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In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic

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In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2019, 11:24
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Question Stats:

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In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic principle of free trade was Alexander Hamilton, who in 1792 advocated government policies that would encourage indigenous manufacturing and to protect it from competition from British exports.

(A) and to protect it
(B) but protecting it
(C) while protecting it
(D) for protecting them
(E) to protect them

SC81661.01
Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION

https://www.nytimes.com/1987/07/22/business/economic-scene-trade-theory-from-harvard.html

FREE trade has been a venerated economic principle in the United States going back 200 years. But there have been challengers. The first was Alexander Hamilton, who in 1791 argued for government policies that would encourage native manufacturing while protecting it from British exports.

Verb form; Agreement; Parallelism

The point of the sentence is that Alexander Hamilton challenged free trade by advocating government policies that would encourage indigenous manufacturing and, at the same time, protect this manufacturing from competition from British exports. Some of the answer choices use the plural pronoun them, but the antecedent of the pronoun is manufacturing, which is singular, so the singular pronoun it should be used. As given, the sentence correctly uses the singular pronoun it, but, because the sentence's predicate is a compound predicate, in which two verb phrases are conjoined by the word and, the same verb form should be used, which is not the case here.

(A) Because the predicate is compound, with verb phrases conjoined by and, the verb forms should be the same; thus, to protect is incorrect. The pronoun it is correct, however, as its antecedent is manufacturing.

(B) Because the predicate is compound, with verb phrases conjoined by but, the verb forms should be the same; thus, to protect is incorrect. The pronoun it is correct, however, as its antecedent is manufacturing.

(C) Correct. The sentence is well expressed. The pronoun it is correct as its antecedent is manufacturing, and the use of the participle phrase while protecting it from competition from British imports (the subject, indigenous manufacturing, is given earlier and need not be repeated) appropriately conveys the idea that Hamilton advocated policies that protected the manufacturing at the same time as they encouraged its development.

(D) The use of them is incorrect. Since it is plural the antecedent cannot be the singular indigenous manufacturing, though that would appear to be the intended antecedent (the idea underlying the sentence is that Hamilton, in a challenge to the principle of free trade, sought both to encourage and protect indigenous manufacturing). To take either of the plural nouns government policies or earliest challengers as the antecedent renders the sentence illogical, as does the use of the preposition for. Although it might make sense to think that encouraging indigenous manufacturing would protect the United States, United States, like manufacturing, is singular, and so cannot serve as the antecedent of them.

(E) As with answer choice D, there is no plural noun that is a logically plausible antecedent for the plural pronoun them.

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Re: In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2019, 11:25
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generis wrote:
In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic principle of free trade was Alexander Hamilton, who in 1792 advocated government policies that would encourage indigenous manufacturing and to protect it from competition from British exports.

A) and to protect it
B) but protecting it
C) while protecting it
D) for protecting them
E) to protect them

SC81661.01
Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION

At its core, this sentence means that Alexander Hamilton advocated government policies that both encouraged the development of U.S. manufacturing and protected U.S. manufacturing from British competition, and in doing so he challenged the economic principle of free trade.

Split #1: Pronoun/noun disagreement

Manufacturing, singular, must be referred to by it
Options D and E use them
-- Them has no logical antecedent.
-- The two plural nouns are "government policies" and "[earliest] challengers." The policies are not protecting themselves or any early challengers of free trade.
-- It's possible that encouragement of indigenous manufacturing might protect the United States—but United States is singular and cannot be the antecedent for them

Eliminate D and E

• Split #2: Parallelism

Compound predicates
-- If more than one verb (encourage, protect) shares the same subject (policies), we have a compound predicate.
-- Compound predicates that are joined by conjunctions such as and or but must have parallel verb phrases.

Option A: would encourage and to protect are not parallel
Option B: would encourage and protecting are not parallel

We can eliminate on the parallelism issue alone. What about the conjunction "but" in (B)?
Not logical. Hamilton wanted two things that worked in concert (that complemented one another):
(1) to encourage U.S. manufacturing (through subsidies, if Hamilton's 1791 Report on Manufactures is the source), and
(2) to protect U.S. manufacturing from British competition (through tariffs).

Both policies were designed to help U.S. manufacturing.
Using BUT rather than AND makes it sound as though encouraging manufacturing was in opposition to protecting manufacturing. There is no such opposition or contrast. The word "but" is illogical.
Eliminate A and B

By POE, option C is correct.

In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic principle of free trade was Alexander Hamilton, who in 1792 advocated government policies that would encourage indigenous manufacturing while protecting it from competition from British exports.

-- while protecting [it = indigenous manufacturing] from competition from British exports is a phrase in which
-- while protecting (indigenous manufacturing) . . . captures the idea that Hamilton advocated policies that simultaneously protected manufacturing and encouraged it.

Answer C
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Re: In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Apr 2019, 23:24
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generis wrote:
GMAT® Official Guide 2020 VERBAL REVIEW
NEW OFFICIAL QUESTION
SC Question OG VR #233


In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic principle of free trade was Alexander Hamilton, who in 1792 advocated government policies that would encourage indigenous manufacturing and to protect it from competition from British exports.

A) and to protect it
B) but protecting it
C) while protecting it
D) for protecting them
E) to protect them


KUDOS to all replies that provide good explanations.


IMHO C

A) and to protect it -Change intended meaning and wrong ||'ism
B) but protecting it - usage of 'BUT' changes the intended meaning
C) while protecting it -CORRECT
D) for protecting them -'Them; cannot refer to Manufacturing
E) to protect them -'Them; cannot refer to Manufacturing
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Re: In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2019, 00:16
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First level of elimination can be pronoun reference.
The sentence talks about indigenous manufacturing which is singular hence the decendant pronoun should be "it". Hence eliminate d and e.
Next
A. To protect is not parallel with that would encourage. Let's remove that.
B. But protecting it sounds contrast. The sentence doesn't talk about to contrasting things but infact "protecting it" is an additional task that policies are doing. Let's eliminate this also

C. Corrects all the above errors . While is supportive . Protecting it supports extra work by policies.
Hence correct answer "C"

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Re: In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Apr 2019, 00:49
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generis wrote:
GMAT® Official Guide 2020 VERBAL REVIEW
NEW OFFICIAL QUESTION
SC Question OG VR #233


In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic principle of free trade was Alexander Hamilton, who in 1792 advocated government policies that would encourage indigenous manufacturing and to protect it from competition from British exports.


A) and to protect it : Since and is a parallel marker, here sentence means that policies would do two actions: encourage and to protect, both the actions are not parallel. Incorrect
B) but protecting it : but is a contrast marker. Here usage of protecting it is better than A. “It” refers back to indigenous manufacturing, which is correct. “But” does not make a whole lot of sense here even if it is grammatically correct. But would mean that indigenous manufacturing would have a separate market for itself. Meaning error
C) while protecting it : “While” corrects the error from Choice B. While reflects an action being performed simultaneously. Here, indigenous manufacturing and product from British Exports will be in the same market but policies will protect indigenous manufacturing in some way. CORRECT
D) for protecting them : Here “for” changes the meaning of the sentence. It would mean that indigenous manufacturing will protect policies from competition. Incorrect
E) to protect them : same as A. Plus, them has no logical plural antecedent.

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Re: In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic  [#permalink]

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New post 14 May 2019, 23:58
globaldesi and Doer01 , nicely done.

(Doer01, though, read option E again carefully.
I think you are seeing an "and," but there is no "and." :) )
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Re: In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jun 2019, 13:18
indigenous manufacturing sure sounds like a "them" but has to be construed as an "it". If we follow the meaning of the sentence, Hamilton advocated these policies while protecting "it" and not "to protect them"

IMO C
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Re: In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Sep 2019, 00:38
QUICK SOLVING BETWEEN B AND C
WHILE =simultaneously CORRECT MEANING
BUT = NOT INTENDED MEANING
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Re: In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Nov 2019, 11:49
generis wrote:
In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic principle of free trade was Alexander Hamilton, who in 1792 advocated government policies that would encourage indigenous manufacturing and to protect it from competition from British exports.

(A) and to protect it
(B) but protecting it
(C) while protecting it
(D) for protecting them
(E) to protect them

SC81661.01
Verbal Review 2020 NEW QUESTION




(A) and to protect it - Wrong: 1) Parallelism 2) Meaning
(B) but protecting it - Wrong: 1) Meaning 2) Parallelism
(C) while protecting it - Correct
(D) for protecting them - Wrong: 1) Pronoun 2) Meaning
(E) to protect them - Wrong: 1) Pronoun
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Re: In the United States one of the earliest challengers of the economic   [#permalink] 23 Nov 2019, 11:49
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