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# In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive

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In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2010, 23:52
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In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive result indicates that people have pironoma when, in fact, they do not; a false negative result indicates that people do not have pironoma when, in fact, they do. To detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.

Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above?

(A) The accepted treatment for pironoma does not have damaging side effects.
(B) The laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life.
(D) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(E) All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the same proportion of false negative results.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Tough and confusing
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by Skywalker18 on 12 Nov 2017, 19:57, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2010, 05:59
Why not C?
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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2010, 04:57
SudiptoGmat wrote:
In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive result indicates that people have pironoma when, in fact, they do not; a false negative result indicates that people do not have pironoma when, in fact, they do. To detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.
Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above?
(A) The accepted treatment for pironoma does not have damaging side effects. ==> Keeping it as a contender
(B) The laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect pironoma. ==> Weakens the argument since the test results have the same minor side effects as other tests and so there is no good reason to specifically use lab test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.
(C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life. ==> No effect on the argument
(D) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma. ==> No effect on the argument
(E) All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the same proportion of false negative results. ==> Contender

try this but give your logic to support your answer

Out of A and E, E definitely supports the argument better than A does.

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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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12 Jan 2013, 21:16
was really tough ... thanks for explanantion ...

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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2014, 06:47
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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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09 Aug 2014, 00:39
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In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive result indicates that people have pironoma when, in fact, they do not; a false negative result indicates that people do not have pironoma when, in fact, they do. To detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.

Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above?

(A) The accepted treatment for pironoma does not have damaging side effects.
(B) The laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life.
(D) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(E) All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the same proportion of false negative results.

This was a very tricky question indeed. It was like if not 'p', then (1-p) is the answer.

If false negative results are the same for all the laboratories, then false positive results that can be rectified, needs to be chosen.

Thanks.!
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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2014, 20:23
false negative=true results
false positive=false results
then read options carefully

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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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13 Dec 2014, 07:29
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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01 Jun 2016, 10:14
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2016, 13:12
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2016, 03:27
Well.. this is more like an assumption question than support a recommendation ..
i got this wrong in one of my test as i din understand the question and rest was blunder ..
Nonetheless, thanks for the question
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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2016, 00:56
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SudiptoGmat wrote:
In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive result indicates that people have pironoma when, in fact, they do not; a false negative result indicates that people do not have pironoma when, in fact, they do. To detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.
Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above?
(A) The accepted treatment for pironoma does not have damaging side effects.
(B) The laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life.
(D) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(E) All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the same proportion of false negative results.

try this but give your logic to support your answer

True test results:
Person has pironoma and the test says he does.
Person doesn't have pironoma and the test says he doesn't.

False test results:
Person has pironoma and the test says he doesn't - False negative
Person doesn't have pironoma and the test says he does - False positive

To detect pironoma accurately, obviously false test results should be minimised. Now the arguments says that the test with the lowest proportion of false positives should be used. The question that arises is what about false negatives? What if the test with the lowest proportion of false positives has very high proportion of false negatives. Will that test be most accurate then? Perhaps not.
So how do we support the recommendation that the test with lowest false positives should be used (since it will be the most accurate)?
Option (E) says that all tests have the same proportion of false negatives. This means false negatives are the same for all tests. So this is not a distinguishing factor at all. Then the test that has the lowest proportion of false positives would be the most accurate. Hence, option (E) supports the recommendation.

Some people seem to have had trouble with option (C).

(C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life.
This would support focusing on minimising false negatives. A false negative delays the start of treatment. If treatment needs to begin asap, then we should try to minimise false negatives. It doesn't strengthen our recommendation of minimising false positives.
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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2017, 02:44
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(A) The accepted treatment for pironoma does not have damaging side effects.( WRONG ANSWER :The argument deals with the detection of the disease and not with its treatment.)

(B) The laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.(WRONG ANSWER : The argument is not concerned about the side effects of the tests.)

(C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life.(WRONG ANSWER : The argument is concerned with the detection of the disease and not with its treatment.)

(D) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.( WRONG ANSWER : The argument is not about the proportion of inconclusive results.)

(E) All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the same proportion of false negative results.(RIGHT ANSWER : When all laboratory tests give the same number of false negative results then the only thing that will differentiate a given test from the others will the number of false positive results it produces.)

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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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01 Mar 2017, 21:21
the answer should be E,while i were confused btw D&E can someone explain a better reason to eliminate option D
thnaks

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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2017, 00:26
VeritasPrepKarishma wrote:
SudiptoGmat wrote:
In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive result indicates that people have pironoma when, in fact, they do not; a false negative result indicates that people do not have pironoma when, in fact, they do. To detect pironoma most accurately, physicians should use the laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results.
Which of the following, if true, gives the most support to the recommendation above?
(A) The accepted treatment for pironoma does not have damaging side effects.
(B) The laboratory test that has the lowest proportion of false positive results causes the same minor side effects as do the other laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life.
(D) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
(E) All laboratory tests to detect pironoma have the same proportion of false negative results.

try this but give your logic to support your answer

True test results:
Person has pironoma and the test says he does.
Person doesn't have pironoma and the test says he doesn't.

False test results:
Person has pironoma and the test says he doesn't - False negative
Person doesn't have pironoma and the test says he does - False positive

To detect pironoma accurately, obviously false test results should be minimised. Now the arguments says that the test with the lowest proportion of false positives should be used. The question that arises is what about false negatives? What if the test with the lowest proportion of false positives has very high proportion of false negatives. Will that test be most accurate then? Perhaps not.
So how do we support the recommendation that the test with lowest false positives should be used (since it will be the most accurate)?
Option (E) says that all tests have the same proportion of false negatives. This means false negatives are the same for all tests. So this is not a distinguishing factor at all. Then the test that has the lowest proportion of false positives would be the most accurate. Hence, option (E) supports the recommendation.

Some people seem to have had trouble with option (C).

(C) In treating pironoma patients, it is essential to begin treatment as early as possible, since even a week of delay can result in loss of life.
This would support focusing on minimising false negatives. A false negative delays the start of treatment. If treatment needs to begin asap, then we should try to minimise false negatives. It doesn't strengthen our recommendation of minimising false positives.

Excellent Explanation!
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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2017, 00:34
Choice A and C are dealing with the treatment for pironoma and are irrelevant to the accuracy of tests to detect pironoma.

(A) The accepted treatment for pironoma does not have damaging side effects.
Negate - The accepted treatment for pironoma does have damaging side effects. The negation does not affect the argument at all. So, no impact on the argument.

Similarly, Choice B deals with the side effects of tests to detect pironoma, and does not address their accuracy. so incorrect.

(D) The proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all laboratory tests used to detect pironoma.
That the proportion of inconclusive test results is equal for all tests (choice D) leaves open the question of which test is more accurate, since it does not indicate which test has fewest false results.
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Re: In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive   [#permalink] 08 Aug 2017, 00:34
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# In tests for pironoma, a serious disease, a false positive

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