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# Kim: In northern Europe during the eighteenth century a change of atti

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Re: Kim: In northern Europe during the eighteenth century a change of atti [#permalink]
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Kim: In northern Europe during the eighteenth century a change of attitude occurred that found expression both in the adoption of less solemn and elaborate death rites by the population at large and in a more optimistic view of the human condition as articulated by philosophers. This change can be explained as the result of a dramatic increase in life expectancy that occurred in northern Europe early in the eighteenth century.

Lee: Your explanation seems unlikely, because it could not be correct unless the people of the time were aware that their life expectancy had increased.

Which one of the following, if true, provides the strongest defense of Kim’s explanation against Lee’s criticism?
(A) An increase in life expectancy in a population often gives rise to economic changes that, in turn, directly influence people’s attitudes.
(B) Present day psychologists have noted that people’s attitude toward life can change in response to information about their life expectancy.
(C) Philosophers in northern Europe during the eighteenth century made many conjectures that did not affect the ideas of the population at large.
(D) The concept of life expectancy is based on statistical theories that had not been developed in the eighteenth century.
(E) Before the eighteen century the attitudes of northern Europeans were more likely to be determined by religious teaching than by demographic phenomena.

argument
k= 18th chg attitude occurred
= caused by inc in life expect
l= unlikely since they didn't know life exp inc

strengthen K
ans (A) life expectancy caused an impact w/o their explicit knowledge
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Re: Kim: In northern Europe during the eighteenth century a change of atti [#permalink]
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I pick "A"
A: This is in direct correlation to the effects that were being felt by the public thus strengthening Kim's argument.
B: Its about present day concerning about information, but we don't know if they had information or not.
D: This seems counter-intuitive.
E: This could have been the answer and I was confused between it, but we are not told about life before 18th century or whether or not there weren't religious leaders during the 18th century. On basis of incomplete information I skipped it.
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Kim: In northern Europe during the eighteenth century a change of atti [#permalink]
+1 A.

This strengthen question asks for the defense of Kim's explanation against Lee's criticism.

Kim's explanation: Change is the result of rise in life expectancy.
Lee's criticism: Rise in life expectancy cannot be the reason unless those people knew that their life expectancy had increased.

Pre-thinking: Look for a choice that would prove that those people did know that they were going to live longer.

A fits the bill, none of the others do.

Hope that's useful to someone.

Cheers!
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Re: Kim: In northern Europe during the eighteenth century a change of atti [#permalink]
Official explanation pasted below:
--------------------------------------------------------------

Strengthen-CE. The correct answer choice is (A)

Kim claims that a dramatic increase in life expectancy in northern Europe during the eighteenth century caused a change of attitude. Lee argues that this is unlikely since people of the time were not aware that their life expectancy had increased.

Answer choice (A): This is the correct answer choice. Lee argues that it is unlikely that an increase in life expectancy caused the change of attitude since people were not aware that their life expectancy had increased. This answer choice suggests that attitudes could change without people being aware of increases in life expectancy, since the increases could give rise to economic changes, which would in turn influence attitudes.

Answer choice (B): This answer does not offer a defense of Kim’s explanation since Lee’s criticism is precisely that people of the time did not have information about their life expectancy.

Answer choice (C): This answer does not respond to Lee’s criticism about people being unaware of increases in their life expectancy.

Answer choice (D): This answer strengthens Lee’s criticism that people could not have been aware of increases in their life expectancy.

Answer choice (E): What happened before the eighteenth century does not affect Lee’s criticism that people of the eighteenth century were not aware of increases in their life expectancy
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Re: Kim: In northern Europe during the eighteenth century a change of atti [#permalink]
IMO - A

In this question we are looking to strength Kim and Weaken Lee. In the passage we can see that Kim's argument is that attitudes have changed due to life expectancy increases, but Lee retorts that this is not possible as the population would never know if life expectancy really did increase. Therefore we just need to find an answer which provides some form of evidence which would suggest that people in the 18th century would be aware of life expectancy changes.

(A) An increase in life expectancy in a population often gives rise to economic changes that, in turn, directly influence people’s attitudes.
- Provides evidence to WHY people would be aware of increases in life expectancy (Due to economic changes), therefore strengthening Kim's response and weakening Kims. Correct

(B) Present day psychologists have noted that people’s attitude toward life can change in response to information about their life expectancy.
Warped answer - we know that attitudes change in response to information, but we are not told how 18th century people received that information. Incorrect.

(C) Philosophers in northern Europe during the eighteenth century made many conjectures that did not affect the ideas of the population at large.
This does not answer the question of how individuals learn about life expectancy - incorrect.

(D) The concept of life expectancy is based on statistical theories that had not been developed in the eighteenth century.
If the statistical theories have not been developed in the 18th century, then how would people in the 18th century know about them and change their attitudes? Incorrect.

(E) Before the eighteen century the attitudes of northern Europeans were more likely to be determined by religious teaching than by demographic phenomena.
We don't care about what happened before the 18th century. This answer is just out of scope. Incorrect
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Re: Kim: In northern Europe during the eighteenth century a change of atti [#permalink]
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Re: Kim: In northern Europe during the eighteenth century a change of atti [#permalink]
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