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# Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commerci

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Manager
Status: Trying.... & desperate for success.
Joined: 17 May 2012
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Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commerci  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 09 Oct 2018, 05:10
10
1
47
00:00

Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

17% (02:07) correct 83% (02:12) wrong based on 2835 sessions

### HideShow timer Statistics

Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commercial aircraft, are made with low-power circuitry, which is more susceptible to interference than the vacuum-tube circuitry found in older planes. During landing, navigation systems receive radio signals from the airport to guide the plane to the runway. Recently, one plane with low-power circuitry veered off course during landing, its dials dimming, when a passenger turned on a laptop computer. Clearly, modern aircraft navigation systems are being put at risk by the electronic devices that passengers carry on board, such as cassette players and laptop computers.

The two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a principle that the argument relies on and the second is a conclusion that can be drawn from the first.

(B) The first is a fact that argument relies on and the second is a conclusion that must be drawn from this argument.

(C) The first acknowledges a consideration that supports that main position; the second is that conclusion.

(D) The first is an evidence that supports the conclusion, the second is that conclusion.

(E) The first is a principle that is necessary for this argument, the second is a conclusion that could be drawn from this argument.

I have been trying to understand ways to crack the bold face CRs, but i am finding it tough on various fronts.

1. Couldn't distinguish between words like principle/fact/evidence.. acknowledge/asertain/supports. These are hairline differences and completely puzzled on how to solve this.
2. Couldn't figure out any way to systematically break down the stimulus(except the premise/conclusion) and figure out the right answer choices.

I need some materials or pointers towards that would be great(like page nos. of certain books/links etc) or ways/methods anything that would be helpful to understand how to solve bold faced CR questions besides brute dumb luck

Originally posted by navigator123 on 24 Aug 2012, 06:44.
Last edited by Bunuel on 09 Oct 2018, 05:10, edited 2 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Joined: 01 Sep 2010
Posts: 3352
Re: Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commerci  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 25 Aug 2012, 22:57
30
12
navigator123 wrote:
Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commercial aircraft, are made with low-power circuitry, which is more susceptible to interference than the vacuum-tube circuitry found in older planes. During landing, navigation systems receive radio signals from the airport to guide the plane to the runway. Recently, one plane with low-power circuitry veered off course during landing, its dials dimming, when a passenger turned on a laptop computer. Clearly, modern aircraft navigation systems are being put at risk by the electronic devices that passengers carry on board, such as cassette players and laptop computers.
The two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?
(A) The first is a principle that the argument relies on and the second is a conclusion that can be drawn from the first.
(B) The first is a fact that argument relies on and the second is a conclusion that must be drawn from this argument.
(C) The first acknowledges a consideration that supports that main position; the second is that conclusion.
(D) The first is an evidence that supports the conclusion, the second is that conclusion.
(E) The first is a principle that is necessary for this argument, the second is a conclusion that could be drawn from this argument.

I have been trying to understand ways to crack the bold face CRs, but i am finding it tough on various fronts.

1. Couldn't distinguish between words like principle/fact/evidence.. acknowledge/asertain/supports. These are hairline differences and completely puzzled on how to solve this.
2. Couldn't figure out any way to systematically break down the stimulus(except the premise/conclusion) and figure out the right answer choices.

I need some materials or pointers towards that would be great(like page nos. of certain books/links etc) or ways/methods anything that would be helpful to understand how to solve bold faced CR questions besides brute dumb luck

Hi guy this is tough I admit. the gmat tries to blow you but you have to keep calm and break the problem into chunks.

This strategy is from MGMAT CR guide and it works.

So, here we are: first of all try to spot the conclusion in the argument ALWAYS. Now, our second bold statement coincides with the conclusion or main idea of the argument, so you can label it as C.

The first bold part can be: in favour of the conclusion so you can label it as P (premise that support the author conclusion) or X (a statement that is something else: for instance an example a fact and so on).

So here we have a X C combination because the X is something that support conclusion INDIRECTLY in this case and the second bold part is our CONCLUSION. In our answer choices we have to figure out this combo

Now, here simple part of our work:

A and E are suddenly out because our X is not a principle.

B the first is not something on the argument rely on because the opening of a laptop is the problem reason during the land

D here we have a evidence or aka PREMISE but we have a X not a P, and also he does not support directly the author conclusion but indirectly

C The first acknowledges a consideration that supports that main position; the second is that conclusion.

Perfect. We have an X C combo.

Hope this help
_________________

Originally posted by carcass on 24 Aug 2012, 08:07.
Last edited by carcass on 25 Aug 2012, 22:57, edited 1 time in total.
##### General Discussion
Senior Manager
Joined: 13 Aug 2012
Posts: 420
Concentration: Marketing, Finance
GPA: 3.23
Re: Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commerci  [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2013, 06:51
23
12
Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commercial aircraft, are made with low-power circuitry, which is more susceptible to interference than the vacuum-tube circuitry found in older planes. During landing, navigation systems receive radio signals from the airport to guide the plane to the runway. Recently, one plane with low-power circuitry veered off course during landing, its dials dimming, when a passenger turned on a laptop computer. Clearly, modern aircraft navigation systems are being put at risk by the electronic devices that passengers carry on board, such as cassette players and laptop computers.

The two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a principle that the argument relies on and the second is a conclusion that can be drawn from the first.
The reliance of navigation system is a fact and NOT a principle. A PRINCIPLE is a rule/law or moral tenet or some other guideline that is a basis of decision... NOT A PRINCIPLE! OUT

(B) The first is a fact that argument relies on and the second is a conclusion that must be drawn from this argument.
The first is a FACT indeed BUT it is not what the argument relies on... Try to remove that particular sentence and see if the argument will still hold...

Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commercial aircraft, are made with low-power circuitry, which is more susceptible to interference than the vacuum-tube circuitry found in older planes. [b]During landing, navigation systems receive radio signals from the airport to guide the plane to the runway
. Recently, one plane with low-power circuitry veered off course during landing, its dials dimming, when a passenger turned on a laptop computer. Clearly, modern aircraft navigation systems are being put at risk by the electronic devices that passengers carry on board, such as cassette players and laptop computers.

Argument still works. OUT!

[/b]

(C) The first acknowledges a consideration that supports that main position; the second is that conclusion.

(D) The first is an evidence that supports the conclusion, the second is that conclusion.
This is a fact under consideration. The evidence is not this one but the turning on of the laptop...

(E) The first is a principle that is necessary for this argument, the second is a conclusion that could be drawn from this argument.
Like in A, it is NOT A PRINCIPLE

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Intern
Joined: 13 Aug 2013
Posts: 43
Re: Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commerci  [#permalink]

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09 Oct 2013, 01:05
5
Straight E.

Pl note that the question asked is what "least strengthens"(not weaken) the argument. So each of the 4 incorrect answer choices will strengthen the conclusion of the argument.

Conclusion: Modern electronic aircraft navigation system is at risk because of the electronic devices that passengers on board carry.

(A) After the laptop computer was turned off, the plane regained course and its navigation instruments and dials returned to normal.
Strengthens. This clearly strengthens the argument by stating that a laptop might have caused the problem in the navigation instruments and dials. Hence out

(B) When in use all electronic devices emit electromagnetic radiation, which is known to interfere with circuitry.
Strengthens. Clearly implies that all electronic devices will cause problems to the circuitry. Hence out

(C) No problems with navigational equipment or instrument dials have been reported on flights with no passenger-owned electronic devices on board.
Strengthens.Creates a correlation between electronic devices and problems with navigational equipment or instrument dials. Hence out

(D) Significant electromagnetic radiation from portable electronic devices can travel up to eight meters, and some passenger seats on modern aircraft are located within four meters of the navigation systems.
Strengthens. This option again directly mentions that electronic devices within an 8 meter range can harm the navigation systems. Hence out

(E) Planes were first equipped with low-power circuitry at about the same time portable electronic devices became popular.
Does not strengthen. This option ideally does nothing as far as the conclusion is concerned. It neither strengthens nor weakens the argument. Hence correct

Hence E is correct

Hope its clear
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Re: Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commerci  [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2015, 09:07
Modern navigation systems are made with low-power circuitry, which is more susceptible to interference than the vacuum-tube circuitry found in older planes. ................................more weak
During landing, navigation systems receive radio signals from the airport to guide the plane to the runway...............general fact or principle
Recently, one plane with low-power circuitry veered off course during landing when a passenger turned on a laptop computer............one example of weakness mentioned above
Clearly, modern aircraft navigation systems are being put at risk by the electronic devices that passengers carry on board, such as cassette players and laptop computers.............................conclusion of the argument

The two portions in boldface play which of the following roles?

(A) The first is a principle that the argument relies on and the second is a conclusion that can be drawn from the first.
The first is a principle that the argument relies on because if it is negated then conlusion cannot be drawn from the example.
and second is a conclusion but it cannot be drawn from the first.

(B) The first is a fact that argument relies on and the second is a conclusion that must be drawn from this argument.
The first is true as above.
second is a conclusion but it need not be must be drawn from this argument.

(C) The first acknowledges a consideration that supports that main position; the second is that conclusion.
The first does not acknowledge a consideration and neither it supports the main position. Second is not that conclusion.

(D) The first is an evidence that supports the conclusion, the second is that conclusion.
no true becase of same reasons as in C.

(E) The first is a principle that is necessary for this argument, the second is a conclusion that could be drawn from this argument.
The first is necessary as counter example and conclusion rely on it and second is a conclusion that can be drawn from the argument.
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Re: Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commerci  [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2019, 15:16
1
I think I am fuzzy on what constitutes a principle. The principle is a fact or law right? Planes receiving signals is basically a rule....right?

I'm not catching where my thinking is wrong. Help
Re: Modern navigation systems, which are found in most of today’s commerci   [#permalink] 28 Jan 2019, 15:16
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