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as
E) and he led towards Rome the more than 4,000 soldiers who were regarded

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In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2017, 01:40
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In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most powerful generals in the Republic, shocked his supporters, enemies, and rivals by crossing the Rubicon river into Italy, leading towards Rome the nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as his most loyal troops.

A) leading towards Rome the nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as
CORRECT
B) leading towards Rome nearly the 4,000 soldiers regarded
REGARD AS is correct idiomatically. Moreover, lack of use of WHO distorts the original intent. Hence Incorrect.
C) and led towards Rome nearly 4,000 soldiers, who were regarded
REGARD AS is correct idiomatically. Moreover, use of AND is incorrect since "March to Rome" and "Shocking" were not two different acts. Hence Incorrect.
D) and led towards Rome nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as
Use of AND is incorrect since "March to Rome" and "Shocking" were not two different acts. Hence Incorrect.
E) and he led towards Rome the more than 4,000 soldiers who were regarded
REGARD AS is correct idiomatically. Moreover, use of AND is incorrect since "March to Rome" and "Shocking" were not two different acts. Hence Incorrect.

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Re: In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 02 Aug 2017, 10:03
1
IMO A

A--correct idiom usage.regarded as=considered as.
B--wrong idiom.
C--- regarded is incorrect idiom usage.regarded means observed or looked upon.
D---missing subject after comma+And.
E--the more than 4000 is wordy.Also wrong idiom.

Originally posted by Sangeeta2018 on 01 Aug 2017, 13:43.
Last edited by Sangeeta2018 on 02 Aug 2017, 10:03, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2017, 23:52
Regard as is correct idiom so only A and D are left. D is correct

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Re: In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2017, 00:39
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In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most powerful generals in the Republic, shocked his supporters, enemies, and rivals by crossing the Rubicon river into Italy, leading towards Rome the nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as his most loyal troops.

A) leading towards Rome the nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as
B) leading towards Rome nearly the 4,000 soldiers regarded
C) and led towards Rome nearly 4,000 soldiers, who were regarded
D) and led towards Rome nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as
E) and he led towards Rome the more than 4,000 soldiers who were regarded
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Re: In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2017, 02:18
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Re: In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2017, 11:05
Takdir wrote:

Hi Takdir,

The correct idiom is regarded as.

This leaves us with option A and D. option A follows parallelism unlike D that starts with 'and led'.

Hence option A is correct.
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16 Aug 2017, 03:37
csaluja wrote:
In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most powerful generals in the Republic, shocked his supporters, enemies, and rivals by crossing the Rubicon river into Italy, leading towards Rome the nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as his most loyal troops.

A) leading towards Rome the nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as
B) leading towards Rome nearly the 4,000 soldiers regarded
C) and led towards Rome nearly 4,000 soldiers, who were regarded
D) and led towards Rome nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as
E) and he led towards Rome the more than 4,000 soldiers who were regarded

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I think the answer should be A.
There are three problems -
1) usage of idiom - regarded as - the correct usage
2) leading - is a modifier to the action - crossing the river into Italy.
How did he crossed the river and so attack, by leading 4000 soldiers
3) Usage of "and".
There are not two actions - crossing the river and leading the soldiers. "leading the solders" modifies the crossing the river so, we don't need "and".

Please correct me, if its wrong way to eliminate.
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In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 24 Aug 2017, 12:54
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2
Quote:
The copycat

In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most powerful generals in the Republic, shocked his supporters, enemies, and rivals by crossing the Rubicon river into Italy, leading towards Rome the nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as his most loyal troops.

A) leading towards Rome the nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as
B) leading towards Rome nearly the 4,000 soldiers regarded
C) and led towards Rome nearly 4,000 soldiers, who were regarded
D) and led towards Rome nearly 4,000 soldiers who were regarded as
E) and he led towards Rome the more than 4,000 soldiers who were regarded

Quote:
The original

In 1791 Robert Carter III, one of the wealthiest plantation owners in Virginia, stunned his family, friends, and neighbors by filing a deed of emancipation, setting free the more than 500 slaves who were legally considered his property.

(A) setting free the more than 500 slaves who were legally considered
(B) setting free more than the 500 slaves legally considered as
(C) and set free more than 500 slaves, who were legally considered as
(D) and set free more than the 500 slaves who were legally considered
(E) and he set free the more than 500 slaves who were legally considered as

Notwithstanding other idiom issues, the full import of the original version can be seen in the use of the definite article ' the' in choices A and E to denote the number of slaves that Carter freed. The choices that do not use the definite article, indicate that he freed only some 500 of the unspecified much larger force that he was holding. That he freed them lock, stock and barrel is the cornerstone of the surprise and shock that his act imparted.
Extrapolating the analogy to Caesar's case, choices A and E make it clear that the General led all of his troops. However, E is dropped because of the idiom issue.
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Originally posted by daagh on 17 Aug 2017, 10:59.
Last edited by daagh on 24 Aug 2017, 12:54, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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17 Aug 2017, 11:55
The OA seems to imply that the Rubicon is leading towards Rome... help?
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Re: In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2017, 05:12
NicoleJaneway wrote:
The OA seems to imply that the Rubicon is leading towards Rome... help?

IMO is D, "he shocked"and then "he led".
No sense for using the modifier Leading. It incorrectly modifies the rubicon river.

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In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 20 Aug 2017, 12:12
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NicoleJaneway wrote:
The OA seems to imply that the Rubicon is leading towards Rome... help?

Hi Nicole, it is not necessary that verb-ing only modifies the preceding noun. There are many other functions that verb-ing performs.
For instance Express causality .
A thing to note is Comma+ verb-ing generally performs two functions which you may remember in future.
These functions are :-

1. Comma+verb-ing modifies the verb of preceding clause . Here verb-ing presents the reason for "how the action happened"
Ex. - Amy skipped school, giving the excuse of stomach ache.
how amy skipped school ? by giving excuse of stomach ache.
Now a thing to remember here is when comma+ verb-ing modifies the verb the Doers should be the same for both the verb and verb-ing .
like in this case it is Amy - Amy skipped the school , Amy gave the excuse.

Now consider this example. Joe became the CFO of the company, increasing his pay significantly.
In this sentence Comma+verb-ing is modifying the verb Became ,however it is incorrect. You may ask why ?
It is so because the Doers must be same for Comma+verb-ing modifier modifying the verb. So in this sentence Joe became CFO and Joe increasing his pay is non sensical.

2. The second function of Comma+verbing modifier is to present the result of the action.

Ex- Mary made a bouquet, winning appreciation from everyone.
Here modifier Comma+verb-ing provides result of the action . Notice in this case also Doers must be same for Modified action ( main verb) and Modifier ( Comma+verb-ing)

One more example. B.P. corporations drilled sea oil wells, destroying coral reef.
Verb-ing presenting result and Doers are same.

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Originally posted by sandysilva on 19 Aug 2017, 12:18.
Last edited by sandysilva on 20 Aug 2017, 12:12, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2017, 12:51
sandysilva wrote:
NicoleJaneway wrote:
The OA seems to imply that the Rubicon is leading towards Rome... help?

Hi Nicole, it is not necessary that verb-ing only modifies the preceding noun. There are many other functions that verb-ing performs.
For instance Express causality .
A thing to note is Comma+ verb-ing generally performs two functions which you may remember in future.
These functions are :-

1. Comma+verb-ing modifies the verb of preceding clause . Here verb-ing presents the reason for "how the action happened"
Ex. - Amy skipped school, giving the excuse of stomach ache.
how amy skipped school ? by giving excuse of stomach ache.
Now a thing to remember here is when comma+ verb-ing modifies the verb the Doers should be the same for both the verb and verb-ing .
like in this case it is Amy - Amy skipped the school , Amy gave the excuse.

Now consider this example. Joe became the CFO of the company, increasing his pay significantly.
In this sentence Comma+verb-ing is modifying the verb Became ,however it is incorrect. You may ask why ?
It is so because the Doers must be same for Comma+verb-ing modifier modifying the verb. So in this sentence Joe became CFO and Joe increasing his pay is non sensical.

2. The second function of Comma+verbing modifier is to present the result of the action.

Ex- Mary made a bouquet, winning appreciation from everyone.
Here modifier Comma+verb-ing provides result of the action . Notice in this case also Doers must be same for Modified action ( main verb) and Modifier ( Comma+verb-ing)

One more example. B.P. corporations drilled sea oil wells, destroying coral reef.
Verb-ing presenting result and Doers are same.

Hit kuddos if my post helped (:

You are totally right Sandysilva!
I reviewed the verb+ing modifier lesson from e-gmat as well, and now "leading" makes perfect sense to me.

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Re: In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2017, 13:29
1
juanito1985 wrote:
sandysilva wrote:
NicoleJaneway wrote:
The OA seems to imply that the Rubicon is leading towards Rome... help?

Hi Nicole, it is not necessary that verb-ing only modifies the preceding noun. There are many other functions that verb-ing performs.
For instance Express causality .
A thing to note is Comma+ verb-ing generally performs two functions which you may remember in future.
These functions are :-

1. Comma+verb-ing modifies the verb of preceding clause . Here verb-ing presents the reason for "how the action happened"
Ex. - Amy skipped school, giving the excuse of stomach ache.
how amy skipped school ? by giving excuse of stomach ache.
Now a thing to remember here is when comma+ verb-ing modifies the verb the Doers should be the same for both the verb and verb-ing .
like in this case it is Amy - Amy skipped the school , Amy gave the excuse.

Now consider this example. Joe became the CFO of the company, increasing his pay significantly.
In this sentence Comma+verb-ing is modifying the verb Became ,however it is incorrect. You may ask why ?
It is so because the Doers must be same for Comma+verb-ing modifier modifying the verb. So in this sentence Joe became CFO and Joe increasing his pay is non sensical.

2. The second function of Comma+verbing modifier is to present the result of the action.

Ex- Mary made a bouquet, winning appreciation from everyone.
Here modifier Comma+verb-ing provides result of the action . Notice in this case also Doers must be same for Modified action ( main verb) and Modifier ( Comma+verb-ing)

One more example. B.P. corporations drilled sea oil wells, destroying coral reef.
Verb-ing presenting result and Doers are same.

Hit kuddos if my post helped (:

You are totally right Sandysilva!
I reviewed the verb+ing modifier lesson from e-gmat as well, and now "leading" makes perfect sense to me.

Sent from my iPhone using GMAT Club Forum mobile app

Good to know it helped. !
Yes Egmat also explains it in detail . They have this file covered in their free trial .
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Re: In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2017, 07:15
NicoleJaneway wrote:
The OA seems to imply that the Rubicon is leading towards Rome... help?

A present participle modifier separated by a comma (after a clause) acts as a verb modifier referring to the verb of the previous clause. Take the following example:

I walked along the river, thinking about the incident.

The river was not thinking - the modifier "thinking about the incident" refers to the verb "walked". How I walked? - "thinking about the incident".
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In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2017, 20:53
daagh wrote:

Notwithstanding other idiom issues, the full import of the original version can be seen in the use of the definite article ' the' in choices A and E to denote the number of slaves that Carter freed. The choices that do not use the definite article, indicate that he freed only some 500 of the unspecified much larger force that he was holding. That he freed them lock, stock and barrel is the cornerstone of the surprise and shock that his act imparted.
Extrapolating the analogy to Caesar's case, choices A and E make it clear that the General led all of his troops. However, E is dropped because of the idiom issue.

Hi daagh

I'm slightly confused here about 2 things.
1) The question stem anyway uses the word nearly. So we are not clear about the exact number even if we use the article 'the'. Please correct me if I'm wrong here. I do realize the purpose of using a definite article but I'm not able to understand that from this context.

2)Can we eliminate D for the comma issue?
Is it always true that if only 2 elements are there, we should not use a comma?
I don't remember the source, but I have read somewhere that usage of a comma with 2 elements is optional.
May be I'm wrong.

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Re: In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most  [#permalink]

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31 Aug 2017, 08:41
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The original
Quote:
In 1791 Robert Carter III, one of the wealthiest plantation owners in Virginia, stunned his family, friends, and neighbors by filing a deed of emancipation, setting free the more than 500 slaves who were legally considered his property.

(A) setting free the more than 500 slaves who were legally considered
(B) setting free more than the 500 slaves legally considered as
(C) and set free more than 500 slaves, who were legally considered as
(D) and set free more than the 500 slaves who were legally considered
(E) and he set free the more than 500 slaves who were legally considered as

I wrote

Quote:
Notwithstanding other idiom issues, the full import of the original version can be seen in the use of the definite article ' the' in choices A and E to denote the number of slaves that Carter freed. The choices that do not use the definite article, indicate that he freed only some 500 of the unspecified much larger force that he was holding. That he freed them lock, stock and barrel is the cornerstone of the surprise and shock that his act imparted.
Extrapolating the analogy to Caesar's case, choices A and E make it clear that the General led all of his troops. However, E is dropped because of the idiom issue.

Sarath wrote.

Quote:
Hi daagh

I'm slightly confused here about 2 things.
1) The question stem anyway uses the word nearly. So we are not clear about the exact number even if we use the article 'the'. Please correct me if I'm wrong here. I do realize the purpose of using a definite article but I'm not able to understand that from this context.

2)Can we eliminate D for the comma issue?
Is it always true that if only 2 elements are there, we should not use a comma?
I don't remember the source, but I have read somewhere that usage of a comma with 2 elements is optional.
May be I'm wrong.

1. 'The' refers to the absoluteness of the number. The crux of the passage is that he came forward whole-heartedly to do it signifies the import. 'Nearly' will not match the totality of the theme. Just ponder, if Carter had retained some ten of them, the emancipation deed would not be so monumental.
2. The OA of the OG version says that --
Quote:
-choices C and D distort meaning by paralleling stunned and set free, as though these were two separate and independent actions.
--- It does not care too much about the use of commas between two elements as in this case. Why should we bother then?

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Re: In 49 BCE, Gaius Julius Caesar, one of the most   [#permalink] 31 Aug 2017, 08:41
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