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# In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske

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In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 26 Aug 2017, 22:53
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In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were asked to name the song that had made the greatest emotional impact on their lives. Remarkably, in 86 percent of cases, the participant named a song that was popular when he or she was between thirteen and seventeen years old. Clearly, music has an inherently greater emotional effect on teenagers than on people of other ages.

Each of the following, if true, weakens the argument presented above EXCEPT

(A) All of the other questions asked during the survey centered around the participants' teenage years.

(B) People are more likely to have deeper emotional responses to life events, and to associate contemporaneous songs with those events, during the teenage years than at other times of life.

(C) People tend to retain and recall emotionally infused memories with greater depth, detail, and accuracy than other memories.

(D) People tend to listen to a much greater number of songs during the teenage years than at other times of life.

(E) Most of the songs cited by the survey respondents retained their popularity for twenty or more years.

Originally posted by rahulsukhija on 28 Aug 2012, 22:33.
Last edited by hazelnut on 26 Aug 2017, 22:53, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske  [#permalink]

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09 Jul 2013, 13:28
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rahulsukhija wrote:
In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were asked to name the song that had made the greatest emotional impact on their lives. Remarkably, in 86 percent of cases, the participant named a song that was popular when he or she was between thirteen and seventeen years old. Clearly, music has an inherently greater emotional effect on teenagers than on people of other ages.

Each of the following, if true, weakens the argument presented above EXCEPT

a) All of the other questions asked during the survey centered around the participants' teenage years.
b) People are more likely to have deeper emotional responses to life events, and to associate contemporaneous songs with those events, during the teenage years than at other times of life.
c) People tend to retain and recall emotionally infused memories with greater depth, detail, and accuracy than other memories.
d) People tend to listen to a much greater number of songs during the teenage years than at other times of life.
e) Most of the songs cited by the survey respondents retained their popularity for twenty or more years.

Please Explain....OA in a short while...

HERE IS OE

(1) Identify the Question Type

The language "weakens" and "if true" indicates that this is a Weaken the Conclusion question. The "EXCEPT" variation indicates that we need to find and eliminate 4 "weaken" answers. The "odd one out" answer, an answer that does not weaken, will be the correct answer.

(2) Deconstruct the Argument

Given the opportunity to mention one song from any period of their lives, the survey respondents, who were between 40 and 60 years old, overwhelmingly named songs that were popular when they were aged between 13 and 17. The author claims that this data indicates that music has more emotional power over teenagers than over other age groups.

(3) State the Goal

We're asked to find something that does not weaken the argument. The four (incorrect) answers, which will weaken the argument, must each make the conclusion at least somewhat less likely to be true or valid. The correct answer will either strengthen the conclusion or be irrelevant to the conclusion.

The passage leaves no doubt that the participants disproportionately named songs that were popular when they were teenagers. So, to weaken the argument, we must introduce possible alternative explanations for this finding. In other words, we need to identify another possible reason – apart from the greater inherent emotional impact of music – why so many of the survey participants would name songs from that particular period of their lives.

(4) Work From Wrong To Right

(A) If the survey asked participants to focus on their teenage years, then the participants may have been biased. The preponderance of songs from their teenage years may simply reflect that bias, rather than signifying anything important about the music itself.

(B) The argument concluded that the music itself inherently causes an emotional impact. This statement, by contrast, indicates the opposite: an emotional event causes someone to remember a particular song. If teenagers are more likely to experience emotional events, then they're also more likely to remember a particular song associated with the event, but not because the music itself caused the emotional impact; rather, the music gains emotional power simply by association with those separate events.

(C) CORRECT. Reasonable people might disagree as to whether this choice is irrelevant or whether it strengthens the conclusion; either way, it does not weaken the conclusion. If people have better recollection of memories that are more emotionally intense, then the conclusion in the passage -- that music is remembered best when it was most emotionally potent -- is supported by this choice.

(D) If the participants listened to a greater number of songs as teenagers than at other periods in their lives, then they would reasonably be expected to remember more songs from their teenage years than from other periods, and there would be a greater probability that any song selected would be from this period. In this case, the survey result simply reflects the greater quantity of music to which the participants were exposed as teenagers, rather than any inherent quality of the music itself.

(E) If this statement is true, then most of these songs would have been popular for a substantial time before and/or after the participant's teenage years, too. In that case, even though those songs were popular when the participants were teenagers, they were also popular during other periods of the participants' lives; we don't know at what age the cited song impacted that participant specifically.
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##### General Discussion
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Re: In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2012, 22:49
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I feel should B be the answer. It strengthens the conclusion that teenage years are most important in the lives of people.
The weaken statement should be opposite of this choice.
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Re: In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2012, 23:17
1
In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were asked to name the song that had made the greatest emotional impact on their lives. Remarkably, in 86 percent of cases, the participant named a song that was popular when he or she was between thirteen and seventeen years old. Clearly, music has an inherently greater emotional effect on teenagers than on people of other ages.

Each of the following, if true, weakens the argument presented above EXCEPT

a) All of the other questions asked during the survey centered around the participants' teenage years. -Neutral argument, we cannot make out the emotional effect on teenagers than people of any other ages.

b) People are more likely to have deeper emotional responses to life events, and to associate contemporaneous songs with those events, during the teenage years than at other times of life. -Yes this should be correct, it clearly mentions the parallel between deeper emotional responses and the teenage years.

c) People tend to retain and recall emotionally infused memories with greater depth, detail, and accuracy than other memories. - Out of Scope.

d) People tend to listen to a much greater number of songs during the teenage years than at other times of life. - Slightly strengthen, Because people listen to more songs during teenage that it might be the reason for the greater emotional effect during teenage. but this point is not made in the argument and would therefore be an assumption.

e) Most of the songs cited by the survey respondents retained their popularity for twenty or more years. - Out of Scope.
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Re: In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2012, 01:56
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C

a) All of the other questions asked during the survey centered around the participants' teenage years.
if all other questions were related to teenages, they might have remembered the songs in relation to these questions

Quote:
music has an inherently greater emotional effect on teenagers than on people of other ages

b) People are more likely to have deeper emotional responses to life events, and to associate contemporaneous songs with those events, during the teenage years than at other times of life. weakens - so, events are important and these are related to songs
c) People tend to retain and recall emotionally infused memories with greater depth, detail, and accuracy than other memories. does not seem to weaken
d) People tend to listen to a much greater number of songs during the teenage years than at other times of life. so, the songs are remembered bcos they listen a lot of songs during teenage, not because they emotionally impact them. weakens
e) Most of the songs cited by the survey respondents retained their popularity for twenty or more years.
these songs were popular for 20 years, so they could have heard it and emotionally be attached to these songs in some years other than the teenage years
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Re: In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2012, 06:20
My initial response was B, but the OA is C

akrish, can you explain in greater detail how you eliminated B...
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Re: In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2012, 06:46
B does weakens the argument by saying that people will have in general more emotional response to their teeange events irreespective of music thus music has no role to play in it.
contemporaneous - existing at the same time.
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Re: In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2012, 09:47
here all the choices weaken except implies that the correct answer choice

either strengthen or doesnt make impact on the conclusion

so all the people who think that option c is out of scope
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Re: In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske  [#permalink]

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29 Aug 2012, 10:31
least strengthen <> weaken
least weaken <> strengthen

in such questions, mostly the out of scope options are correct. because these options neither strengthen nor weaken.

e: vaguely weaken. if age of the respondents is in 40-60 range and they remember songs from their teens, if the songs have been popular for more than 20 years, it is likely that people are still familiar with the songs and it is not an emotional effect(recollection).
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Re: In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske  [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2014, 09:40

We asked for statement which doesn't weaken the argument ( It can be strengthen or out of scope).

A) Since all the other questions were related to participant teenage years so there is a high chance that people remembered the songs related to teenage years. Weaken the Argument.

B) Here events are more important rather than the songs. Songs do not have the emotional impact rather its the events. Weaken the Argument.

C) This doesn't affect the conclusion. We are talking about emotional impact and songs.

D) Since teenagers listen to more songs so there is a high chance that they will remember those songs and not due to emotional impact. Weaken the argument

E) If songs retain the popularity for 20 -30 years then participants might have listen to the songs after their teenage years. Weaken the argument.

sanjoo wrote:
700+ question !

tough for me !

I chose E!
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Re: In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske  [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2014, 11:46
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rahulsukhija wrote:
In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were asked to name the song that had made the greatest emotional impact on their lives. Remarkably, in 86 percent of cases, the participant named a song that was popular when he or she was between thirteen and seventeen years old. Clearly, music has an inherently greater emotional effect on teenagers than on people of other ages.

Each of the following, if true, weakens the argument presented above EXCEPT

a) All of the other questions asked during the survey centered around the participants' teenage years.
b) People are more likely to have deeper emotional responses to life events, and to associate contemporaneous songs with those events, during the teenage years than at other times of life.
c) People tend to retain and recall emotionally infused memories with greater depth, detail, and accuracy than other memories.
d) People tend to listen to a much greater number of songs during the teenage years than at other times of life.
e) Most of the songs cited by the survey respondents retained their popularity for twenty or more years.

Please Explain....OA in a short while...

Sometime we got hurdles to solve EXCEPT questions. For me, I always solve EXCEPT questions in a "normal" way. If I see a "weaken the argument EXCEPT", I quickly find options that weaken the argument and mark them wrong. The last stands will be the correct. The pattern is the same for "strengthen the argument EXCEPT". The reason is in EXCEPT questions, eliminate wrong answers is always easier than pick a correct choice. Because the correct answer may neither strengthen nor weaken, and it is a correct choice.

ANALYZE THE QUESTION:

The conclusion here is: music has an inherently greater emotional effect on teenagers than on people of other ages
Reasons to support: 86 percent of cases, the participant named a song that was popular when he or she was between thirteen and seventeen years old.

Question: Each of the following, if true, weakens the argument presented above EXCEPT

Now, let find options that WEAKEN the argument and mark them wrong. The last stands is the correct choice.

a) All of the other questions asked during the survey centered around the participants' teenage years.
WEAKEN. A shows that the argument uses bias sample.

b) People are more likely to have deeper emotional responses to life events, and to associate contemporaneous songs with those events, during the teenage years than at other times of life.
WEAKEN. SHELL GAME.
Cause and Effect.
The conclusion says songs impact on people’s life. But B inversely shows that: Life events --> people associate songs with those events. Thus, B indicates that life events, NOT songs, are factors impact people’s life the most.

c) People tend to retain and recall emotionally infused memories with greater depth, detail, and accuracy than other memories.
NOT WEAKEN. It's the correct answer.

d) People tend to listen to a much greater number of songs during the teenage years than at other times of life.
WEAKEN. D shows that people chose songs during their teenage just because they heard them more often. That's it. We can't conclude "listen more often" = "have a greater impact". That makes no sense.

e) Most of the songs cited by the survey respondents retained their popularity for twenty or more years.
WEAKEN. E shows that people chose those song because those songs are more popular. We can't conclude "more popular" = "have a greater impact". That makes no sense.

Hope it helps.
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In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske  [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2017, 05:35
I chose E. Had the answer C till D, but E got me. I made the mistake of reading 20 years of more as 20 years in my mind and therefore, picked E as it did not reach 40 in my head.
However, I also thought A could be answer because it says all of the "other" questions centered around teenage years. Therefore, not necessarily this question. So, it might or might not weaken. It does not weaken necessarily because it talks about other questions. So, from this we cannot conclude that the question about songs was also about teenage years.
Real tough one!
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Re: In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske  [#permalink]

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20 Jul 2018, 04:01
rahulsukhija wrote:
In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were asked to name the song that had made the greatest emotional impact on their lives. Remarkably, in 86 percent of cases, the participant named a song that was popular when he or she was between thirteen and seventeen years old. Clearly, music has an inherently greater emotional effect on teenagers than on people of other ages.

Each of the following, if true, weakens the argument presented above EXCEPT

(A) All of the other questions asked during the survey centered around the participants' teenage years.

(B) People are more likely to have deeper emotional responses to life events, and to associate contemporaneous songs with those events, during the teenage years than at other times of life.

(C) People tend to retain and recall emotionally infused memories with greater depth, detail, and accuracy than other memories.

(D) People tend to listen to a much greater number of songs during the teenage years than at other times of life.

(E) Most of the songs cited by the survey respondents retained their popularity for twenty or more years.

Responding to a pm:

Premises:
- 86% of the respondents of the survey named a song that was popular when he or she was a teenager

Conclusion:
Music has an inherently greater emotional effect on teenagers than on people of other ages

Find the option that does not weaken:

(A) All of the other questions asked during the survey centered around the participants' teenage years.

Weakens the conclusion. People were focusing on their teenage years and hence the song that came to their mind was from those years. Gives an alternative explanation to the observation and hence weakens our conclusion.

(B) People are more likely to have deeper emotional responses to life events, and to associate contemporaneous songs with those events, during the teenage years than at other times of life.

This is a tricky option. Read it carefully - people have deeper emotional responses to events when they are teenagers and they associate songs with it. So the teenage years cause them to be more emotional to events and to connect to songs. It is not the music that has greater emotional effect on teenagers, it is the life's events that cause deeper emotional responses among teenagers. It also gives an alternative explanation to why they named songs popular in their teenage years.
It also weakens our conclusion

(C) People tend to retain and recall emotionally infused memories with greater depth, detail, and accuracy than other memories.
This option has nothing to do with teenage years and songs. It talks about which memories people recall better. It does not impact our conclusion.

(D) People tend to listen to a much greater number of songs during the teenage years than at other times of life.
This also gives an alternative explanation to why they recalled a song from teenage years. They listen to far more songs in those years so it is more likely that the song they name would be from those years. This weakens our conclusion.

(E) Most of the songs cited by the survey respondents retained their popularity for twenty or more years.
This weakens our conclusion too. IF the songs were popular for many many years, we can't say that the respondents heard them in their teenage years. Say a song was popular from 1980 to 2000. So if a 40 year old recalls that song, he could have heard it when he was a child, a teenager or an adult. It is not possible to connect teenage to that song. Weakens our conclusion.

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Re: In a recent psychological survey, participants aged 40 to 60 were aske &nbs [#permalink] 20 Jul 2018, 04:01
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