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In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the

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In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 22 Nov 2018, 12:50
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New RC from 1988 Official Guide



In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the main mechanism for securing, defining, and defending an adequate breeding area. When population density is high, only the strongest males can retain a suitable area. The weakest males do not breed or are forced to nest on poor or marginal territories.

During the breeding season, the male indigo bunting sings in his territory; each song lasts two or three seconds with a very short pause between songs. Melodic and rhythmic characteristics are produced by rapid changes in sound frequency and some regularity of silent periods between sounds. These modulated sounds form recognizable units, called figures, each of which is reproduced again and again with remarkable consistency. Despite the large frequency range of these sounds and the rapid frequency changes that the bird makes, the number of figures is very limited. Further, although we found some unique figures in different geographical populations, more than 90 percent of all the figures of birds from different regions are alike. Indigo bunting figures are extremely stable on a geo- graphic basis. In our studies of isolated buntings we found that male indigo buntings are capable of singing many more types of figures than they usually do. Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear singing.

Realizing that the ability to distinguish the songs of one species from those of another could be an important factor in the evolution of the figures, we tested species recognition of a song. When we played a tape recording of a lazuli bunting or a painted bunting, male indigo buntings did not respond, even when a dummy of a male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder. Playing an indigo bunting song, however, usually brought an immediate response, making it clear that a male indigo bunting can readily distinguish songs of its own species from those of other species.

The role of the song figures in intraspecies recognition was then examined . We created experimental songs composed of new figures by playing a normal song backwards, which changed the detailed forms of the figures without altering frequency ranges or gross temporal features. Since the male indigos gave almost a full response to the backward song, we concluded that a wide range of figure shapes can evoke positive responses. It seems likely, therefore, that a specific configuration is not essential for intraspecies recognition' but it is clear that song figures must conform to a particular frequency range, must be within narrow limits of duration, and must be spaced at particular intervals.

There is evidence that new figures may arise within a population through a slow process of Change and selection. This variety is probably a valuable adapta- tion for survival: if every bird sang only a few types of figures, in dense woods or underbrush a female might have difficulty recognizing her mate's song, and a male might not be able to distinguish a neighbor from a stranger. Our studies led us to conclude that there must be a balance between song stability and conservatism, which lead to clear-cut species recognition, and song variation which leads to individual recognition.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) raise new issues
(B) explain an enigma
(C) refute misconceptions
(D) reconcile differing theories
(E) analyze a phenomenon


2. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the number and general nature of figures sung by the indigo bunting?

(A) They are established at birth.
(B) They evolve slowly as the bird learns.
(C) They are learned from other indigo buntings.
(D) They develop after the bird has been forced onto marginal breeding areas.
(E) They gradually develop through contact with prospective mates.


3. It can be inferred that the investigation that determined the similarity among more than 90 percent of all the figures produced by birds living in different regions was undertaken to answer which of the following questions?
I. How much variation, if any, is there in the figure types produced by indigo buntings in different locales?
II. Do local populations of indigo buntings develop their own dialects of figure types?
III . Do figure similarities among indigo buntings decline with increasing geographic separation?

(A) II only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III


4. It can be inferred from the passage that the existence of only a limited number of indigo bunting figures serves primarily to

(A) ensure species survival by increasing competition among the fittest males for the females
(B) increase population density by eliminating ambiguity in the figures to which the females must respond
(C) maintain the integrity of the species by restricting the degree of figure variation and change
(D) enhances spices recognition by decreasing the number of figure patterns to which the bird must respond
(E) avoid confusion between species by clearly demarcating the figure patterns of each species


5. It can be inferred that a dummy of a male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder that played the songs of different species in order to try to

(A) simulate the conditions in nature
(B) rule out visual cues as a factor in species recognition
(C) supply an additional clue to species recognition for the indigo bunting
(D) provide data on the habits of bunting species other than the indigo bunting
(E) confound the indigo buntings in the experiment


6. According to the pas sage , the authors played a normal indigo bunting song backwards in order to determine which of the following?

(A) What are the limits of the frequency range that will provide recognition by the indigo bunting?
(B) What is the time duration necessary for recognition by the indigo bunting?
(C) How specific must a figure shape be for it to be recognized by the indigo bunting?
(D) How does variation in the pacing of song figures affect the indigo bunting's recognition of the figures ?
(E) Is the indigo bunting responding to cues other than those in the song figures ?


7. According to the passage , the indigo buntings' songs function in which of the following ways?
I. To delineate a breeding area
II. To defend a breeding area
III. To identify the birds to their mates

(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III


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Originally posted by workout on 07 Nov 2018, 20:27.
Last edited by u1983 on 22 Nov 2018, 12:50, edited 1 time in total.
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In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2018, 20:31
1
1
1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) raise new issues
(B) explain an enigma
(C) refute misconceptions
(D) reconcile differing theories
(E) analyze a phenomenon


The best answer is E. When asked to identify the primary purpose of a passage, you should select the answer choice that states what the passage as a whole achieves. The passage is primarily a discussion of a natural phenomenon, the song of the male indigo bunting. This discussion focuses on the components, form, and function of the song. Such a discussion can correctly be called an analysis, and E presents such a choice. There is no evidence in the passage that suggests that the issues presented are new (choice A), or that any of the matters discussed are enigmas or misconceptions (choices B and C). The discussion is not primarily a presentation of theory but of empirical evidence and observed phenomena; thus, choice D is not correct.

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the number and general nature of figures sung by the indigo bunting?

(A) They are established at birth.
(B) They evolve slowly as the bird learns.
(C) They are learned from other indigo buntings.
(D) They develop after the bird has been forced onto marginal breeding areas.
(E) They gradually develop through contact with prospective mates.


The best answer is C. To answer this question, you should examine each of {he choices to determine which makes an accurate statement, based on evidence in the passage, about the number and general nature of the figures sung by the indigo bunting. In the second paragraph, the author concludes that male indigo buntings in a natural environment copy figures from other buntings, a fact that explains why the number and general nature of figures remain limited. Thus, choice C is true and is the intended answer. The other choices are plausible statements, but they are not asserted in the passage.

3. It can be inferred that the investigation that determined the similarity among more than 90 percent of all the figures produced by birds living in different regions was undertaken to answer which of the following questions?
I. How much variation, if any, is there in the figure types produced by indigo buntings in different locales?
II. Do local populations of indigo buntings develop their own dialects of figure types?
III. Do figure similarities among indigo buntings decline with increasing geographic separation?


(A) II only
(B) III only
(C) I and II only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III


The best answer is E. The format of this question requires you to evaluate each of the questions designated with Roman numerals separately and carefully. In this question, you must infer from the passage what information the investigation discussed in the s·econd paragraph was designed to obtain. According to the passage, the investigation yielded information that permitted researchers to draw conclusions about variation in figure types, about unique figures among birds, and about the effects of increasing geographic separation. The second paragraph describes some of the strategies used by the investigators to obtain precisely this information. I, II, and III are all questions that the investigators set out to explore, and E is the correct answer.

4. It can be inferred from the passage that the existence of only a limited number of indigo bunting figures serves primarily to

(A) ensure species survival by increasing competition among the fittest males for the females
(B) increase population density by eliminating ambiguity in the figures to which the females must respond
(C) maintain the integrity of the species by restricting the degree of figure variation and change
(D) enhances spices recognition by decreasing the number of figure patterns to which the bird must respond
(E) avoid confusion between species by clearly demarcating the figure patterns of each species


The best answer is D. This question requires you to determine why the number of indigo bunting figures is as limited as it is. In order to make this determination, it is necessary to consider several facts presented in the passage and their relationship to each other. The third paragraph indicates that the songs serve as a means of recognition for members of the same species. The fourth paragraph discusses the strict limitations on the ways in which figures are produced. The last paragraph indicates that "song stability and conservatism," that is, limits to the numbers of figures and variations, are essential for clear-cut species recognition. Choice D is a statement of that idea.

5. It can be inferred that a dummy of a male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder that played the songs of different species in order to try to

(A) simulate the conditions in nature
(B) rule out visual cues as a factor in species recognition
(C) supply an additional clue to species recognition for the indigo bunting
(D) provide data on the habits of bunting species other than the indigo bunting
(E) confound the indigo buntings in the experiment


The best answer is B. This question requires you to determine the reason for the researcher's use of a dummy male indigo bunting. The passage indicates that the sight of the dummy was not enough to cause subject male indigo buntings to react to songs of lazuli and painted buntings. This result suggests that the indigo bunting identifies others of the species on the basis of the song rather than sight. The fact that the researchers performed an additional check in which an indigo bunting song, did, in fact, provoke responses from the subject indigos further rules out visual clues.

6. According to the passage, the authors played a normal indigo bunting song backwards in order to determine which of the following?

(A) What are the limits of the frequency range that will provide recognition by the indigo bunting?
(B) What is the time duration necessary for recognition by the indigo bunting?
(C) How specific must a figure shape be for it to be recognized by the indigo bunting?
(D) How does variation in the pacing of song figures affect the indigo bunting's recognition of the figures ?
(E) Is the indigo bunting responding to cues other than those in the song figures ?


The best answer is C. The fourth paragraph states that the researchers played songs backward, a technique that changed the forms of the figures without changing frequency ranges or gross temporal features. Since figure shape, therefore, is the only element to be altered, the results of the experiment would give information about the role of figure shape in species recognition. Choice C is the only choice that addresses the question of figure shapes, and, in fact, the fourth paragraph indicates that the experiment was designed to determine what changes in detail would fail to elicit responses from the subject buntings.

7. According to the passage, the indigo buntings' songs function in which of the following ways?
I. To delineate a breeding area
II. To defend a breeding area
III. To identify the birds to their mates


(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III



The best answer is E. The format of this question requires you to evaluate each of the phrases designated with Roman numerals separately and carefully. The question requires you to look up information explicitly stated in the passage. The first sentence in the first paragraph states that in birds such as the indigo bunting, "song is the main mechanism for securing, defining, and defending an adequate breeding area." I and II are restatements of parts of this idea. The last paragraph indicates that songs serve the function of identification within the species and that females can differentiate the songs of their mates from those of other males, thus indicating that III is also correct; therefore, E (I, II, and III) is the best choice.
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Nov 2018, 21:53
Total Time - 17:04
5 Correct 2 incorrect (Q3,Q6)
How to reduce Total time experts Please guide
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Nov 2018, 00:04
Time: 12:28
Score = 6/7 - Q3

Answers with explanation please.
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2018, 09:02
1
P1 - importance of song for a bird. breeding habit.
P2 - diff songs, effects.
P3 - an experiment on song recognition.
p4 - further experiment to understand interval and sequence.
P5 - species recognition, and song variation which leads to individual recognition.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) raise new issues - for sure no new issues raised.
(B) explain an enigma - enigma means something puzzling. I think nothing is puzzling here.
(C) refute misconceptions - no misconceptions.
(D) reconcile differing theories - no different theories given.
(E) analyze a phenomenon - yes analyze a phenomenon is correct. covering maximum of passage. in the end they have concluded too. which is not covered here. either way this one is best choice.

---------------------------------------

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true about the number and general nature of figures sung by the indigo bunting?

Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear singing.

(C) They are learned from other indigo buntings.

---------------------------------------------

3. It can be inferred that the investigation that determined the similarity among more than 90 percent of all the figures produced by birds living in different regions was undertaken to answer which of the following questions?
I. How much variation, if any, is there in the figure types produced by indigo buntings in different locales? - Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear singing.
II. Do local populations of indigo buntings devel- op their own dialects of figure types? - Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear singing.
III . Do figure similarities among indigo buntings decline with increasing geographic separation? - more than 90 percent of all the figures of birds from different regions are alike.

(A) II only
(B) III only
(C) IandIIonly
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III - correct

Despite the large frequency range of these sounds and the rapid frequency changes that the bird makes, the number of figures is very limited. Further, although we found some unique figures in different geographical populations, more than 90 percent of all the figures of birds from different regions are alike. Indigo bunting figures are extremely stable on a geo- graphic basis. In our studies of isolated buntings we found that male indigo buntings are capable of singing many more types of figures than they usually do. Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear singing.

--------------------------------------------------------

4. It can be inferred from the passage that the existence of only a limited number of indigo bunting figures serves primarily to

In our studies of isolated buntings we found that male indigo buntings are capable of singing many more types of figures than they usually do. Thus, it would seem that they copy their figures from other buntings they hear singing.

(D) enhance s pecies recognition by decreas ing the number of figure patterns to which the bird must respond

----------------------------------------------------------

5. It can be inferred that a dummy of a male indigo bunting was placed near the tape recorder that played the songs of different species in order to try to

(B) r ule out visual cues as a factor in species recognition --- Has to be this ... as till the point not keeping the dummy, it was not able to recognize .

---------------------------------------------------

6. According to the pas sage , the authors played a normal indigo bunting song backwards in order to determine which of the following?

detailed forms of the figures without altering frequency ranges or gross temporal features.

It seems likely, therefore, that a specific configuration is not essential for intraspecies recognition' but it is clear that song figures must conform to a particular frequency range, must be within narrow limits of duration, and must be spaced at particular intervals.

(C) How specific must a figure shape be for it to be recognized by the indigo bunting?

-----------------------------------------------------

7. According to the passage , the indigo buntings' songs function in which of the following ways?
I. To delineate a breeding area
II. To defend a breeding area
III. To identify the birds to their mates

(A) 1only
(B) II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

straight all 3 - E.
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Nov 2018, 11:59
9:20, 6 out of 7.

Oddly enough got the first one wrong, thus I was probably rushing through the text to make enough notes without understand the general context...

Did anyone else have a similar problem?
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In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2018, 07:53
I got only 3/7 right, and whooping 23.28mins.

IR-5mins

any guidance to where I am going wrong.

my notes were
p(1)
-IB- strongly territorial bird
-how they defend the breeding area
strong males ---> keep area
weak---->forced to nest else or not mate
P(2)
explanation of birds' breeding song of territory
similarty
they copy

p(3) evolution
claim

p(4) role of songs
particularities and conditions

p(5) may change
needed for survival

---------------

Q #7
01:13
my ans C
correct E

Q #6
01:20
my ans C
correct C

Q #5
time 02:09
my ans B
correct B

Q #4
time 02:08
my ans B
correct D

Q #3
04:18
my ans C
correct E

Q #2
time 03:31
my ans B
correct C
Q #1
time 01:56
my ans E
correct E
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2018, 08:00
I got only 3/7 right, and whooping 23.28mins.

IR-5mins

any guidance to where I am going wrong.

my notes were
p(1)
-IB- strongly territorial bird
-how they defend the breeding area
strong males ---> keep area
weak---->forced to nest else or not mate
P(2)
explanation of birds' breeding song of territory
similarty
they copy

p(3) evolution
claim

p(4) role of songs
particularities and conditions

p(5) may change
needed for survival

---------------

Q #7
01:13
my ans C
correct E

Q #6
01:20
my ans C
correct C

Q #5
time 02:09
my ans B
correct B

Q #4
time 02:08
my ans B
correct D

Q #3
04:18
my ans C
correct E

Q #2
time 03:31
my ans B
correct C
Q #1
time 01:56
my ans E
correct E
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Re: In strongly territorial birds such as the indigo bunting, song is the   [#permalink] 22 Dec 2018, 08:00
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