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Individual studies and experiments the world

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Individual studies and experiments the world  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jul 2018, 03:27
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Individual studies and experiments the world over have shown that a strong correlation exists between music and mood --- listening to a particular kind of music impacts the mood of the listener. In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation. Indeed, one of the reasons music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners. However, not all people respond similarly to the same kind of music.

A new study shows that listening to the same piece of sad music can actually make some people happy while others sad. Clearly, the difference in the response generated is due to the difference or the lack of the same in the perceived and the induced emotions experienced by the participants. Perceived emotion is defined as the act of sensing the emotional content of the stimuli whereas induced emotion is the emotion felt by the receiver after being subjected to the stimuli.

In the study, the participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad. These participants rated the piece of sad music as highly unpleasant on the scale of perceived emotions; however, their induced emotion score was really low for the level of unpleasantness experienced by them and hence did not match with their perceived emotions score. For this reason, these participants felt that they could enjoy the piece of music without feeling sad and hence reported their emotional state as closer to being happy.

However, the findings of the study do not necessarily suggest that the perceived emotion score by the not so musically literate was low. It could just mean that either their perceived and induced emotion scores coincided or that the difference between the two was insignificant.

1. The author is primarily concerned with
A. debunking a myth about the effect a piece of music has on people
B. suggesting how individual knowledge can shape the effect a piece of music has on different people
C. discussing various studies that relate to the effect music has on people's mood
D. explaining why different personality types respond differently to the same piece of music
E. explaining an observed result of a study done on the link between music and mood

A.debunking a myth about the effect a piece of music has on people
Incorrect: Irrelevant
The author does not talk about any myth in the first place, and therefore there's no question of debunking it.
B.suggesting how individual knowledge can shape the effect a piece of music has on different people
Incorrect: Out of Scope
The author mentions only a correlation between the people who had a relatively higher knowledge of music and the "happy" effect of sad music on such people. By no means does the author imply a causation between the two.
C. discussing various studies that relate to the effect music has on people's mood
Incorrect: Partial Scope
The author discusses a finding from one study and not various studies.
D.explaining why different personality types respond differently to the same piece of music
Incorrect: Irrelevant
In the passage, there is no mention whatsoever of different personality types.
E. explaining an observed result of a study done on the link between music and mood
Correct
This answer choice matches the main point we came up with in the summary section. The author introduces a point in the last sentence of the first passage and then elaborates on it in the second paragraph, discussing the reason behind the observed finding of the study.


2. Which one of the following statements can be derived from the passage?
A. People who have a high knowledge of music in general are more likely to distance themselves from the emotional content of a piece of music.
B. The emotional response generated in a listener to a piece of music can override the blockages created by the unfamiliar content in it.
C. The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy but instead felt no sadness.
D. A sad piece of music can easily be used to evoke happiness in listeners.
E. The result of the study would surely not have been the same had all the participants had the same background in music.

A. People who have a high knowledge of music in general are more likely to distance themselves from the emotional content of a piece of music.
Incorrect: Out of Scope
There is no reasoning given as to why the people with a relatively higher knowledge of music had a significant gap between their PE and IE scores. Hence, it cannot be inferred that these participants distanced themselves from the emotional content. Hence, this piece of information is not supported by the passage.
B.The emotional response generated in a listener to a piece of music can override the blockages created by unfamiliar content in it.
Correct
The author says that Indeed, one of the reasons music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners.
This choice is a restatement of the author's opinion.
C. The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy but instead felt no sadness.
Incorrect: Out of Scope
The author does not comment on the internal state of these participants. He/She just states the reason that these people "reported" being happy after listening to the piece of sad music. Accordingly, there is no way forus to determine whether these people were neutral in their emotions or somewhat happy.
D. A sad piece of music can easily be used to evoke happiness in listeners.
Incorrect: Out of Scope
The author does not mention anything about the "ease" with which a piece of sad music could be used to generate happiness in its listeners.
E.The result of the study would surely not have been the same had all the participants had the same background in music.
Incorrect: Out of Scope
The author does not mention any causal relationship between the knowledge of music and the response generated. If anything, the final paragraph raises a consideration that could hurt this piece of information.


3. Which of the following is the function of the final paragraph in the passage?
A. To raise a consideration that sheds lights on a possible implication of the finding of the study
B. To leave the reader with a thought that is completely in the opposite direction to the preceding discussion
C. To prescribe further investigation in to the reasoning behind the offered explanation
D. To suggest that the study's findings are ambiguous and hence not reliable
E. To rule out the myth that people with higher knowledge of music are also the ones with a better understanding of music

A. To raise a consideration that sheds lights on a possible implication of the finding of the study
Correct
This choice is on the same lines as the summary we came up with for this particular paragraph. In the previous paragraph, the author details out the profile of the people who reported as being close to happy after listening to the piece of sad music. These people had a relatively higher knowledge of music and a significant gap in their PE and IE scores. Accordingly, one possible implication is that a causal relation exists between the knowledge of music and its effect. It is to shed some light on the relevance of this implication that the author talks about the PE scores of people not so musically literate.
B. To leave the reader with a thought that is completely in the opposite direction to the preceding discussion
Incorrect: Out of Scope
The implication regarding the causal relationship, as detailed out in the explanation for the above answer choice, is never explicitly discussed in the passage. Also, the tone of the author in the final paragraph "not necessarily", "could just mean" is mild and does not support the phrase "completely in the opposite direction" in the choice.
C. To prescribe further investigation in to the reasoning behind the offered explanation
Incorrect: Irrelevant
The author does not prescribe any future course of action in the final paragraph.
D.To suggest that the study's findings are ambiguous and hence not reliable
Incorrect: Out of Scope
The author never questions the study's findings. All the author does is raise a consideration about a possible conclusion that could be drawn from the study's findings.
E. To rule out the myth that people with higher knowledge of music are also the ones with a better understanding of music
Incorrect: Irrelevant
The author never mentions any myth anywhere in the passage.



4. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT
A. Participants were unaware of the difference between their perceived and induced emotion score.
B. The main reason people listen to music in day to day life is to adjust their emotions.
C. It is possible that even when the perceived score was high, the participant felt sad after listening to the piece of sad music
D. The emotional response to a piece of music with lyrics in an unknown language is partly responsible for the possible enjoyment it offers to its listeners.
E. Various studies have shown a causal relationship between music and its effect on the listener's mood.

A.Participants were unaware of the difference between their perceived and induced emotion score.
Correct: Not given in the passage
There is no mention of the "awareness" of the participants with regards to their PE and IE scores. Hence, this piece of information is not supported by the passage.
B.The main reason people listen to music in day to day life is to adjust their emotions.
Incorrect: Can be Inferred
This choice is a restatement of the information given in the first paragraph, which is: In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation.
C.It is possible that even when the perceived score was high, the participant felt sad after listening to the piece of sad music
Incorrect: Can be Inferred
This information flows from a combination of two pieces of information given in the passage. They are:
1) In the study, the participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad. (third paragraph)
2) However, the findings of the study do not necessarily suggest that the perceived emotion score by the not so musically literate was low. (last paragraph)
Since the ones who were not so musically literate were also the ones who felt sad after listening to the music, one can infer the information given in this choice.
D.The emotional response to a piece of music with lyrics in an unknown language is partly responsible for the possible enjoyment it offers to its listeners.
Incorrect: Can be Inferred
This piece of information is stated in the first paragraph, in which the author talks about music being able to transcend barriers.
E.Various studies have shown a causal relationship between music and its effect on the listener's mood.
Incorrect: Can be Inferred
This piece of information is stated in the first sentence of the passage.


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Individual studies and experiments the world  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2018, 01:11
1
1. The author is primarily concerned with


A.debunking a myth about the effect a piece of music has on people

Incorrect: Irrelevant. The author does not talk about any myth in the first place, and therefore there's no question of debunking it.

B.suggesting how individual knowledge can shape the effect a piece of music has on different people

Incorrect: Out of Scope. The author mentions only a correlation between the people who had a relatively higher knowledge of music and the "happy" effect of sad music on such people. By no means does the author imply a causation between the two.

C. discussing various studies that relate to the effect music has on people's mood

Incorrect: Partial Scope. The author discusses a finding from one study and not various studies.

D.explaining why different personality types respond differently to the same piece of music

Incorrect: Irrelevant. In the passage, there is no mention whatsoever of different personality types.

E. explaining an observed result of a study done on the link between music and mood

Correct. This answer choice matches the main point we came up with in the summary section. The author introduces a point in the last sentence of the first passage and then elaborates on it in the second paragraph, discussing the reason behind the observed finding of the study.

2. Which one of the following statements can be derived from the passage?


A. People who have a high knowledge of music in general are more likely to distance themselves from the emotional content of a piece of music.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. There is no reasoning given as to why the people with a relatively higher knowledge of music had a significant gap between their PE and IE scores. Hence, it cannot be inferred that these participants distanced themselves from the emotional content. Hence, this piece of information is not supported by the passage.

B.The emotional response generated in a listener to a piece of music can override the blockages created by unfamiliar content in it.

Correct. The author says that Indeed, one of the reasons music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners. This choice is a restatement of the author's opinion.

C. The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy but instead felt no sadness.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. The author does not comment on the internal state of these participants. He/She just states the reason that these people "reported" being happy after listening to the piece of sad music. Accordingly, there is no way for us to determine whether these people were neutral in their emotions or somewhat happy.

D. A sad piece of music can easily be used to evoke happiness in listeners.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. The author does not mention anything about the "ease" with which a piece of sad music could be used to generate happiness in its listeners.

E.The result of the study would surely not have been the same had all the participants had the same background in music.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. The author does not mention any causal relationship between the knowledge of music and the response generated. If anything, the final paragraph raises a consideration that could hurt this piece of information.

3. Which of the following is the function of the final paragraph in the passage?


A. To raise a consideration that sheds lights on a possible implication of the finding of the study

Correct. This choice is on the same lines as the summary we came up with for this particular paragraph. In the previous paragraph, the author details out the profile of the people who reported as being close to happy after listening to the piece of sad music. These people had a relatively higher knowledge of music and a significant gap in their PE and IE scores. Accordingly, one possible implication is that a causal relation exists between the knowledge of music and its effect. It is to shed some light on the relevance of this implication that the author talks about the PE scores of people not so musically literate.

B. To leave the reader with a thought that is completely in the opposite direction to the preceding discussion

Incorrect: Out of Scope. The implication regarding the causal relationship, as detailed out in the explanation for the above answer choice, is never explicitly discussed in the passage. Also, the tone of the author in the final paragraph "not necessarily", "could just mean" is mild and does not support the phrase "completely in the opposite direction" in the choice.

C. To prescribe further investigation in to the reasoning behind the offered explanation

Incorrect: Irrelevant. The author does not prescribe any future course of action in the final paragraph.

D.To suggest that the study's findings are ambiguous and hence not reliable

Incorrect: Out of Scope. The author never questions the study's findings. All the author does is raise a consideration about a possible conclusion that could be drawn from the study's findings.

E. To rule out the myth that people with higher knowledge of music are also the ones with a better understanding of music

Incorrect: Irrelevant. The author never mentions any myth anywhere in the passage.

4. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT


A.Participants were unaware of the difference between their perceived and induced emotion score.

Correct: Not given in the passage. There is no mention of the "awareness" of the participants with regards to their PE and IE scores. Hence, this piece of information is not supported by the passage.

B.The main reason people listen to music in day to day life is to adjust their emotions.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred. This choice is a restatement of the information given in the first paragraph, which is: In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation.

C.It is possible that even when the perceived score was high, the participant felt sad after listening to the piece of sad music

Incorrect: Can be Inferred. This information flows from a combination of two pieces of information given in the passage. They are:
1) In the study, the participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad. (third paragraph)
2) However, the findings of the study do not necessarily suggest that the perceived emotion score by the not so musically literate was low. (last paragraph)
Since the ones who were not so musically literate were also the ones who felt sad after listening to the music, one can infer the information given in this choice.

D.The emotional response to a piece of music with lyrics in an unknown language is partly responsible for the possible enjoyment it offers to its listeners.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred. This piece of information is stated in the first paragraph, in which the author talks about music being able to transcend barriers.

E.Various studies have shown a causal relationship between music and its effect on the listener's mood.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred. This piece of information is stated in the first sentence of the passage.
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Re: Individual studies and experiments the world  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2018, 04:12
1
In a passage like this im finding it extremely hard to get the detail questions right. In this particular passage i just got the central idea right. All the detail questions confused me to the core and despite having another look, im finding it extremely hard to get them right.
Even apart from this paragraph, in general, timing is proving to be a big issue for me. Just 7 days to go for my GMAT.
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Re: Individual studies and experiments the world  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2018, 07:50
7 mins in total. 3/4 correct


1. The author is primarily concerned with

discussing a study on music & mood correlation (general idea). E

2. Which one of the following statements can be derived from the passage? this one is a tough one

between b & c , b wins.
Quote:
However, the findings of the study do not necessarily suggest that the perceived emotion score by the not so musically literate was low.
. C is tricky but there is no indication of that they are on scale 1 or zero of happiness.

3. Which of the following is the function of the final paragraph in the passage?

notice the change of tone at final paragraph. A

4. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT

for detail question, refer back to the passage. A
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Re: Individual studies and experiments the world  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2018, 11:42
Pls help i m not getting ques.where is it given?

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: Individual studies and experiments the world  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2018, 13:08
Q1.
Para 1: History and ends with a however something new happened!
Para 2: The study and def of Perceived emotion
Para 3: Observations of study
Para 4: Findings
A. Only para 1. Partially correct but not complete
B. Out of scope
C. Only single study
D. Not correct
Ans: E
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Re: Individual studies and experiments the world  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2018, 17:49
1
P1-P3 - A study is given related to music and mood and its correlation. [Main point]
P4 - Some clarification on study

1. The author is primarily concerned with
A. debunking a myth about the effect a piece of music has on people ---- certain part of the passage
B. suggesting how individual knowledge can shape the effect a piece of music has on different people---- small portion
C. discussing various studies that relate to the effect music has on people's mood---- one 1 study given here.
D. explaining why different personality types respond differently to the same piece of music ---- small portion
E. explaining an observed result of a study done on the link between music and mood --- best of the lot.

--------------------------------------------

2. Which one of the following statements can be derived from the passage?
What to do - skim through all options, see what we can eliminate, rest will see trough search in para and get a hold of. key is scope should be small.
A. People who have a high knowledge of music in general are more likely to distance themselves from the emotional content of a piece of music. --- not give.
B. The emotional response generated in a listener to a piece of music can override the blockages created by the unfamiliar content in it. --- i doubt that in general.
C. The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy but instead felt no sadness. ---- ho extreme scope.
D. A sad piece of music can easily be used to evoke happiness in listeners. --- too broad.
E. The result of the study would surely not have been the same had all the participants had the same background in music. --- correct. Even a slight diff will be considered.

---------------------------------------------

3. Which of the following is the function of the final paragraph in the passage?
What to do - skim through all options, see what we can eliminate, rest will see trough search in para and get a hold of. key is scope should be small.
A. To raise a consideration that sheds lights on a possible implication of the finding of the study ----- Was not sure about A, but as i left with this one.
B. To leave the reader with a thought that is completely in the opposite direction to the preceding discussion --- No
C. To prescribe further investigation in to the reasoning behind the offered explanation ---- No
D. To suggest that the study's findings are ambiguous and hence not reliable ---- no, just some parts have been touched.
E. To rule out the myth that people with higher knowledge of music are also the ones with a better understanding of music ---- No

--------------------------------------------

4. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT
What to do - skim through all options, see what we can eliminate, rest will see trough search in para and get a hold of. key is scope should be small.
A. Participants were unaware of the difference between their perceived and induced emotion score. --- Not sure, need to search
B. The main reason people listen to music in day to day life is to adjust their emotions. ---- mentioned, though i dnt like the language of it. its one of the reason.
C. It is possible that even when the perceived score was high, the participant felt sad after listening to the piece of sad music --- mentioned
D. The emotional response to a piece of music with lyrics in an unknown language is partly responsible for the possible enjoyment it offers to its listeners. --- mentioned
E. Various studies have shown a causal relationship between music and its effect on the listener's mood. --- mentioned

A should be the answer.
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Re: Individual studies and experiments the world  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Sep 2018, 19:33
Skywalker18 wrote:
Individual studies and experiments the world over have shown that a strong correlation exists between music and mood --- listening to a particular kind of music impacts the mood of the listener. In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation. Indeed, one of the reasons music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners. However, not all people respond similarly to the same kind of music.

A new study shows that listening to the same piece of sad music can actually make some people happy while others sad. Clearly, the difference in the response generated is due to the difference or the lack of the same in the perceived and the induced emotions experienced by the participants. Perceived emotion is defined as the act of sensing the emotional content of the stimuli whereas induced emotion is the emotion felt by the receiver after being subjected to the stimuli.

In the study, the participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad. These participants rated the piece of sad music as highly unpleasant on the scale of perceived emotions; however, their induced emotion score was really low for the level of unpleasantness experienced by them and hence did not match with their perceived emotions score. For this reason, these participants felt that they could enjoy the piece of music without feeling sad and hence reported their emotional state as closer to being happy.

However, the findings of the study do not necessarily suggest that the perceived emotion score by the not so musically literate was low. It could just mean that either their perceived and induced emotion scores coincided or that the difference between the two was insignificant.
1. The author is primarily concerned with
A. debunking a myth about the effect a piece of music has on people
B. suggesting how individual knowledge can shape the effect a piece of music has on different people
C. discussing various studies that relate to the effect music has on people's mood
D. explaining why different personality types respond differently to the same piece of music
E. explaining an observed result of a study done on the link between music and mood

A.debunking a myth about the effect a piece of music has on people
Incorrect: Irrelevant
The author does not talk about any myth in the first place, and therefore there's no question of debunking it.
B.suggesting how individual knowledge can shape the effect a piece of music has on different people
Incorrect: Out of Scope
The author mentions only a correlation between the people who had a relatively higher knowledge of music and the "happy" effect of sad music on such people. By no means does the author imply a causation between the two.
C. discussing various studies that relate to the effect music has on people's mood
Incorrect: Partial Scope
The author discusses a finding from one study and not various studies.
D.explaining why different personality types respond differently to the same piece of music
Incorrect: Irrelevant
In the passage, there is no mention whatsoever of different personality types.
E. explaining an observed result of a study done on the link between music and mood
Correct
This answer choice matches the main point we came up with in the summary section. The author introduces a point in the last sentence of the first passage and then elaborates on it in the second paragraph, discussing the reason behind the observed finding of the study.


2. Which one of the following statements can be derived from the passage?
A. People who have a high knowledge of music in general are more likely to distance themselves from the emotional content of a piece of music.
B. The emotional response generated in a listener to a piece of music can override the blockages created by the unfamiliar content in it.
C. The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy but instead felt no sadness.
D. A sad piece of music can easily be used to evoke happiness in listeners.
E. The result of the study would surely not have been the same had all the participants had the same background in music.

A. People who have a high knowledge of music in general are more likely to distance themselves from the emotional content of a piece of music.
Incorrect: Out of Scope
There is no reasoning given as to why the people with a relatively higher knowledge of music had a significant gap between their PE and IE scores. Hence, it cannot be inferred that these participants distanced themselves from the emotional content. Hence, this piece of information is not supported by the passage.
B.The emotional response generated in a listener to a piece of music can override the blockages created by unfamiliar content in it.
Correct
The author says that Indeed, one of the reasons music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners.
This choice is a restatement of the author's opinion.
C. The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy but instead felt no sadness.
Incorrect: Out of Scope
The author does not comment on the internal state of these participants. He/She just states the reason that these people "reported" being happy after listening to the piece of sad music. Accordingly, there is no way forus to determine whether these people were neutral in their emotions or somewhat happy.
D. A sad piece of music can easily be used to evoke happiness in listeners.
Incorrect: Out of Scope
The author does not mention anything about the "ease" with which a piece of sad music could be used to generate happiness in its listeners.
E.The result of the study would surely not have been the same had all the participants had the same background in music.
Incorrect: Out of Scope
The author does not mention any causal relationship between the knowledge of music and the response generated. If anything, the final paragraph raises a consideration that could hurt this piece of information.


3. Which of the following is the function of the final paragraph in the passage?
A. To raise a consideration that sheds lights on a possible implication of the finding of the study
B. To leave the reader with a thought that is completely in the opposite direction to the preceding discussion
C. To prescribe further investigation in to the reasoning behind the offered explanation
D. To suggest that the study's findings are ambiguous and hence not reliable
E. To rule out the myth that people with higher knowledge of music are also the ones with a better understanding of music

A. To raise a consideration that sheds lights on a possible implication of the finding of the study
Correct
This choice is on the same lines as the summary we came up with for this particular paragraph. In the previous paragraph, the author details out the profile of the people who reported as being close to happy after listening to the piece of sad music. These people had a relatively higher knowledge of music and a significant gap in their PE and IE scores. Accordingly, one possible implication is that a causal relation exists between the knowledge of music and its effect. It is to shed some light on the relevance of this implication that the author talks about the PE scores of people not so musically literate.
B. To leave the reader with a thought that is completely in the opposite direction to the preceding discussion
Incorrect: Out of Scope
The implication regarding the causal relationship, as detailed out in the explanation for the above answer choice, is never explicitly discussed in the passage. Also, the tone of the author in the final paragraph "not necessarily", "could just mean" is mild and does not support the phrase "completely in the opposite direction" in the choice.
C. To prescribe further investigation in to the reasoning behind the offered explanation
Incorrect: Irrelevant
The author does not prescribe any future course of action in the final paragraph.
D.To suggest that the study's findings are ambiguous and hence not reliable
Incorrect: Out of Scope
The author never questions the study's findings. All the author does is raise a consideration about a possible conclusion that could be drawn from the study's findings.
E. To rule out the myth that people with higher knowledge of music are also the ones with a better understanding of music
Incorrect: Irrelevant
The author never mentions any myth anywhere in the passage.



4. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT
A. Participants were unaware of the difference between their perceived and induced emotion score.
B. The main reason people listen to music in day to day life is to adjust their emotions.
C. It is possible that even when the perceived score was high, the participant felt sad after listening to the piece of sad music
D. The emotional response to a piece of music with lyrics in an unknown language is partly responsible for the possible enjoyment it offers to its listeners.
E. Various studies have shown a causal relationship between music and its effect on the listener's mood.

A.Participants were unaware of the difference between their perceived and induced emotion score.
Correct: Not given in the passage
There is no mention of the "awareness" of the participants with regards to their PE and IE scores. Hence, this piece of information is not supported by the passage.
B.The main reason people listen to music in day to day life is to adjust their emotions.
Incorrect: Can be Inferred
This choice is a restatement of the information given in the first paragraph, which is: In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation.
C.It is possible that even when the perceived score was high, the participant felt sad after listening to the piece of sad music
Incorrect: Can be Inferred
This information flows from a combination of two pieces of information given in the passage. They are:
1) In the study, the participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad. (third paragraph)
2) However, the findings of the study do not necessarily suggest that the perceived emotion score by the not so musically literate was low. (last paragraph)
Since the ones who were not so musically literate were also the ones who felt sad after listening to the music, one can infer the information given in this choice.
D.The emotional response to a piece of music with lyrics in an unknown language is partly responsible for the possible enjoyment it offers to its listeners.
Incorrect: Can be Inferred
This piece of information is stated in the first paragraph, in which the author talks about music being able to transcend barriers.
E.Various studies have shown a causal relationship between music and its effect on the listener's mood.
Incorrect: Can be Inferred
This piece of information is stated in the first sentence of the passage.




Can someone please explain Q2 as I thought C can be inferred easily but answer was B. Similarly in Q4, I was left with 2 choices A and D but marked D as unknown language was not talked about?
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New post 19 Sep 2018, 19:36
pk123 - can you give basis for your findings and conclusions ?
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New post 19 Sep 2018, 19:51
aragonn wrote:
pk123 - can you give basis for your findings and conclusions ?


Below has been my thought process for Q2

Q2. Which one of the following statements can be derived from the passage?
A. People who have a high knowledge of music in general are more likely to distance themselves from the emotional content of a piece of music-- distance themselves, not not like that....cant be inferred
B. The emotional response generated in a listener to a piece of music can override the blockages created by the unfamiliar content in it.--- music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners...but not sure they override the blockages ....and C is more of paraphrase...so lets not think more on this...
C. The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy but instead felt no sadness---- paraphrase of the statement penned down.
D. A sad piece of music can easily be used to evoke happiness in listeners. ---sad can evoke happiness...can be but can't be inferred from passage.. outside knowledge
E. The result of the study would surely not have been the same had all the participants had the same background in music.----The participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad, this contradicts the statement..


Excerpts from Passage: For this reason, these participants felt that they could enjoy the piece of music without feeling sad and hence reported their emotional state as closer to being happy.

C looked more like a paraphrase...
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New post 19 Sep 2018, 19:59
aragonn wrote:
pk123 - can you give basis for your findings and conclusions ?


Q4. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT
A. Participants were unaware of the difference between their perceived and induced emotion score-----Para 3 says that "however, their induced emotion score was really low for the level of unpleasantness experienced by them and hence did not match with their perceived emotions score" , which means participants were unaware on the difference....can be inferred....Not sure why A is the answer
B. The main reason people listen to music in day to day life is to adjust their emotions.---listening to a particular kind of music impacts the mood of the listener. In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation....so can be inferred
C. It is possible that even when the perceived score was high, the participant felt sad after listening to the piece of sad music---In the study, the participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad. These participants rated the piece of sad music as highly unpleasant on the scale of perceived emotions...can be inferred
D. The emotional response to a piece of music with lyrics in an unknown language is partly responsible for the possible enjoyment it offers to its listeners.---lyrics in unknown language ..not sure...it just says music transcends language...but nothing on what the response will be in listening piece of music in an unknown language...so can't be inferred...
E. Various studies have shown a causal relationship between music and its effect on the listener's mood--- study talks about correlation but then again it says...In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation....so can be inferred...
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New post 19 Sep 2018, 20:01
C. The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy but instead felt no sadness---- paraphrase of the statement penned down. ===== First of all refer following lines
however, their induced emotion score was really low for the level of unpleasantness experienced by them and hence did not match with their perceived emotions score. For this reason, these participants felt that they could enjoy the piece of music without feeling sad and hence reported their emotional state as closer to being happy.
Option C says that The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy were happy, but felt no sadness. Even in passage has mentioned that at times they can be happy. This is too extreme choice. such choices can not be inference in GMAT.

E. The result of the study would surely not have been the same had all the participants had the same background in music.----The participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad, this contradicts the statement.

First step is to check the choice language/tone - it must not be extreme. 2nd scope should be small. all checked.
Now think of it this way - if sad people were listening party music then results would have different or not ?
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New post 19 Sep 2018, 20:03
I am running late, but in some time i will explain Q4 too. also if any sort of doubts, raise it. No question is silly question when you want to learn.
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New post 19 Sep 2018, 20:38
aragonn wrote:
C. The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy but instead felt no sadness---- paraphrase of the statement penned down. ===== First of all refer following lines
however, their induced emotion score was really low for the level of unpleasantness experienced by them and hence did not match with their perceived emotions score. For this reason, these participants felt that they could enjoy the piece of music without feeling sad and hence reported their emotional state as closer to being happy.
Option C says that The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy were happy, but felt no sadness. Even in passage has mentioned that at times they can be happy. This is too extreme choice. such choices can not be inference in GMAT.

E. The result of the study would surely not have been the same had all the participants had the same background in music.----The participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad, this contradicts the statement.

First step is to check the choice language/tone - it must not be extreme. 2nd scope should be small. all checked.
Now think of it this way - if sad people were listening party music then results would have different or not ?


Sorry but the answer is not E but B
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New post 19 Sep 2018, 21:39
OOPs - I think workout did a great job at explaining. Lets refer that. I will do that too. :)
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New post 19 Sep 2018, 21:51
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My assessment - I rejected this choice on the ground that it is extreme however i overlooked the word 'Can' . Anyways a good learning for me. Realized it while reading workout 's comment. Surly Explanation for E is also correct. answer must be from passage. and option E is out of the scope of passage.
Ah! I just made it my error log.
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New post 20 Sep 2018, 07:20
workout wrote:
1. The author is primarily concerned with


A.debunking a myth about the effect a piece of music has on people

Incorrect: Irrelevant. The author does not talk about any myth in the first place, and therefore there's no question of debunking it.

B.suggesting how individual knowledge can shape the effect a piece of music has on different people

Incorrect: Out of Scope. The author mentions only a correlation between the people who had a relatively higher knowledge of music and the "happy" effect of sad music on such people. By no means does the author imply a causation between the two.

C. discussing various studies that relate to the effect music has on people's mood

Incorrect: Partial Scope. The author discusses a finding from one study and not various studies.

D.explaining why different personality types respond differently to the same piece of music

Incorrect: Irrelevant. In the passage, there is no mention whatsoever of different personality types.

E. explaining an observed result of a study done on the link between music and mood

Correct. This answer choice matches the main point we came up with in the summary section. The author introduces a point in the last sentence of the first passage and then elaborates on it in the second paragraph, discussing the reason behind the observed finding of the study.

2. Which one of the following statements can be derived from the passage?


A. People who have a high knowledge of music in general are more likely to distance themselves from the emotional content of a piece of music.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. There is no reasoning given as to why the people with a relatively higher knowledge of music had a significant gap between their PE and IE scores. Hence, it cannot be inferred that these participants distanced themselves from the emotional content. Hence, this piece of information is not supported by the passage.

B.The emotional response generated in a listener to a piece of music can override the blockages created by unfamiliar content in it.

Correct. The author says that Indeed, one of the reasons music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners. This choice is a restatement of the author's opinion.

C. The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy but instead felt no sadness.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. The author does not comment on the internal state of these participants. He/She just states the reason that these people "reported" being happy after listening to the piece of sad music. Accordingly, there is no way for us to determine whether these people were neutral in their emotions or somewhat happy.

D. A sad piece of music can easily be used to evoke happiness in listeners.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. The author does not mention anything about the "ease" with which a piece of sad music could be used to generate happiness in its listeners.

E.The result of the study would surely not have been the same had all the participants had the same background in music.

Incorrect: Out of Scope. The author does not mention any causal relationship between the knowledge of music and the response generated. If anything, the final paragraph raises a consideration that could hurt this piece of information.

3. Which of the following is the function of the final paragraph in the passage?


A. To raise a consideration that sheds lights on a possible implication of the finding of the study

Correct. This choice is on the same lines as the summary we came up with for this particular paragraph. In the previous paragraph, the author details out the profile of the people who reported as being close to happy after listening to the piece of sad music. These people had a relatively higher knowledge of music and a significant gap in their PE and IE scores. Accordingly, one possible implication is that a causal relation exists between the knowledge of music and its effect. It is to shed some light on the relevance of this implication that the author talks about the PE scores of people not so musically literate.

B. To leave the reader with a thought that is completely in the opposite direction to the preceding discussion

Incorrect: Out of Scope. The implication regarding the causal relationship, as detailed out in the explanation for the above answer choice, is never explicitly discussed in the passage. Also, the tone of the author in the final paragraph "not necessarily", "could just mean" is mild and does not support the phrase "completely in the opposite direction" in the choice.

C. To prescribe further investigation in to the reasoning behind the offered explanation

Incorrect: Irrelevant. The author does not prescribe any future course of action in the final paragraph.

D.To suggest that the study's findings are ambiguous and hence not reliable

Incorrect: Out of Scope. The author never questions the study's findings. All the author does is raise a consideration about a possible conclusion that could be drawn from the study's findings.

E. To rule out the myth that people with higher knowledge of music are also the ones with a better understanding of music

Incorrect: Irrelevant. The author never mentions any myth anywhere in the passage.

4. Each of the following can be inferred from the passage EXCEPT


A.Participants were unaware of the difference between their perceived and induced emotion score.

Correct: Not given in the passage. There is no mention of the "awareness" of the participants with regards to their PE and IE scores. Hence, this piece of information is not supported by the passage.

B.The main reason people listen to music in day to day life is to adjust their emotions.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred. This choice is a restatement of the information given in the first paragraph, which is: In fact studies have also shown that, in everyday life, music is primarily used for mood and emotion regulation.

C.It is possible that even when the perceived score was high, the participant felt sad after listening to the piece of sad music

Incorrect: Can be Inferred. This information flows from a combination of two pieces of information given in the passage. They are:
1) In the study, the participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad. (third paragraph)
2) However, the findings of the study do not necessarily suggest that the perceived emotion score by the not so musically literate was low. (last paragraph)
Since the ones who were not so musically literate were also the ones who felt sad after listening to the music, one can infer the information given in this choice.

D.The emotional response to a piece of music with lyrics in an unknown language is partly responsible for the possible enjoyment it offers to its listeners.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred. This piece of information is stated in the first paragraph, in which the author talks about music being able to transcend barriers.

E.Various studies have shown a causal relationship between music and its effect on the listener's mood.

Incorrect: Can be Inferred. This piece of information is stated in the first sentence of the passage.


workout- could you please help me with this question only....a bit confused at the moment...and not sure how you told option C is out of the scope....
Below has been my thought process for Q2

Q2. Which one of the following statements can be derived from the passage?
A. People who have a high knowledge of music in general are more likely to distance themselves from the emotional content of a piece of music-- distance themselves, not not like that....cant be inferred
B. The emotional response generated in a listener to a piece of music can override the blockages created by the unfamiliar content in it.--- music is able to transcend the barriers of language and garner universal appeal is the emotional response it evokes in its listeners...but not sure they override the blockages ....and C is more of paraphrase...so lets not think more on this...
C. The participants who reported closer to being happy were not actually happy but instead felt no sadness---- paraphrase of the statement penned down.
D. A sad piece of music can easily be used to evoke happiness in listeners. ---sad can evoke happiness...can be but can't be inferred from passage.. outside knowledge
E. The result of the study would surely not have been the same had all the participants had the same background in music.----The participants with a higher level of exposure to and knowledge of music were the ones who reported being happy after listening to the music, while others reported as being sad, this contradicts the statement..


Excerpts from Passage: For this reason, these participants felt that they could enjoy the piece of music without feeling sad and hence reported their emotional state as closer to being happy.

C looked more like a paraphrase...
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