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Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the

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Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the Distopian intervention in the Arcadian civil war merely to insure that the industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits during the war. Yet this cannot be the motive since, as the Distopians foresaw, Distopia’s federal expenses for the intervention were eight billion dollars, whereas, during the war, profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia totaled only four billion dollars.

Which of the following, if true, exposes a serious flaw in the argument made in the second sentence above?


(A) During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia.

(B) The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.

(C) Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war.

(D) Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war.

(E) Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war.

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Originally posted by spriya on 31 Jul 2008, 18:29.
Last edited by Bunuel on 18 Dec 2018, 04:28, edited 1 time in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the  [#permalink]

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New post 24 Aug 2017, 14:20
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The author's conclusion is that the industrialists' motive for promoting Distopian intervention in the Arcadian civil war could NOT have been to insure that the industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits during the war. Why not?

  • "Distopia’s federal expenses for the intervention were eight billion dollars," and the Distopians foresaw this. In other words, the Distopians predicted that federal expenses for the intervention would be eight billion dollars, so these costs were not a surprise and would have been considered when deciding whether to promote Distopian intervention.
  • "During the war, profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia totaled only four billion dollars." If the Distopians predicted profits of only four billion and federal expenses of eight billion, why would they have promoted intervention? The author implies that those additional expenses (for intervention) would outweigh the wartime profits. Thus, the author concludes that the industrialists, who predicted these expenses and profits, must not have been motivated by a desire to insure profits during the war.

Notice that the author's logic depends on the assumption that the industrialists would have to pay for some or all of those additional expenses for the intervention. So which of the following exposes a serious flaw in the author's conclusion?

Quote:
(A) During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia.

The author's argument is only concerned with profits at the facilities in Arcadia. Choice (A) is irrelevant and can be eliminated.

Quote:
(B) The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.

The author reasons that since the federal expenses outweigh the profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia, the industrialists must not have been motivated by a desire to insure profits during the war. But if the largest proportion of those federal expenses is paid by people/groups other than the industrialists, that means that the cost of those expenses to the industrialists must have been less than half of eight billion. Furthermore, if the industrialists only had to pay for a small proportion of the federal expenses, then they may have enjoyed substantial profits during the war. This possibility significantly weakens the author's argument, so hang on to choice (B).

Quote:
(C) Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war.

The author's argument revolves around whether the industrialists were motivated by a desire to insure profits DURING THE WAR. The evidence in support of the author's conclusion also involves wartime figures. Choice (C), which discusses postwar profits, has not impact on the author's argument and can be eliminated.

Quote:
(D) Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war.

Again, the author's argument is only concerned with wartime profits. Choice (D) has no impact on the author's conclusion or the supporting evidence. Eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war.

An alternative motive for promoting intervention could actually strengthen the author's argument. However, choice (E) does not explain why the industrialists promoted intervention (if anything, it could be a reason why the industrialists did NOT want to promote intervention). This statement does not pertain to the author's conclusion or supporting evidence, so (E) can be eliminated.

(B) is the best choice.
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New post 31 Aug 2010, 07:16
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The answer is B here .

Argument : Industrialists backed their nation's intervention in war to promote their business interests.

Counter Argument : This was not possible because , the war cost 8 billion whereas the profit was 4 billion only .

The flaw is that the argument assumes that those industralists who promote the war are the ones who bear the cost of war. Hence it is trying to direclty correlate between the war cost and business profit .

We will have to prove that the industralists who profited are not the ones who contributed to the war cost and the relevance is not there . B says that precisely.
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New post 30 Aug 2010, 08:08
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Industrialists of country D were accused of promoting country D's intervention in the war.
The next statement directly says - this cannot be true because overall profit was $4bn whereas federal expenses were $8bn.
The implicit assumption of the second sentence is that industry had to pay for the war expenses. .
Read the argument carefully, no such thing has been explicitly said.

Now, if the industry was not supposed to pay for the war expenses, why on earth would they be bothered about how much expense the govt will have to bear.
this is exactly what choice B says.
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New post 11 Nov 2011, 12:24
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Clear B.

The first part states that,

Industrialists motive of making profit during the war was the reason they made Distopia intervene in the civil war.

Second line opposes that by stating,

Federal expenses of intervention was 8 billion $, whereas the profit made is only 4 billion $. Hence the industrialists motive is not money making.

Question - What is the flaw in the 2nd sentence.
The answer is B because, it states that the profit of 4 billion $ is shared only among the industrialists, whereas the expense of 8 billion $ is imposed on all the citizens of Distopia. Clearly the industrialists make huge profits. Hence there is a profit reason behind the industrialists motive. Hence there is a flaw in the second sentence.
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Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2013, 08:37
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Let's see:
The argument assumes that the 8bn expenses will cancel the industrialists' profits.

A During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia.
(This doesn't address the issue properly. If this is true, we will still have to cope with the 8 billion dollars expenses. Hence incorrect)

B The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.
(If this is true then the profits will go to the industrialists and the expenses will be sustained by someone else. Hence it's what we are looking for.)

C Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war.
(We are not really concerned with what happens in the aftermath. Hence incorrect)

D Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war.
(We don't really care what happened before, the issue is not addressed. Hence incorrect)

E Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war.
(This is totally out of scope, we don't care at all)

I hope this will help.
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New post 22 Aug 2015, 11:10
Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the Distopian intervention in the Arcadian civil war merely to insure that the industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits during the war. Yet this cannot be the motive since, as the Distopians foresaw, Distopia’s federal expenses for the intervention were eight billion dollars, whereas, during the war, profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia totaled only four billion dollars.
Which of the following, if true, exposes a serious flaw in the argument made in the second sentence above?

The argument states that the Distopians DID NOT intervene because they were afraid that the profits of the facilities owned by the Distopian industrialists in the war area would suffer. This cannot be the reason for the intervention because the FEDERAL EXPENSES (who has to pay this?) doubled the profits that the Distopian INDUSTRIALISTS made with their factories in Arcadia.

(A) During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia.

If this were true, the Distopians would not care so much about the war area, because they made profits elsewhere. It does not really relate to the argument in the second sentence.


(B) The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.

This is the right choice. The industrialists, who were responsible for the intervention, don’t care so much about the federal expenses because they don’t have to pay most of it. This disarms the argument in the second sentence and makes us think that the real reason for the intervention is the one pointed out in the first sentence.


(C) Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war.

This means that the war had no effect on the profits of the factories in Arcadia. It means that there must have been another reason for the intervention and thus supports the argument.


(D) Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war.

The situation before the war is irrelevant to the argument.


(E) Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war.

This does not expose a flaw in the argument. In fact, it gives us another reason why the Distopians could have intervened and thus supports the argument.
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New post 27 Aug 2015, 07:19
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enigma123 wrote:
Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the Distopian intervention in the Arcadian civil war merely to ensure that the industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits during the war. Yet this cannot be the motive since, as the Distopians foresaw, Distopia’s federal expenses for the intervention were eight billion dollars, whereas, during the war, profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia totaled only four billion dollars.
Which of the following, if true, exposes a serious flaw in the argument made in the second sentence above?

(A) During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia.
(B) The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.
(C) Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war.
(D) Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war.
(E) Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war.



This one is a toughie and confusing one!!

The argument concludes that the since the profits made by the industrialist were ONLY 4 billion which does not count as a SUBSTANTIAL PROFIT, the industrialist DID NOT promote the war in order to make SUBSTANTIAL PROFITS.

The last lines provides us info. about the estimated federal EXPENSES and PROFITS earned by the industrialist.This indicates a disconnect or flaw.

B states that the whole war was NOT funded by the industrialist and that is the expenses were borne by those OTHER than the industrialist .

What would happen if the govt. asked the industrialist to fund the war - for example by placing a moratorium on industrial funding or by raising taxes that would increase cost of production, or by using new tax laws for industrialist ...????

B loosely says that the industrialist were kept out of the funding and hence, they made large profits. The rich industrialist were kept out of the loop and the common man was taxed to fund the war.

I hope my analysis makes sense.


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New post 13 Jun 2016, 22:39
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This is an excellent question.
It is a combo of find the assumption and then find the flaw question.
The correct solution to this question will be very satisfying to the test taker.

Lets quickly break the question stem in premise and conclusion

Premise 1) Industrialist of Nation D are accused of intervening in civil war of Nation A to ensure profit
Premise 2) Government of Nation D's used 8 billion dollars in intervention. (Federal means government.)
Premise 3) Industrialist only gained 4 billion
Conclusion) Since money invested was 8 billion and Industrialist get only 4 billion in return, their motive was not to make profit. DONT ACCUSE THEM

This looks like a very cogent and strong argument. Why it is so strong:- because the argument is assuming that all 8 billion was invested by industrialist
Assumption):- Entire 8 billion was invested by the industrialist.

See it yourself by rereading the argument again this time with the ASSUMPTION
Premise 1) Industrialist of Nation D are accused of intervening in civil war of Nation A to ensure profit
Premise 2) Government of Nation D's used 8 billion dollars as expenses for the intervention.
Assumption):- Entire 8 billion expense was borne by the industrialist.
Premise 3) Industrialist only gained 4 billion
Conclusion) Since money invested was 8 billion and Industrialist get only 4 billion in return, their motive was not to make profit. DONT ACCUSE THEM

Now we have found the ASSUMPTION.
And now we will find the flaw.
What if Industrialist gave only 1 billion and got 4 billion in return. Then it will mean Industrialist's motive was to make profit.

What option proves that Industrialist invested less and made more money and that was Industrialist main Aim. --- to make profit.
(B) The largest proportion of federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.

CORRECT ANSWER IS B


Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the Distopian intervention in the Arcadian civil war merely to insure that the industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits during the war. Yet this cannot be the motive since, as the Distopians foresaw, Distopia’s federal expenses for the intervention were eight billion dollars, whereas, during the war, profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia totaled only four billion dollars.
Which of the following, if true, exposes a serious flaw in the argument made in the second sentence above?
(A) During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia.
(B) The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.
(C) Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war.
(D) Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war.
(E) Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war.
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New post 17 Sep 2016, 18:35
LogicGuru1 wrote:
This is an excellent question.
It is a combo of find the assumption and then find the flaw question.
The correct solution to this question will be very satisfying to the test taker.

Lets quickly break the question stem in premise and conclusion

Premise 1) Industrialist of Nation D are accused of intervening in civil war of Nation A to ensure profit
Premise 2) Government of Nation D's used 8 billion dollars in intervention. (Federal means government.)
Premise 3) Industrialist only gained 4 billion
Conclusion) Since money invested was 8 billion and Industrialist get only 4 billion in return, their motive was not to make profit. DONT ACCUSE THEM

This looks like a very cogent and strong argument. Why it is so strong:- because the argument is assuming that all 8 billion was invested by industrialist
Assumption):- Entire 8 billion was invested by the industrialist.

See it yourself by rereading the argument again this time with the ASSUMPTION
Premise 1) Industrialist of Nation D are accused of intervening in civil war of Nation A to ensure profit
Premise 2) Government of Nation D's used 8 billion dollars as expenses for the intervention.
Assumption):- Entire 8 billion expense was borne by the industrialist.
Premise 3) Industrialist only gained 4 billion
Conclusion) Since money invested was 8 billion and Industrialist get only 4 billion in return, their motive was not to make profit. DONT ACCUSE THEM

Now we have found the ASSUMPTION.
And now we will find the flaw.
What if Industrialist gave only 1 billion and got 4 billion in return. Then it will mean Industrialist's motive was to make profit.

What option proves that Industrialist invested less and made more money and that was Industrialist main Aim. --- to make profit.
(B) The largest proportion of federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.

CORRECT ANSWER IS B


Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the Distopian intervention in the Arcadian civil war merely to insure that the industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits during the war. Yet this cannot be the motive since, as the Distopians foresaw, Distopia’s federal expenses for the intervention were eight billion dollars, whereas, during the war, profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia totaled only four billion dollars.
Which of the following, if true, exposes a serious flaw in the argument made in the second sentence above?
(A) During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia.
(B) The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.
(C) Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war.
(D) Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war.
(E) Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war.


Hi
something that hangs me down on this question is the relation $8 Billion expenses or cost of the war and than says Profit for the industrials, and as we know Profit = Revenue - Cost, so I assume Revenue is 8 billion - Cost for the industrials to produce product or service $4 billion = Profit from the stem $ Billion. So do we need to look for the weekener here in this part. but in that case the assumption to hold the conclusion ts that teh profit shoud have been higher than $ 4 billiion or more than 50% of the revenue. but because these industrials made only 4 $ billion they are not supporting the war, and that would be that these industrials did not make substantial profits so they are not motivated to support the war. So if my reasoning is correct than we need to disprove that in fact there was a motive and that 50 % or less profit margins is significant or something along those line? or? show that even small not significant profit would be a good motive to support the war? and than B comes saying that most of the invollved businiess enteties who take part of the war business do not inccure high profit but they are still in war business. which means that thay are in teh game even for small profit would support the war. is that what B trying to convey?

any thought, what you think?
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New post 18 Sep 2016, 13:25
kzivrev wrote:
LogicGuru1 wrote:
This is an excellent question.
It is a combo of find the assumption and then find the flaw question.
The correct solution to this question will be very satisfying to the test taker.

Lets quickly break the question stem in premise and conclusion

Premise 1) Industrialist of Nation D are accused of intervening in civil war of Nation A to ensure profit
Premise 2) Government of Nation D's used 8 billion dollars in intervention. (Federal means government.)
Premise 3) Industrialist only gained 4 billion
Conclusion) Since money invested was 8 billion and Industrialist get only 4 billion in return, their motive was not to make profit. DONT ACCUSE THEM

This looks like a very cogent and strong argument. Why it is so strong:- because the argument is assuming that all 8 billion was invested by industrialist
Assumption):- Entire 8 billion was invested by the industrialist.

See it yourself by rereading the argument again this time with the ASSUMPTION
Premise 1) Industrialist of Nation D are accused of intervening in civil war of Nation A to ensure profit
Premise 2) Government of Nation D's used 8 billion dollars as expenses for the intervention.
Assumption):- Entire 8 billion expense was borne by the industrialist.
Premise 3) Industrialist only gained 4 billion
Conclusion) Since money invested was 8 billion and Industrialist get only 4 billion in return, their motive was not to make profit. DONT ACCUSE THEM

Now we have found the ASSUMPTION.
And now we will find the flaw.
What if Industrialist gave only 1 billion and got 4 billion in return. Then it will mean Industrialist's motive was to make profit.

What option proves that Industrialist invested less and made more money and that was Industrialist main Aim. --- to make profit.
(B) The largest proportion of federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.

CORRECT ANSWER IS B


Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the Distopian intervention in the Arcadian civil war merely to insure that the industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits during the war. Yet this cannot be the motive since, as the Distopians foresaw, Distopia’s federal expenses for the intervention were eight billion dollars, whereas, during the war, profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia totaled only four billion dollars.
Which of the following, if true, exposes a serious flaw in the argument made in the second sentence above?
(A) During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia.
(B) The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.
(C) Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war.
(D) Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war.
(E) Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war.


Hi
something that hangs me down on this question is the relation $8 Billion expenses or cost of the war and than says Profit for the industrials, and as we know Profit = Revenue - Cost, so I assume Revenue is 8 billion - Cost for the industrials to produce product or service $4 billion = Profit from the stem $ Billion. So do we need to look for the weekener here in this part. but in that case the assumption to hold the conclusion ts that teh profit shoud have been higher than $ 4 billiion or more than 50% of the revenue. but because these industrials made only 4 $ billion they are not supporting the war, and that would be that these industrials did not make substantial profits so they are not motivated to support the war. So if my reasoning is correct than we need to disprove that in fact there was a motive and that 50 % or less profit margins is significant or something along those line? or? show that even small not significant profit would be a good motive to support the war? and than B comes saying that most of the invollved businiess enteties who take part of the war business do not inccure high profit but they are still in war business. which means that thay are in teh game even for small profit would support the war. is that what B trying to convey?

any thought, what you think?


The author claims that Distopian federal spends $8 billions for the war ( cash out flow = $8 billion) and the profit of the industrialists is $4 billions ( cash inflow = $ 4 billion). The net cash outflow for Distopians is therefore $4 billion. Hence the war is not beneficial for Distopia. ( The revenue and cost for the industrialists do not matter because their net profit is given - you may take this way: net loss for the federal = $ 8 billion, net profit for the industrialists = $ 4 billion, hence overall net loss = $ 4 billion).

The above point of the author is challenged by stating that industrialists do not lose much because of federal expense and they have no incentive to save the federal expense- the profit they make from the war outweighs the losses they make by federal expenses. Thus it may be valid that they promote the civil war for their benefit.
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New post 31 Aug 2018, 02:35
spriya wrote:
Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the Distopian intervention in the Arcadian civil war merely to insure that the industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits during the war. Yet this cannot be the motive since, as the Distopians foresaw, Distopia’s federal expenses for the intervention were eight billion dollars, whereas, during the war, profits from the Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia totaled only four billion dollars.

Which of the following, if true, exposes a serious flaw in the argument made in the second sentence above?

(A) During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia.
(B) The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits.
(C) Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war.
(D) Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war.
(E) Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war.


The argument is saying that financial objective cant be the motive for the intervention of sth sth.
Given that: Profit = 4B, Expense = 8B
Finding the flaw is to weaken the argument, hence we need to find something that talks about profit/cost (idk, maybe just leave it for now)

(C) Most Distopian industrialists’ facilities located in Arcadia are expected to maintain the level of profits they achieved during the war. => we are concerning about the war period, not the current time or future
(D) Distopian industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia made substantial profits before the events that triggered the civil war. => same as C, before the events that triggered the war is out of scope
(E) Many Distopians expressed concern over the suffering that Arcadians underwent during the civil war. => out of scope, the argument never mentioned anything about the 'suffering'

Choice A & B are h
(A) During the Arcadian war, many Distopian industrialists with facilities located in Arcadia experienced a significant rise in productivity in their facilities located in Distopia. => this is super tempting isnt it? First of all, many is too vague, it could be 2% or 40%, 50%, the impact is different for each scenario. Secondly, the passage concerns about "industrialists’ facilities in Arcadia", per this choice it says "facilities located in Distopia", hmmm. Not cool. Even if we cant spot the first and second choice, the biggest flaw in this choice is "significant rise in productivity". In real life productivity might link to profit, but in this argument since we are already given the 2 variables (Profit & Cost), hence even if the productivity increased by 1000% it wouldnt affect the argument one bit
(B) The largest proportion of Distopia’s federal expenses is borne by those who receive no significant industrial profits. => see the D federal's expense was already covered by some random guys who happened to have no significant industrial profits, hence we have a reason to believe that the D guys intervened for financial motive
GMAT Club Bot
Re: Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the &nbs [#permalink] 31 Aug 2018, 02:35
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Industrialists from the country Distopia were accused of promoting the

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