Rule: If the overall/final value is not changing and if one variable is increased by \(\frac{1}{x}\)% then the other variable should decrease by \(\frac{1}{x+1}\)%
for eg: if AB = 100, now if B is increased by \(33.33\)% then by how much percentage should A decrease such that the final value remains the same.
Now, B is increased by \(33.33\)% --> \(\frac{1}{3}\)% --> \(x=3\)
Then if final value is same, i.e; 100, then A should decrease by \(\frac{1}{x+1}\)% = \(\frac{1}{(3+1)}\)% = \(\frac{1}{4}\)% = \(25\)%
To be more clear - let \(A = 20\) and\( B = 5\) --> \(AB = 20*5\) = \(100\)
Now if \(B = 5\) is increased by \(33.33\)% = \(5*1.3333\) = \(6.6665\), then \(A = 20\) should decrease by \(25\)% = \(20*0.75\) = \(15\),
such that \(AB = 6.6665*15\) = \(99.997\) =\(~100\) (same as before)
We can apply the same logic here
Let say, Total consumption = \(T\)
consumption of food / student = \(c\)
total number of students = \(n\)
price per food = \(p\)
Hence,
\(T = c * n * p\)
Let us take \(n * p = F\)
So, \(T = c * F\)
Now, \(n\) is decreased by \(8\)% and \(p\) is increased by \(20\)%, we can calculate overall % change in \(F\) by formula \(A + B + \frac{AB}{100}\)
overall % change in \(F\) = \(20 - 8 - \frac{20(8)}{100}\) = \(10.4\)%
Total consumption(after change), \(T = c' * 10.4F\), where \(c'\) = change in the consumption
Now, let's apply the above logic we learned,
The total consumption \(T\) is same and one variable \(F\)(here) is increased by \(10.4\)% ~ \(10\)%(approximate) = \(\frac{1}{10}\)% = \(x = 10\)
Hence the other variable \(c'\) (here) should decrease by \(\frac{1}{x+1}\)% = \(\frac{1}{(10+1)}\)% = \(\frac{1}{11}\)% = \(9.09\)% ~ \(9\)%
The only answer option closest to \(9\)% = \(9.4\)%
Option EKudos if find solution helpful