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# In Arumville, among those young children with elevated

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Director
Joined: 21 Dec 2009
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In Arumville, among those young children with elevated  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2010, 07:25
3
4
00:00

Difficulty:

15% (low)

Question Stats:

79% (01:46) correct 21% (02:10) wrong based on 749 sessions

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In Arumville, among those young children with elevated levels lead in their
blood, few leave in houses containing lead-based paint, but many leave in
areas where vehicular traffic is heavy. These children's elevated blood-lead
levels probably result from lead added to gas, since, although gasoline sold in and around Arumville has been lead-free since 1990, lead from vehicule exhaust
remains in the soil for many years.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A: Sale of lead-based paint for use in homes was banned in Arumville in 1977

B: Vehicle traffic in most residential areas of Arumville is heavier today than it was twenty years ago

C: Some lead in the soil comes from deteriorating lead-based paint on the exterior of buildings

D: In Arumville, children's blood-lead levels typically rise during the warm summer months when children frequently play outdoors but not in the winter when children spend more time indoors.

E: If improperly carried out, the removal of lead-based paint from older houses can significantly the risk that children living in such houses will ingest lead dust.

contamination is more from lead absorbed in soil than from the lead-painted house.

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Re: In Arumville, among those young children  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2010, 17:12
5

A: Sale of lead-based paint for use in homes was banned in Arumville in 1977
>> This does not eliminate the probability that a lot of people live in houses that were built and painted before that year.
B: Vehicle traffic in most residential areas of Arumville is heavier today than it was twenty years ago
>> Since lead was banned in fuel in 1990, whether traffic is heavier now or before then is irrelevant.
C: Some lead in the soil comes from deteriorating lead-based paint on the exterior of buildings
>> This does not relate the children to the lead.
D: In Arumville, children's blood-lead levels typically rise during the warm summer months when children frequently play outdoors but not in the winter when children spend more time indoors.
>> The only answer that provides a link between the children and how they might be in contact with lead.
E: If improperly carried out, the removal of lead-based paint from older houses can significantly the risk that children living in such houses will ingest lead dust.
>> There is no mention of any lead-based paint removal being initiated in that neighbourhood.
##### General Discussion
Manager
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Re: In Arumville, among those young children  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2010, 07:37
1
Argument: Children elevated blood-lead level is due to lead from vehicule exhaust
remains in the soil for many years.

To strengthen this argument we have to prove the relation between children, blood-lead level and the soil.

D is the best answer which explains this relationship.

D. In Arumville, children's blood-lead levels typically rise during the warm summer months when children frequently play outdoors but not in the winter when children spend more time indoors.
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Re: In Arumville, among those young children  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2010, 09:42
The answer is D..All that is needed to prove here is that Lead from the soil is the prime factor responsible for the high lead level in the children's blood.
A,B,C and E are irrelevant
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Re: In Arumville, among those young children  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2010, 10:22
D is the only one that links the children's elevated blood-lead levels to the lead contained in the soil. Children spend more time outside in summer and hence have high levels of lead in their blood because they get the lead present in soil compared to winter when the children are inside the house (dont inhale the lead in soil) and hence their level of lead is low.
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Re: In Arumville, among those young children  [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2010, 23:27
What a way to start the CR practise-disaster!!
Intern
Joined: 18 Jun 2010
Posts: 7
Re: In Arumville, among those young children  [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2010, 18:40
1
One more D.
Strengthen Statements:
1.Attack the conclusion
2.Find an answer that strengthens it.Strengthening answers provide proofs outside the premise.

1.Conclusion :"since, lead from vehicle exhaust remains in the soil for many years."
2.Details about lead from paints and vehicle exhaust are in the premise but the conclusion says that the remains in the soil is the cause.
3.So the answer that strengthens here which supports the "remains in the soil is the cause" is D.
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Re: In Arumville, among those young children  [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2010, 19:59
Bhuvanamani wrote:
One more D.
Strengthen Statements:
1.Attack the conclusion
2.Find an answer that strengthens it.Strengthening answers provide proofs outside the premise.

1.Conclusion :"since, lead from vehicle exhaust remains in the soil for many years."
2.Details about lead from paints and vehicle exhaust are in the premise but the conclusion says that the remains in the soil is the cause.
3.So the answer that strengthens here which supports the "remains in the soil is the cause" is D.

thats the way dude to find the correct answer ...make a chain ....of events ..
yes D it is
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Re: In Arumville, among those young children  [#permalink]

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23 Aug 2010, 05:38
IMO D....
Thank God, I am parched..after getting 3 question incorrect in straight, this one is finally an icebreaker...ufff
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Re: In Arumville, among those young children with elevated  [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2013, 21:52
ARGUMENT:
The rising lead-levels in blood in children resulted from lead in gasoline.
Although gasoline today is lead free, lead remains in the soil for several years.

COUNTERARGUMENT BY AUTHOR: Lead remains in the sol

We are looking for a strengthener

A: This info has no bearing on the lead in gasoline. OUT!

B: This cannot strengthen because gasoline today is already lead-free. We need something confirming that despite gasoline today being lead-free there is still a source of lead (from gasoline) which is actually in the soil. OUT!

C: This supports the fact that there is lead in the soil but whether it is the source of problem, we cannot confirm. Keep this for now.

D: BINGO! Lead-level in blood rises when children are outdoor than when indoors. Soil is outside. This is better than C.

E: Another possible lead-exposure but this doesn't support that lead in gasoline from soil - inhaled by kids. OUT!

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Re: In Arumville, among those young children with elevated  [#permalink]

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27 Dec 2013, 17:41
gmatbull wrote:
In Arumville, among those young children with elevated levels lead in their
blood, few leave in houses containing lead-based paint, but many leave in
areas where vehicular traffic is heavy. These children's elevated blood-lead
levels probably result from lead added to gas, since, although gasoline sold in and around Arumville has been lead-free since 1990, lead from vehicule exhaust
remains in the soil for many years.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A: Sale of lead-based paint for use in homes was banned in Arumville in 1977

B: Vehicle traffic in most residential areas of Arumville is heavier today than it was twenty years ago

C: Some lead in the soil comes from deteriorating lead-based paint on the exterior of buildings

D: In Arumville, children's blood-lead levels typically rise during the warm summer months when children frequently play outdoors but not in the winter when children spend more time indoors.

E: If improperly carried out, the removal of lead-based paint from older houses can significantly the risk that children living in such houses will ingest lead dust.

contamination is more from lead absorbed in soil than from the lead-painted house.

So we are basically being asked to strengthen the claim that the lead comes from the soil as opposed as the lead coming from paint or gasoline etc..

In D since they children have higher blood levels when playing outdoors it means that the lead is coming from the soil rather than from the other two

Hence D is our best choice here

Cheers!
J
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Re: In Arumville, among those young children with elevated  [#permalink]

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05 Jul 2015, 00:33
can somebody why c isn't the answer
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Re: In Arumville, among those young children with elevated  [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2018, 23:34
CONCLUSION : ins in lead levels are because of vehicular exhaust which remains in soil for years
D supports/strengthens this conclusion clearly
Director
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Re: In Arumville, among those young children with elevated  [#permalink]

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03 Apr 2018, 01:39
In Arumville, among those young children with elevated levels lead in their
blood, few leave in houses containing lead-based paint, but many leave in
areas where vehicular traffic is heavy. These children's elevated blood-lead
levels probably result from lead added to gas, since, although gasoline sold in and around Arumville has been lead-free since 1990, lead from vehicule exhaust
remains in the soil for many years.

Which of the following, if true, most strengthens the argument?

A: Sale of lead-based paint for use in homes was banned in Arumville in 1977
Sale was banned in 1977. But there may be houses which has been painted before 1977.

B: Vehicle traffic in most residential areas of Arumville is heavier today than it was twenty years ago
Gasoline has been lead -free since 1990. So, it doesn't matter if traffic is heavier today or not.

C: Some lead in the soil comes from deteriorating lead-based paint on the exterior of buildings
If lead in the soil is coming from lead based paint buildings, it doesn't explain how soil is related to children.. may be vegetables grown in that area.. Not very clear.

D: In Arumville, children's blood-lead levels typically rise during the warm summer months when children frequently play outdoors but not in the winter when children spend more time indoors.
It shows that the blood lead level rise during summer months, when children frequently play outdoors.. and not in winters .. So, here children gets contact from soil.

E: If improperly carried out, the removal of lead-based paint from older houses can significantly the risk that children living in such houses will ingest lead dust.
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Re: In Arumville, among those young children with elevated &nbs [#permalink] 03 Apr 2018, 01:39
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