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In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of

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In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of the price of oil, oil companies operating in the North Sea have taken a variety of approaches, which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently from smaller fields, and finding innovative ways to cut the cost of building and operating platforms.

(A) which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(B) which includes reducing employment, using new technology to be more efficient in pumping oil
(C) which include reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(D) which include the reduction of employment, their using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(E) including a reduction of employment, their use of new technology to be more efficient at pumping oil

Posting here, because other post does not have either OA or source.
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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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TooLong150 wrote:
In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of the price of oil, oil companies operating in the North Sea have taken a variety of approaches, which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently from smaller fields, and finding innovative ways to cut the cost of building and operating platforms.

(A) which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(B) which includes reducing employment, using new technology to be more efficient in pumping oil
(C) which include reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(D) which include the reduction of employment, their using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(E) including a reduction of employment, their use of new technology to be more efficient at pumping oil

Posting here, because other post does not have either OA or source.


Some good things to notice in this question:

  • We are dealing with parallelism in a modifying phrase. List of things should send up a red flag to think about parallelism.
  • The key to knowing what the structure of our list should be is outside of the underlined portion.
  • The word "includes" is not plural. We only use "includes" for third person present. Is this third person here?

Follow these tips to the right answer! :)

Let me know if I can help! :)
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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jul 2014, 03:35
Hi kevin,
can u pls explain why variety of approaches needs a plural - include ??

subject of verb include is singular word -vareity and not plural word - approaches ; then y r we using include in the answer ?

pls help !! :?

kunal

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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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kunaljain1701 wrote:
subject of verb include is singular word -vareity and not plural word - approaches ; then y r we using include in the answer ?

which modifies the nearest grammatically eligible word. In C, that word is approaches. So, for the relative clause: which include reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently from smaller fields, the subject is approaches.

p.s. Our book SC Nirvana discusses which modifiers, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email, I can send you the corresponding section.
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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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kunaljain1701 wrote:
can u pls explain why variety of approaches needs a plural - include ?? subject of verb include is singular word -vareity and not plural word - approaches ; then y r we using include in the answer ?


Howdy Kunal,

I think EducationAisle did a nice job of explaining why we use "include" instead of "includes." Although it may appear like the "which" modifies "variety," it is actually modifying "approaches." I think this should make sense if you think about it logically. If you look at the list of the things after the "which," do they describe "variety?" Can those things modify and explain "variety?" Or does it make more sense for the list of things to describe "approaches?" It makes more sense that they items listed are explaining and giving further detail about "approaches" and not about "variety."

Does that make sense?

Hope so! Happy studying and best of luck! :D

Cheers,

Kevin
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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2016, 06:58
I have a question based on this question:

Which of the following would be correct -

- have taken a group of managers, which include John, Ben, and Steve.

managers is plural and it provides a list, so it is very apparent that include should be in the plural form, but what about:

- have taken a group of managers, which includes John.

John is one person, so would the correct word be includes or would it still be include because managers is plural?

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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2016, 12:55
clearly C.

include (plural for approaches)
which include.....,using..., and finding(parallelism)

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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2016, 21:50
TooLong150 wrote:
In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of the price of oil, oil companies operating in the North Sea have taken a variety of approaches, which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently from smaller fields, and finding innovative ways to cut the cost of building and operating platforms.

(A) which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(B) which includes reducing employment, using new technology to be more efficient in pumping oil
(C) which include reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(D) which include the reduction of employment, their using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(E) including a reduction of employment, their use of new technology to be more efficient at pumping oil

Posting here, because other post does not have either OA or source.


hard.
approached each can include.
this is logic
but for some problem on og, "noun which includes " is not logic because that specific noun can not take action of "include" logically. I think this one is cheating.
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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2016, 23:06
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The answer is C ,

2 main issues
Verb agreement
Parallelism

Approaches will need a plural verb include which rules out choices , A,B and E.

Between C and D , C has the correct parallel strucutre
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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2016, 07:29
Travy wrote:
I have a question based on this question:

Which of the following would be correct -

- have taken a group of managers, which include John, Ben, and Steve.

managers is plural and it provides a list, so it is very apparent that include should be in the plural form, but what about:

- have taken a group of managers, which includes John.

John is one person, so would the correct word be includes or would it still be include because managers is plural?



Can someone comment on the question I have based on the original question? - Thanks

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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jun 2016, 07:40
Travy wrote:
I have a question based on this question:

Which of the following would be correct -

- have taken a group of managers, which include John, Ben, and Steve.

managers is plural and it provides a list, so it is very apparent that include should be in the plural form, but what about:

- have taken a group of managers, which includes John.

John is one person, so would the correct word be includes or would it still be include because managers is plural?

Group is the subject for both. GROUP includes.

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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2016, 06:51
MBAPrepCoach wrote:
Travy wrote:
I have a question based on this question:

Which of the following would be correct -

- have taken a group of managers, which include John, Ben, and Steve.

managers is plural and it provides a list, so it is very apparent that include should be in the plural form, but what about:

- have taken a group of managers, which includes John.

John is one person, so would the correct word be includes or would it still be include because managers is plural?

Group is the subject for both. GROUP includes.

Farrell Dyan Hehn, MBA
Admissions Consultant & Verbal Tutor MBAPrepCoach.com


Oh my god, i want to kill myself because of this dilemma.
As you said "GROUP includes", so why "...a variety of approaches, which INCLUDE...", in that INCLUDE takes plural?
Many thanks for anyone could help me. Cheers.

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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2016, 08:02
TooLong150 wrote:
In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of the price of oil, oil companies operating in the North Sea have taken a variety of approaches, which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently from smaller fields, and finding innovative ways to cut the cost of building and operating platforms.

(A) which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(B) which includes reducing employment, using new technology to be more efficient in pumping oil
(C) which include reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(D) which include the reduction of employment, their using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(E) including a reduction of employment, their use of new technology to be more efficient at pumping oil

Posting here, because other post does not have either OA or source.


This question tests the correct use of Parallelism/Modifier/S-V agreement issue

In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of the price of oil, oil companies
operating in the North Sea have taken a variety of approaches, which include reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently from smaller fields, and finding innovative ways to cut the cost of building and operating platforms.

Errors in the answer options highlighted in RED
, Correct answer must be (C)

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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2016, 08:43
Abhishek009 wrote:
TooLong150 wrote:
In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of the price of oil, oil companies operating in the North Sea have taken a variety of approaches, which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently from smaller fields, and finding innovative ways to cut the cost of building and operating platforms.

(A) which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(B) which includes reducing employment, using new technology to be more efficient in pumping oil
(C) which include reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(D) which include the reduction of employment, their using new technology to pump oil more efficiently
(E) including a reduction of employment, their use of new technology to be more efficient at pumping oil

Posting here, because other post does not have either OA or source.


This question tests the correct use of Parallelism/Modifier/S-V agreement issue

In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of the price of oil, oil companies
operating in the North Sea have taken a variety of approaches, which include reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently from smaller fields, and finding innovative ways to cut the cost of building and operating platforms.

Errors in the answer options highlighted in RED
, Correct answer must be (C)


Hi,
Could you please answer my question above? Thanks so much!

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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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New post 20 Sep 2016, 11:16
'approaches' must be followed by include. So eliminate A and B

E-eliminate because ,including should modify entire clause. Here it should modify approaches. So modifier error.

Plus the list is not parallel.

D has parallelism issue.

So clearly C.

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In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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New post 21 Sep 2016, 14:49
In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of the price of oil, oil companies operating in the North Sea have taken a variety of approaches, which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently from smaller fields, and finding innovative ways to cut the cost of building and operating platforms.

Errors: 1) includes refer to approaches => should be include; 2) their is ambiguous

With this knowledge lets go to answer choices

(A) which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently - as stated in errors;
(B) which includes reducing employment, using new technology to be more efficient in pumping oil - includes is incorrect as stated above
(C) which include reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently - correct
(D) which include the reduction of employment, their using new technology to pump oil more efficiently - non-parallel list
(E) including a reduction of employment, their use of new technology to be more efficient at pumping oil - incorrect using of modifier; implies that companies took approaches while including listed stuff

hope that this will help

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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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The first thing to point out is that 'which' cannot follow managers; so whether it includes three people or one person, 'which' can only modify the group. However, in the 'approaches' case, which can logically refer to the multitude of approaches stated there, thus, faithfully subscribing to the touch rule of "which".
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Re: In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2017, 13:07
In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of the price of oil, oil companies operating in the North Sea have taken a variety of approaches, which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently from smaller fields, and finding innovative ways to cut the cost of building and operating platforms.

(A) which includes their reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently - includes is incorrect because which refers to approaches ; parallelism issue
(B) which includes reducing employment, using new technology to be more efficient in pumping oil - includes is incorrect because which refers to approaches ; parallelism issue
(C) which include reducing employment, using new technology to pump oil more efficiently - Correct
(D) which include the reduction of employment, their using new technology to pump oil more efficiently - parallelism issue
(E) including a reduction of employment, their use of new technology to be more efficient at pumping oil - parallelism issue
Answer C
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In attempting to solve the problems caused by a lowering of [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2017, 21:48
Another subtle problem with B is that it changes the meaning of the second item in the list" using new technology to be more efficient in pumping oil" VS "using new technology to pump oil more efficiently"

First of all, the latter choice is much more precise. Also, when you use using X in doing/...ing Y , you mean to, you mean to say that X is a part of the process Y, though it is not exclusive to it. While using X to do Y means that you did X to primarily do Y. Check the examples below:

E.g.,
Matthew used nothing but Pepsi bottle caps to make his 100-foot-tall sculpture of Väinämöinen.
(i.e., the sculpture is actually made of bottle caps)

But...
Matthew, who is afraid of heights, made extensive use of meditation techniques in making his 100-foot-tall sculpture of Väinämöinen.
Here, "to make" would be wrong, because meditation plays no part in the actual construction of a sculpture. This version, on the other hand, correctly conveys the indirect contribution of meditation, presumably to counter the sculptor's fear of heights.
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