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# In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e

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In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 07 Dec 2018, 07:26
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In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them.

(A) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them

(B) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined

(C) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images as well as constructing and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined

(D) creating images of Buddha accounted for much of the local artisans' creative energy, and also constructing and decorating the temples enshrining them

(E) the creating of Buddha images accounted for much of the local artisans' creative energy as well as construction and decoration of the temples that enshrined them

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 172: Sentence Correction

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Originally posted by nakib77 on 13 Nov 2005, 05:36.
Last edited by generis on 07 Dec 2018, 07:26, edited 7 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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05 Dec 2017, 23:09
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Quote:
(A) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them

The biggest issue in (A) is the mess of pronouns toward the end of the sentence. That first “they” logically needs to refer to “local artisans”, but that raises two problems. First, “Buddha images” is the closest plural noun, so that raises a potential ambiguity issue. Second, “local artisans” is actually a possessive noun here, and in general on the GMAT, it’s not ideal to have a non-possessive pronoun (“they”) refer back to a possessive noun (artisans’).

If you need a refresher on pronouns, feel free to check out this YouTube webinar. To be fair, pronoun ambiguity isn’t an absolute rule, so you could keep (A) if you really wanted to be conservative. But in this case, I think we can agree that the pronouns are legitimately confusing, or at least we can agree that there are better options below.

And if that isn’t enough for you, there’s arguably a little parallelism issue in (A): “…the local artisans' creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated…” I’m not 100% certain that it’s WRONG, exactly: I guess it’s OK to say that “the local artisans’ creative energy was expended… when they constructed and decorated the temples…” But technically speaking, “for the creation” is a prepositional phrase, and “when they constructed” is not.

If you’re not convinced by that last paragraph, no worries: the pronoun thing is probably enough to allow us to get rid of (A), particularly since we’ll have better options in a moment.

Quote:
(B) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined

This one seems much better! The pronoun “they” logically need to refer to “Buddha images”, and there’s no real reason to worry about ambiguity here: “Buddha images” is really the only plausible plural referent, since “local artisans’” is possessive, and “temples” isn’t really an option, since “they” couldn’t plausibly refer back to temples in the phrase “temples in which they were enshrined.”

The parallelism is also much better here: “much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration…” Yup, that’s parallel.

So we can keep (B).

Quote:
(C) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images as well as constructing and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined

(C) isn’t all that different from (B), but it does warp the parallelism a little bit. Let’s put the key part of the sentence side-by-side so we can see the differences:

(B) “much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration…”
(C)“much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images as well as constructing and decoration…”

(C) isn’t totally awful, but I see absolutely no reason to use “as well as” here, when a nice, simple “and” does the trick. Plus, (B) is parallel throughout: the artisans’ energy was expended on the creation, construction, and decoration. That’s nice. In (C), it gets wonky: we have “on the creation”, but then “constructing and decoration.” That’s less nice.

Again, I wouldn’t argue that (C) is WRONG, exactly. But it’s clearly inferior to (B), so we can eliminate (C).

Quote:
(D) creating images of Buddha accounted for much of the local artisans' creative energy, and also constructing and decorating the temples enshrining them

This is a confusing mess. Basically, we can’t make any sense of the parallelism: “and” is followed by “constructing and decorating”, but I can’t figure out what “constructing and decorating” is parallel to. “Creating” is structurally similar, but if we’re trying to make “creating” parallel to “constructing and decorating”, then why aren’t all of them at the beginning of the sentence?

Plus, we could argue that “them” is more confusing than in (B). “Them” logically refers back to “images of Buddha”, which is waaaaay back in the beginning of the sentence in (D). The antecedent is much closer to the pronoun in (B). Again, pronoun ambiguity isn’t an absolute rule on the GMAT, and I wouldn’t necessarily argue that (D) is WRONG solely because of the pronoun – but the pronoun gives us another small reason to prefer (B) over (D).

Quote:
(E) the creating of Buddha images accounted for much of the local artisans' creative energy as well as construction and decoration of the temples that enshrined them

We can make the same argument about the pronoun “them” in (E) as we did in (D): it isn’t WRONG for “them” to reach all the way back to “Buddha images”, but it isn’t ideal, either.

More importantly, the meaning of the sentence is warped by the phrase “as well as construction and decoration.” It sounds like the sentence is trying to say that “the creating of Buddha images” accounted for several things: “the local artisans’ creative energy” and also “the construction and decoration of the temples.” And that doesn’t make sense: the creating of Buddha images didn’t “account for the construction and decoration of temples.”

Plus, I suppose you could also argue that “the creating of Buddha images” is a not-so-ideal use of a gerund. There’s no need to use the gerund “creating” when the noun “creation” is available to us. Again, I don’t think that “the creating of Buddha images” is WRONG, exactly, but it’s one more small reason to feel good about eliminating (E).

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##### General Discussion
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2006, 11:57
4
B. much of the local artisansâ€™ creative energy [color=darkblue]was expended on the creation[/color] of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined

~~it has to be B~~~

A. much of the local artisansâ€™ creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them

C. much of the local artisansâ€™ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images as well as constructing and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined should be construction

D. creating images of Buddha accounted for much of the local artisansâ€™ creative energy, and also constructing and decorating the temples enshrining them is this parallel? Obviously not

E. the creating of Buddha images accounted for much of the local artisansâ€™ creative energy as well as construction and decoration of the temples that enshrined them that part doesn't fit
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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17 May 2011, 08:37
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1
sbsharma wrote:
In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them.

A. much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them
B. much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined
C. much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images as well as constructing and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined
D. creating images of Buddha accounted for much of the local artisans’ creative energy, and also constructing and decorating the temples enshrining them
E. the creating of Buddha images accounted for much of the local artisans’ creative energy as well as construction and decoration of the temples that enshrined them

A simple approach to help you answer this question in <20 seconds is to recognize awkwardness with "expended for" and look for other answer choices with other options. I highlighted the important parts above.

Scanning down, I see (B) and (C) have "expended on"--which is what we want so I examine these two further.

In (C), "as well as" is a keyword so I look to the left and to the right.
On the left, "the creation of" is inconsistent with "constructing and decoration of."

Did (B) have this issue?
In (B), the keyword is "and."
On the left we have "the creation of"---which is consistent with "construction and decoration of"

So based on just these clues, I am already inclined to say (B).

After quickly browsing the other answer choices, I was able to conclude with (B).

Notice how I didn't read most of the question and most of the answer choices--just focused on important parts.
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2011, 08:39
2
In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them

a) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them : expended of Buddha is unidiomatic; expended on is the correct idiom.

b) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined - maintains //ism on all necessary counters and hence is the correct answer.

The basic tenet of //ism in two-part clauses is that, both the arms should be // in from and function. C, D, and E fail to do that precisely

c) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images as well as constructing and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined : ‘On the creation of’ should be matched by ‘on constructing of’ ( a gerund) and ‘on decoration of’

d) creating images of Buddha accounted for much of the local artisan's creative energy, and also constructing and decorating the temples enshrining them: ‘creating images of’ should be matched by ‘constructing of and decorating of; ‘accounted for’ should be matched by and ‘also for constructing and decorating’

e) the creation of Buddha images accounted for much of the local artisan's creative energy as well as construction and decoration of the temples that enshrined them: ‘creation of’ should be matched by ‘construction of’; in addition, E changes the meaning that the creation of Buddha images accounted for both the creative energy and (the construction and decoration); also ‘accounted for’ should be matched by ‘as well as for’

Logically, what can ‘they’ refer to in B and C? Can ‘they’ refer to artisans? Can the artists or for that matter can the the construction and decorations be enshrined in a temple?

I think the pronoun reference of ‘they’ is not an issue here.

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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2012, 12:21
7
Hi, there! I'm happy to help with this.

Original sentence: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them.

First of all, notice the idiom with the verb "to expend." When I expend my energies, with the intended result of giving my energy to X, we say that "I expend my energies on X", not "I expend my energies for X." That eliminates answer choice A.

Notice also, what the original sentence is trying to do is construct a valid parallel structure. The "local artisan's creative energy" went to two places: (a) "creation of Buddha images", and (b) the work they did constructing & decorating temples. The correct sentence should have a valid parallel structure between those two elements. This is another flaw of answer (A) --- "the creation" vs. "they constructed and decorated". Not parallel.

Answer (C) repeats that problem: "the creation" vs. "constructing and decorating". Not parallel.

Answer (E) repeats that problem: "the creating" vs. "construction and decoration". Not parallel.

That narrows the choice down to (B) vs. (D).

Notice that (D) is very wordy; it has an indirect inactive structure (from "artisans expended energy on X", active, to "X accounted for artisans energy", passive and weak).

(B) gets the idiom ("expended on") correct; it gets the parallel structure correct; and it's a direct & active formulation of the information. Yeah! This is our best choice.

Does that made sense? Please let me know if you have any questions.

Mike
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2012, 16:37
That is an awesome post Thank You So Much!!. The one thing I do not get is the use of "in which they are enshrined". Is this grammatically correct?
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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10 Jan 2012, 18:16
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Yes, the phrase "in which they are enshrined" is 100% grammatically correct. This is a properly constructed subordinate clause. Subordinate clauses (a.k.a dependent clause) are a HUGE topic on GMAT --- I would suggest consulting whatever review materials you are using.

Very briefly, if this clause were a stand-by-itself independent clause, it would be "they are enshrined in the temples."

Now, consider the ending of the last big sentence, with this piece as a separate sentence.

In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples. They [the Buddha images] are enshrined in the temples.

That's very wordy, which is why folks use subordinate clauses. The rule is:
(a) find the word that will be the anchor, the referent, in the big sentence. Here, that word is "temples."
(b) replace that word in the smaller second sentence with "which": "They were enshrined in which."
(c) Now put the "which" and anything attached to it (here, the preposition "in") at the very beginning of the clause, so it's right next to the anchor word in the original sentence:

In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined.

Does that make sense? Again, if you are unfamiliar with the the idea of a subordinate or dependent clause in a sentence, then I strongly recommend carefully reading any GMAT review materials you have on the subject.

Here's a similar GMAT SC practice question, just for more practice.

http://gmat.magoosh.com/questions/1126

The question on at this link should be followed by a video explanation of the answer.

I hope that helps.

Mike
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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11 Jan 2012, 08:46
1
Mike’s explanation is damn good. However, if you are in a rapid fire round in the Test, then perhaps the following short work strategy might be handy

This is essentially a test of //ism, and then perhaps style; but I am not sure about the idiom part of ‘expend for’ or ‘expend on’ as according to the freedictionaty.com ‘expend for’, ‘expend on’ and ‘expend in’ are all usable (http://idioms.thefreedictionary.com/expend)

A. much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them – wrong because of the un//ism of “creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated”

B. much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined – ‘expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of’ ---Correct //ism

C. much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images as well as constructing and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined - was expended on the creation of Buddha images as well as constructing and decoration--- wrong //ism

D. creating images of Buddha accounted for much of the local artisans’ creative energy, and also constructing and decorating the temples enshrining them—wrong becos ‘and also’ is redundant; additionally the meaning is changed in that creating images accounted for 1. The creative energy 2. constructing and 3. decorating

E. the creating of Buddha images accounted for much of the local artisans’ creative energy as well as construction and decoration of the temples that enshrined them--- wrong because of altered intent as in D
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2012, 16:57
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I have chosen B as the answer:

A. This answer choice breaks the parallelism requirement. Also, what is the purpose of "when" as a relative pronoun here? It doesn't seem to refer to any time or date.

The answer should be along the lines of:

energy was expended on:
-the creation
-the construction
-the decoration

B. This sentence clearly describes the 3 elements that artisan's spend energy on.

C. Again, this answer choice breaks the parallelism requirement. The word "constructing" is wrong here.

D. We want 3 elements that describe what the artisan's spent their energy on. In this case, it splits the "image creation" from the other 2 elements: "constructing and decorating the temples enshrining them." Also, I noticed that after the comma and coordinating conjunction, and, the words do not form an independent clause. This is incorrect because 2 independent clauses should sandwich a comma and a coordinating conjunction. As a result, this sentence is also a fragment.

E. Although I could not find any grammatical errors with this one, the meaning was very confusing. It sounds like "the creation...accounted for...creative energy...as well as construction and decoration." This did not make sense to me at all, so I felt this answer was incorrect.
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2012, 07:11
mikemcgarry wrote:
Hi, there! I'm happy to help with this.

Original sentence: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them.

First of all, notice the idiom with the verb "to expend." When I expend my energies, with the intended result of giving my energy to X, we say that "I expend my energies on X", not "I expend my energies for X." That eliminates answer choice A.

Notice also, what the original sentence is trying to do is construct a valid parallel structure. The "local artisan's creative energy" went to two places: (a) "creation of Buddha images", and (b) the work they did constructing & decorating temples. The correct sentence should have a valid parallel structure between those two elements. This is another flaw of answer (A) --- "the creation" vs. "they constructed and decorated". Not parallel.

Answer (C) repeats that problem: "the creation" vs. "constructing and decorating". Not parallel.

Answer (E) repeats that problem: "the creating" vs. "construction and decoration". Not parallel.

That narrows the choice down to (B) vs. (D).

Notice that (D) is very wordy; it has an indirect inactive structure (from "artisans expended energy on X", active, to "X accounted for artisans energy", passive and weak).

(B) gets the idiom ("expended on") correct; it gets the parallel structure correct; and it's a direct & active formulation of the information. Yeah! This is our best choice.

Does that made sense? Please let me know if you have any questions.

Mike

Mike,
Can you explain Choice E ? I thought' for much of'and 'construction and decoration of' are parallel. ..
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2012, 10:28
2
farukqmul wrote:
Mike,
Can you explain Choice E ? I thought 'for much of' and 'construction and decoration of' are parallel. ..

Here's the original prompt with choice (E)
In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them.
E. the creating of Buddha images accounted for much of the local artisans’ creative energy as well as construction and decoration of the temples that enshrined them

Let's plug in choice (E) and look at the sentence:
In ancient Thailand, the creating of Buddha images accounted for much of the local artisans’ creative energy as well as construction and decoration of the temples that enshrined them
Superficially, the terms "creative energy" and "construction and decoration" are all nouns, so they could be grammatically parallel. The problem is: they are not logically parallel.

Consider the overall structure:

X accounted for Y as well as Z

means

X accounted for Y
and, separately, X accounted for Z

Consider that here:
the creating of Buddha images accounted for much of the local artisans’ creative energy
and, separately,
the creating of Buddha images accounted for the construction and decoration of the temples that enshrined them

That's not the meaning the original sentence is trying to express. What is it trying to say is that ----
the creating of Buddha images accounted for much of the local artisans’ creative energy
and, separately,
the construction and decoration of the temples that enshrined them accounted for much of the local artisans’ creative energy

We are trying to create a parallelism between the three types of work, each of which occupied the creative energy of the artisans. Those three types of work were
(a) the creating of Buddha images
(b) the construction of the temples
(c) the decoration of the temples

Logically, those three need to be in parallel, and they are not in (E). It's not enough to have superficial grammatical parallelism if that parallelism does not reflect the deeper logic of the situation. Grammar and logic must always point to the same conclusions.

You may find this blog germane:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... n-english/

Does all this make sense? Please let me know if you have any more questions.

Mike
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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25 Jul 2013, 21:24
mikemcgarry wrote:
Hi, there! I'm happy to help with this.

Original sentence: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended for the creation of Buddha images and when they constructed and decorated the temples that enshrined them.

First of all, notice the idiom with the verb "to expend." When I expend my energies, with the intended result of giving my energy to X, we say that "I expend my energies on X", not "I expend my energies for X." That eliminates answer choice A.

Notice also, what the original sentence is trying to do is construct a valid parallel structure. The "local artisan's creative energy" went to two places: (a) "creation of Buddha images", and (b) the work they did constructing & decorating temples. The correct sentence should have a valid parallel structure between those two elements. This is another flaw of answer (A) --- "the creation" vs. "they constructed and decorated". Not parallel.

Answer (C) repeats that problem: "the creation" vs. "constructing and decorating". Not parallel.

Answer (E) repeats that problem: "the creating" vs. "construction and decoration". Not parallel.

That narrows the choice down to (B) vs. (D).

Notice that (D) is very wordy; it has an indirect inactive structure (from "artisans expended energy on X", active, to "X accounted for artisans energy", passive and weak).

(B) gets the idiom ("expended on") correct; it gets the parallel structure correct; and it's a direct & active formulation of the information. Yeah! This is our best choice.

Does that made sense? Please let me know if you have any questions.

Mike

hey Mike,,

Can we eliminate A on the ground of "when" ?
D and E for the verb-ING modifier at the beginning which has no subject and then choose between B and C?

i also did not understand the ll structure that you have refered ..Could you please explain that again
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2013, 12:55
1
1
WaterFlowsUp wrote:
hey Mike,

Can we eliminate A on the ground of "when" ?
D and E for the verb-ING modifier at the beginning which has no subject and then choose between B and C?
i also did not understand the ll structure that you have referred ..Could you please explain that again

Dear WaterFlowsUp,

Question #1: yes, choice (A) is a trainwreck on a number of grounds. The "when" clause is a blatant violation of parallelism, so that's just as good a reason to reject it as is the idiom mistake.

Questions #2: the "-ing" form of a verb has three potential roles
(a) part of a present progressive verb
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-verbs ... ive-tense/
(b) a participle (i.e. a modifier)
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/participle ... -the-gmat/
(c) a gerund (which acts as a noun)
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... d-phrases/
In choice (D) the word "creating" is a gerund, and in fact, the gerund phrase "creating images of Buddha" is the subject of the verb "accounted".
This post discusses distinguishing these three easy-to-confuse grammatical constructions:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/the-ing-form-of-a-verb/

Questions #3: because the parallelism is faulty in many of the incorrect choices, I will diagram the parallelism in choice (B), the OA. First, here's the whole sentence:
In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined
Now, an attempt at a clear diagram ----
(main clause of sentence:) In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans’ creative energy was expended
(first branch of parallelism:) on the creation of Buddha images
(conjunction linking the two parallel branches:) and
(second branch of the parallelism:) on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined

Both branches of the parallelism begin with the preposition "on", and the words in dark green are the parallel words. Notice, all three here are "-tion" nouns, whereas in incorrect answer choices, some are "-tion" noun while others are gerunds or phrases.

Mike
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2015, 02:34
Hi everybody,

I am struggling with the correct answer choice B, which I mistakenly crossed off when doing this problem. From MGMAT SC, I learned that you must not put simple gerunds (construction and decoration) and complex gerunds (THE creation) into a parallel construction? Has anybody an explanation?

Thanks!
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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26 Feb 2015, 10:43
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nanasgis wrote:
Hi everybody,

I am struggling with the correct answer choice B, which I mistakenly crossed off when doing this problem. From MGMAT SC, I learned that you must not put simple gerunds (construction and decoration) and complex gerunds (THE creation) into a parallel construction? Has anybody an explanation?

Thanks!

Dear nanasgis,
I'm happy to respond. With all due respect, my friend, I think you are misunderstanding what a gerund is. A gerund, very specifically, is a verb form, the "-ing" form of a verb. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/gmat-gramm ... d-phrases/
creating
constructing
decorating

Those are gerunds. What MGMAT says about these is perfectly true --- with an article (a, an, the), one becomes a "complex gerund" which could be in parallel with an ordinary noun. Furthermore, we wouldn't put a simple gerund in parallel with a complex gerund. That't the rule for gerunds.

You seem to be confusing all action nouns with gerunds. Anything that ends with "-tion" is a noun. Nouns and gerunds are mutually exclusive. A gerund is a verb-form that is taking the role of a noun, but it is very different from a bonafide noun. Many "-tion" nouns are action words, but those are all nouns: they are NOT gerunds.
creation
construction
decoration

Those are nouns, not gerunds. The rules for gerunds (simple vs. complex) are 100% irrelevant to nouns. We are perfectly able to put any noun in parallel with any other noun. The logic & meaning would provide constraints to what would make a legitimate parallel structure, but the presence or absence of articles doesn't matter in the least. Option (B) does not contain a single gerund, so any rules governing different types of gerunds is 100% irrelevant to option (B).

Does all this make sense, my friend?
Mike
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2016, 02:06
Note, however, that option B is not perfectly parallel. It lacks a "the" between "on" and "construction and decoration". Hence, there could have been even a better option.

B) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined.

Could someone please explain the reason/s why I should discard option D?

Thank you.
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2016, 12:50
EBITDA wrote:
Note, however, that option B is not perfectly parallel. It lacks a "the" between "on" and "construction and decoration". Hence, there could have been even a better option.

B) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined.

Could someone please explain the reason/s why I should discard option D?

Thank you.

2 reasons:

1. "And" and "also" are redundant.
2. "constructing and decorating the temples enshrining them" is a subject without any verb.
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20 Oct 2016, 05:06
sayantanc2k wrote:
EBITDA wrote:
Note, however, that option B is not perfectly parallel. It lacks a "the" between "on" and "construction and decoration". Hence, there could have been even a better option.

B) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined.

Could someone please explain the reason/s why I should discard option D?

Thank you.

2 reasons:

1. "And" and "also" are redundant.
2. "constructing and decorating the temples enshrining them" is a subject without any verb.

Can you please explain the use of 'in which' in the sentence?
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e  [#permalink]

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21 Oct 2016, 09:45
metaphola wrote:
EBITDA wrote:
B) much of the local artisans' creative energy was expended on the creation of Buddha images and on construction and decoration of the temples in which they were enshrined.

Can you please explain the use of 'in which' in the sentence?

Dear metaphola,

I'm happy to respond.

With all due respect, my friend, you have asked an unclear question. From your question, I have absolutely no idea of what kind of help you need.

I will say that "which" is a relative pronoun, and the job of a relative pronoun is to open a kind of subordinate clause known as a relative clause. A relative pronoun always plays a grammatical role in its relative clause, and may be the subject of the clause, the direct object, or the object of a preposition, as it is here.

That's the high level overview explanation. I don't know whether you know all this already and need explanation of something else, or whether you need more detailed explanation of this.

It's perfectly fine if there are topics in grammar that you don't understand, and it's perfectly fine that you ask experts on GMAT Club about what you don't understand. We experts love to answer questions and explain things to folks who want to know! The problem, though, is that an ambiguous or unclear question, a super-brief question lacking in all details, is a poor question. It's a question that probably didn't take you a lot of effort to write, and it gives me almost no information about what you need. It's a question that doesn't do its basic job. You see, one of the habits of excellence is the habit of asking excellent questions. See this blog:
I'm going to challenge you to write an excellent question: tell me exactly what you do understand, exactly what confuses you, what you think the structure means in that sentence, what you don't understand about its use, etc. Give me as much detail as possible. That would be an excellent question. One advantage of writing such a question is that it makes it much easier for me or another expert to give you the specific help that you need. Something that many students fail to appreciate, though, is that when you are reflecting on your own understanding and putting all this into words, you actually are establishing important connections in your brain, and all the effort you put into writing an excellent question actually primes your brain for deeper learning. You ask an excellent question, not primarily for my benefit, but for your benefit.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: In ancient Thailand, much of the local artisans' creative energy was e &nbs [#permalink] 21 Oct 2016, 09:45

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