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# Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,

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Director
Joined: 06 Sep 2006
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Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 09 Jun 2017, 19:49
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55% (hard)

Question Stats:

64% (02:09) correct 36% (02:01) wrong based on 592 sessions

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Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, that develops when water permeates a landfill site, If and only if the landfill's capacity to hold liquids is exceeded does the leachates escape into the environment, generally in unpredictable quantities, A method must be found for disposing of leachate. Most landfill leachate is send directly to sewage treatment plants, but not all sewage plants are capable of handling the highly contaminated water.

Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) The ability to predict the volume of escaping landfill leachate would help solve the disposal problem.

(B)If any water permeates a landfill, leachate will escape into the environment.

(C) No sewage treatment plants are capable of handling leachate.

(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it.

(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill's capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded.

Originally posted by asaf on 06 Aug 2007, 13:02.
Last edited by broall on 09 Jun 2017, 19:49, edited 2 times in total.
Director
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2007, 14:03
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I was stuck between D and E but I think E is stronger.

(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it. even though there are plants that are incapable of handling leachate (as it was mentioned in the last sentence), it would be presumptuous of us to assume that the leachate are actually sent to those plants. Maybe leachates are only sent to sewage plants that can handle it. We cannot say.

(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill's capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded. as stated in the argument - "if and only if".
##### General Discussion
Manager
Joined: 07 Jul 2007
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2007, 13:47
It is between D and E. Finally picking E.
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2007, 14:14
beckee529 wrote:
I was stuck between D and E but I think E is stronger.

(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it. even though there are plants that are incapable of handling leachate (as it was mentioned in the last sentence), it would be presumptuous of us to assume that the leachate are actually sent to those plants. Maybe leachates are only sent to sewage plants that can handle it. We cannot say.

(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill's capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded. as stated in the argument - "if and only if".

Good analysis. I was stuck between D and E forever before figuring this out.
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2007, 15:29
I get E for this. the "if and only if" is pretty damning, so you need something equally strong.
Director
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2007, 19:35
beckee529 wrote:
I was stuck between D and E but I think E is stronger.

(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it. even though there are plants that are incapable of handling leachate (as it was mentioned in the last sentence), it would be presumptuous of us to assume that the leachate are actually sent to those plants. Maybe leachates are only sent to sewage plants that can handle it. We cannot say.

(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill's capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded. as stated in the argument - "if and only if".

Agree with beckee529...E it is.
Manager
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2007, 20:03
agree with E

D is mild and has the possibility of sewage plans not receiving leachate at all
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2007, 01:46
IF AND ONLY IFF

If you negate one, you negate the other. It's written right there.

E
Director
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2007, 09:04
I agree with E...but I want to play devil's advocate here for a second.

Quote:
(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill's capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded.

Can we assume that it is impossible for the landfill's capacty to hold liquids to be exceeded without leachate being produced? The passage never says anything concrete to prove this.

It's implied, but can we really know for sure? Leachate develops when water permeates a landfill site....but what if a landfill site's capacity to hold liquids could be exceeded without water permeating it? maybe someone poured a whole ton of milk into the landfill. Then the landfill could exceed capacity without leachate being leaked...because it was never formed.

but D is an even weaker answer, so I'd choose E.
Director
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2007, 00:34
asaf wrote:
Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, that develops when water permeates a landfill site, If and only if the landfill's capacity to hold liquids is exceeded does the leachates escape into the environment, generally in unpredictable quantities, A method must be found for disposing of leachate. Most landfill leachate is send directly to sewage treatment plants, but not all sewage plants are capable of handling the highly contaminated water.

Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) The ability to predict the volume of escaping landfill leachate would help solve the disposal problem.

(B)If any water permeates a landfill, leachate will escape into the environment.

(C) No sewage treatment plants are capable of handling leachate.

(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it.

(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill's capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded.

Can you deny D or E?

Before the thread gets lost, can you please provide us with the OA? Thanks!
VP
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2008, 20:15
1
Leachate is a solution, frequently highly contaminated, that develops when water permeates a landfill site. If and only if the landfill’s capacity to hold liquids is exceeded does the leachate escape into the environment, generally in unpredictable quantities. A method must be found for disposing of leachate. Most landfill leachate is send directly to sewage treatment plants, but not all sewage plants are capable of handling the highly contaminated water.

Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(A) The ability to predict the volume of escaping landfill leachate would help solve the disposal problem.
(B) If any water permeates a landfill, leachate will escape into the environment.
(C) No sewage treatment plants are capable of handling leachate.
(D) Some landfill leachate is sent to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it.
(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill’s capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded.

I dont have an OA/OE for this, but thought Id put it up for discussion amongst our great community here.
Manager
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2008, 08:40
1
E

IF X then Y => If NOT Y then NOT X
Manager
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2008, 08:59
E.

(A) The ability to predict the volume of escaping landfill leachate would help solve the disposal problem.

(B) If any water permeates a landfill, leachate will escape into the environment.
NO. Leachate will only escapes if it exceeds the holding capacity of the landfil.

(C) No sewage treatment plants are capable of handling leachate.
NO. Seems extreme statement ( but not all sewage plants are capable of handling the highly contaminated water.)

(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it.

(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill’s capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded.
YES, (If and only if the landfill’s capacity to hold liquids is exceeded does the leachate escape)
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2008, 09:08
D

Leachate is a solution, frequently highly contaminated, that develops when water permeates a landfill site. If and only if the landfill’s capacity to hold liquids is exceeded does the leachate escape into the environment, generally in unpredictable quantities. A method must be found for disposing of leachate. Most landfill leachate is send directly to sewage treatment plants, but not all sewage plants are capable of handling the highly contaminated water.

The main idea: There is a problem: we cannot fully protect environment from highly contaminated leachate.

Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage?

(A) The ability to predict the volume of escaping landfill leachate would help solve the disposal problem. - extra information.
(B) If any water permeates a landfill, leachate will escape into the environment. - is not true.
(C) No sewage treatment plants are capable of handling leachate. - is not true.
(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it. - it is the problem discussed in the passage."Some landfill leachate" refers to "a solution frequently highly contaminated"
(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill’s capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded. - too particular information. Nothing about inability to treat dangerous leachate. we have inferred question rather than "must true" one.
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Manager
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2008, 10:30
I am with you Walker. I think it's D also.

pmenon wrote:
Leachate is a solution, frequently highly contaminated, that develops when water permeates a landfill site. If and only if the landfill’s capacity to hold liquids is exceeded does the leachate escape into the environment, generally in unpredictable quantities. A method must be found for disposing of leachate. Most landfill leachate is send directly to sewage treatment plants, but not all sewage plants are capable of handling the highly contaminated water.

Which one of the following can be inferred from the passage?
(A) The ability to predict the volume of escaping landfill leachate would help solve the disposal problem.
shouldn't worry about predicting how much water escapes the landfill
(B) If any water permeates a landfill, leachate will escape into the environment.
irrelevant, it's testing the word "to permeate"
(C) No sewage treatment plants are capable of handling leachate. irrelevant
(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it.
this is exactly what the last sentence of the passage is saying
(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill’s capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded. this is saying that is the toxic substance does not escape the environment, then the environment that hold the water is not full yet. it means that it's waiting for the water to overflow.

I dont have an OA/OE for this, but thought Id put it up for discussion amongst our great community here.
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2010, 01:24
OA is E.
Could anybody clarify why D is incorrect?
Thanks,
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2010, 07:08
noboru wrote:
OA is E.
Could anybody clarify why D is incorrect?
Thanks,

D is close, but as per question not all sewage plants are capable of handling contaminated water, this means that there is a probability that lechate goes to such a plant , while D suggests that it definitely goes to a few such plants, which may not be true.
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2010, 08:49
E is a mere paraphrasing of the stimulus --- there is no inference per se here. I dont agree with OA. Also D which I think is right does not imply all sewage plants are incapable of handling leachate as one poster has commented. D says that some leachate goes is sent to sewage treatment plants THAT are incapable of handling it --- using SC knowledge - THAT is a restrictive modifier - so it is talking about THOSE sewage plants that cannot handle leachate. In fact if D had been worded such as - some leachate is sent to sewage treatment plants, WHICH are incapable of handling it --- then it COULD have indicated a possibility that the sewage treatment plants are incapable of handling it.
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2010, 09:13
(A) The ability to predict the volume of escaping landfill leachate would help solve the disposal problem.
-- New Inforamtion. Hence A can be eliminated.

(B) If any water permeates a landfill, leachate will escape into the environment.
-- Thats against the premise. Hence B cannot be the correct answer choice.

(C) No sewage treatment plants are capable of handling leachate.
Exaggerated answer choice. Hence C can be eliminated.

(D) Some landfill leachate is send to sewage treatment plants that are incapable of handling it.
This answer choice is like a shell game. Though it is possible, some leachate might be send to sewage treatment plants (incapable of handling), however it is not necessary that it has to be true. Hence we cannot infer this from the argument.

(E) If leachate does not escape from a landfill into the environment, then the landfill’s capacity to hold liquids has not been exceeded.
-- From the premise, we can clearly infer that it is true. Hence E has to be correct answer choice.

to resolve for answer choice D, you can use the venn diagram. Take the objects - leachate, sewage treatment, capable sewage treatment and see if the D comes true. It doesn't. Hence D is an incorrect answer choice.

Thank You.

Thanks,
Akhil M.Parekh
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated,  [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2010, 09:40
I was wrong more than two years ago. It's E.
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Re: Leachate is a solutions, frequently highly contaminated, &nbs [#permalink] 01 Jul 2010, 09:40

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