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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
1
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P1 - importance of song for a bird. breeding habit.
P2 - diff songs, effects.
P3 - an experiment on song recognition.
p4 - further experiment to understand interval and sequence.
P5 - species recognition, and song variation which leads to individual recognition.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) raise new issues - for sure no new issues raised.
(B) explain an enigma - enigma means something puzzling. I think nothing is puzzling here.
(C) refute misconceptions - no misconceptions.
(D) reconcile differing theories - no different theories given.
(E) analyze a phenomenon - yes analyze a phenomenon is correct. covering maximum of passage. in the end they have concluded too. which is not covered here. either way this one is best choice.

---------------------------------------

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the number and general nature of figures sung by the indigo bunting?

Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear singing.

(C) They are learned from other indigo buntings.

---------------------------------------------

3. It can be inferred that the investigation that determined the similarity among more than 90 percent of all the figures produced by birds living in different regions was undertaken to answer which of the following questions?
I. How much variation, if any, is there in the figure types produced by indigo buntings in different locales? - Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear singing.
II. Do local populations of indigo buntings devel- op their own dialects of figure types? - Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear singing.
III . Do figure similarities among indigo buntings decline with increasing geographic separation? - more than 90 percent of all the figures of birds from different regions are alike.

(A) II only
(B) III only
(C) IandIIonly
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III - correct

Despite the large frequency range of these sounds and the rapid frequency changes that the bird makes, the number of figures is very limited. Further, although we found some unique figures in different geographical populations, more than 90 percent of all the figures of birds from different regions are alike. Indigo bunting figures are extremely stable on a geo- graphic basis. In our studies of isolated buntings we found that male indigo buntings are capable of singing many more types of figures than they usually do. Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear singing.

--------------------------------------------------------

4. It can be inferred from the passage that the existence of only a limited number of indigo bunting figures serves primarily to

In our studies of isolated buntings we found that male indigo buntings are capable of singing many more types of figures than they usually do. Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear singing.

(D) enhance s pecies recognition by decreas ing the number of figure patterns to which the bird must respond

----------------------------------------------------------

5. It can be inferred that a dummy of a male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder that played the songs of different species in order to try to

(B) r ule out visual cues as a factor in species recognition --- Has to be this ... as till the point not keeping the dummy, it was not able to recognize .

---------------------------------------------------

6. According to the pas sage , the authors played a normal indigo bunting song backwards in order to determine which of the following?

detailed forms of the figures without altering frequency ranges or gross temporal features.

It seems likely, therefore, that a specific configuration is not essential for intraspecies recognition' but it is clear that song figures must conform to a particular frequency range, must be within narrow limits of duration, and must be spaced at particular intervals.

(C) How specific must a figure shape be for it to be recognized by the indigo bunting?

-----------------------------------------------------

7. According to the passage , the indigo buntings' songs function in which of the following ways?
I. To delineate a breeding area
II. To defend a breeding area
III. To identify the birds to their mates

(A) 1only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

straight all 3 - E.
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
Hi, Gmatninja
Could you help me with question 4.

I think that the existence of only a limited number of indigo bunting figures serves primarily to do something negative because the passage says that This variety is probably a valuable adaptation for survival: if every bird sang only a few types of figures, in dense woods or underbrush a female might have difficulty recognizing her mate's song, and a male might not be able to distinguish a neighbor from a stranger.

I guess there should be a great number of indigo bunting figures so that the birds do not get confused.
How is D the correct answer.
Thank you in advance!
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
GMATNinja egmat VeritasKarishma mikemcgarry
I would like you to help explain what's the difference between choice C and D in question 6. I still couldn't understand why D is a wrong one.
Thank you for your help.
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
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Questions 6


krittapat wrote:
GMATNinja egmat VeritasKarishma mikemcgarry
I would like you to help explain what's the difference between choice C and D in question 6. I still couldn't understand why D is a wrong one.
Thank you for your help.

The prompt asks about the question the author is trying to answer by playing normal indigo bunting songs backwards. This experiment is described in the fourth paragraph. With that in mind, let’s take a look at (D):

Quote:
(D) How does variation in the pacing of song figures affect the indigo bunting's recognition of the figures?

The four paragraph notes that a normal song was played backwards, but did this vary the pacing? According to the author, playing the songs backwards did NOT alter “gross temporal features.” Temporal refers to things which relate to time, so presumably the pacing was not altered. For that reason, we can eliminate (D).

And here’s (C):

Quote:
(C) How specific must a figure shape be for it to be recognized by the indigo bunting?

As we said above, the fourth paragraph describes the experiment in which indigo bunting songs are played backwards. The final sentence of that paragraph describes the results of that experiment. It says:

    It seems likely, therefore, that a specific configuration is not essential for intraspecies recognition, but it is clear that song figures must conform to a particular frequency range, must be within narrow limits of duration, and must be spaced at particular intervals.

So, what question did the answer? It told us exactly how specific a figure shape must be for intraspecies recognition. This is exactly what (C) describes, so it is the best answer choice.

I hope that helps!
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
what is the max. time we should spend to solve this passage?
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
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SushmithaT wrote:
what is the max. time we should spend to solve this passage?

Hello, SushmithaT. If your test were tomorrow, I would suggest you look to spend no more than about 2 minutes per question on average. This does not mean attempt to speed-read your way to an answer on the first question in no more than 2 minutes. Also, the modern test looks different from these old paper tests (from which the questions in a 1980s OG would have derived). First, you will not see a 7-question set like this, and second, certain question types—such as 3 and 7, with the three statements you have to assess—are more GRE®-like than GMAT™-like (which makes sense, given that ETS, the company that creates GRE® questions, formerly wrote GMAT™ questions as well). If you are just practicing and your test is some way off, I would urge you to spend as much time as you need to reinforce your approach to the task: read with purpose, focusing on authorial intent, and look to find textual evidence to support your answers or disqualify others. When you build and strengthen solid test-taking habits, your timing will come down as a result, and you will not have to worry about the issue as much. Finally, if you have trouble reading this sort of passage, you might want to increase your exposure to high-quality material that is written in English. Major newspapers and journals can be a great way to gain such exposure—e.g., The New York Times or The Atlantic.

Happy studies.

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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
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Quote:
...certain question types—such as 3 and 7, with the three statements you have to assess—are more GRE®-like than GMAT™-like

They certainly are more GRE-like, and my GMAT exam (in 2018) had a question like this. It was one of the very few surprises in the exam.


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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
Expert Reply
vv65 wrote:
Quote:
...certain question types—such as 3 and 7, with the three statements you have to assess—are more GRE®-like than GMAT™-like

They certainly are more GRE-like, and my GMAT exam (in 2018) had a question like this. It was one of the very few surprises in the exam.

Thank you for sharing this detail about your exam experience, vv65, and in 2018 to boot. It appears as if I need to revise my position on these questions with Roman numerals, even if I remain not so enamored of them.

- Andrew
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
Hi GMATNinja,
Can you please explain question no. 5?
I marked option e because i thought it was to confound indigo bunting.
Thanks!
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
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Question 5


Nikita45 wrote:
Hi url=[https://gmatclub.com:443/forum/memberlist.php?mode=viewprofile&un=GMATNinja]GMATNinja[/url],
Can you please explain question no. 5?
I marked option e because i thought it was to confound indigo bunting.
Thanks!

Question 5 asks why experimenters put a fake male indigo bunting near a tape recorder playing songs.

This experiment is discussed in paragraph 3. There, the author explains that the point of the experiment is to test the ability of a species to detect songs from other members of the same species. Can indigo buntings distinguish the song of another indigo bunting from the song of a different kind of bird?

Yes, it turns out that they can. Even when the experimenters place a fake indigo bunting in the area, members of the same species can still tell that the song comes from a different species.

Since the point of the entire experiment was about song recognition, the fake indigo bunting must play a role in that overall point. What it shows is that the indigo bunting is NOT just reacting to visual cues -- it is in fact reacting to the song itself.

So the point of including the fake indigo bunting is to rule out visual cues as a factor in species recognition, as stated in (B).

Here's (E) again:

Quote:
(E) confound the indigo buntings in the experiment

The experimenters' goal was not to confound the indigo buntings -- the scientists weren't sitting there, rubbing their hands and getting excited about how confused the birds were going to be. (That would be kinda mean, no?) Instead, the goal was to find out how and whether indigo buntings can recognize songs from other indigo buntings.

Because the experimenters weren't just trying to confuse the birds, (E) doesn't capture the purpose of the fake indigo bunting.

I hope that helps!
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In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
For question 1, why is B incorrect?
Can we not assume that the fact that the indigo's songs are limited, despite having the capability to sing in different ways, an enigma?

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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
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danymasri98 wrote:
For question 1, why is B incorrect?
Can we not assume that the fact that the indigo's songs are limited, despite having the capability to sing in different ways, an enigma?

Hello, danymasri98. Even if we could make a case that such an enigma were present, we cannot lose sight of the question itself:

Quote:
The primary purpose of the passage is to

Is the author of the passage primarily concerned with, to use your words, the puzzle that the indigo bunting has a limited repertoire of songs, even though it can sing in different ways? A quick scan of just the topic [first] sentence of some of the body paragraphs suggests otherwise:

Quote:
[Paragraph 3] Realizing that the ability to distinguish the songs of one species from those of another could be an important factor in the evolution of the figures, we tested species recognition of a song.

[Paragraph 5]There is evidence that new figures may arise within a population through a slow process of change and selection.

Notice how paragraph three directly mentions different species, while paragraph five discusses a population of birds in a general way. If the primary purpose were, in fact, to explain the enigma in question, then we would probably want a stronger commitment by the author in the final paragraph than may arise, this variety is probably a valuable adaptation, a female might have difficulty, and so on. If you want something explained, such as this very question, would you be satisfied with a so-called explanation that kept using maybe or perhaps? You would probably seek a second opinion.

Meanwhile, answer choice (E) uses vague, cautious language that is often (not always) a hallmark of a correct answer to this type of question: analyze a phenomenon. As long as the passage describes something in detail, it is hard to argue against analyze. Here, phenomenon can be thought of as something neutral. In fact, the first definition of the word on Dictionary.com and its accompanying sentence are fitting:

Quote:
1. a fact, occurrence, or circumstance observed or observable:
to study the phenomena of nature.

So, answer choice (E) is effectively saying that the author is interested in exploring something that has been observed. That is really hard to dispute, given the non-committal language, making it a pretty safe bet.

Thank you for thinking to ask, and good luck with your studies.

- Andrew
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
Thank you for the constructive and elaborate reply AndrewN.
It all makes sense now.
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In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
GMATNinja egmat @VeritasKarishma mikemcgarry AndrewN MartyTargetTestPrep KarishmaB

Could you clarify why C is wrong for Question 5.
Quote:
5. It can be inferred that a dummy of a male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder that played the songs of different species in order to try to?


To me, both B and C seem correct. I chose C since B specifically says about RULING OUT visible cues. What if there were any other visible cues still present? C on the other hand gives a general statement which holds true as well that DUMMY BIRD experiment simply gave an additional clue for species reognition.

Thanks.
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
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walterwhite756 wrote:
GMATNinja egmat @VeritasKarishma mikemcgarry AndrewN MartyTargetTestPrep KarishmaB

Could you clarify why C is wrong for Question 5.
Quote:
5. It can be inferred that a dummy of a male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder that played the songs of different species in order to try to?


To me, both B and C seem correct. I chose C since B specifically says about RULING OUT visible cues. What if there were any other visible cues still present? C on the other hand gives a general statement which holds true as well that DUMMY BIRD experiment simply gave an additional clue for species reognition.

Thanks.


Certainly a tricky question.

5. It can be inferred that a dummy of a male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder that played the songs of different species in order to try to

(A) simulate the conditions in nature
(B) rule out visual cues as a factor in species recognition
(C) supply an additional clue to species recognition for the indigo bunting
(D) provide data on the habits of bunting species other than the indigo bunting
(E) confound the indigo buntings in the experiment


Here is the relevant part:

we tested species recognition of a song. When we played a tape recording of a lazuli bunting or a painted bunting, male indigo buntings did not respond, even when a dummy of a male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder. Playing an indigo bunting song, however, usually brought an immediate response, making it clear that a male indigo bunting can readily distinguish songs of its own species from those of other species.

The researchers wanted to test 'species recognition of a song' which means whether indigo bunting recognised their own species song.

When they played other species sings, the indigo did not respond. (they recognised that the species was not theirs through the song)
Then a dummy of an indigo was placed while playing other species' songs. (to see whether visual cues have a role to play in species recognition)
They found out that visual clues do not play a part.

So they found out that indigo buntings recognise that it is not their own species through the song.

(B) rule out visual cues as a factor in species recognition
Makes sense. They wanted to rule out that visual clues play a part in species recognition.


(C) supply an additional clue to species recognition for the indigo bunting

"an additional clue" would make sense in case the dummy was placed while playing indigo species song. Then we could say that they played the indigo song and put in an additional clue by putting a dummy of an indigo male there to help other indigo males recognise their own species. But that is not the case.
Hence (C) is not correct.

Answer (B)
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the [#permalink]
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