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Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing

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New post Updated on: 10 Jun 2017, 06:40
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A
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C
D
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Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing pension liabilities; this leads local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs and limiting services.

A) the growing pension liabilities; this leads

B) their growing pension liabilities; leading

C) the growth in their pension liabilities, which leads

D) their growing pension liabilities, leading

E) their growing pension liabilities, that leads

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Originally posted by MisterEko on 05 Dec 2010, 12:42.
Last edited by broall on 10 Jun 2017, 06:40, edited 1 time in total.
Reformatted question
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Dec 2010, 15:49
1
3
MisterEko wrote:
Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing pension liabilities; this leads local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs and limiting services.

A) the growing pension liabilities; this leads


B) their growing pension liabilities; leading


C) the growth in their pension liabilities, which leads


D) their growing pension liabilities, leading

E) their growing pension liabilities, that leads


Hi,

I'm happy to talk about the sentence in general, but rather than just posting questions you'll get more specific help if you include what about the sentence has you baffled.

In the original sentence, "the growing pension liabilities" cannot stand by itself - there's no context that tells us what "the" means. So, we scan the choices looking for a fix.

B, C, D and E all offer alternatives; C is overly wordy, so let's narrow it down to B, D and E.

Scanning B, D and E, we see that we have 3 different options:

B has "; leading", D has ", leading" and E has ", that leads".

The semicolon in B turns the last part of the sentence into a fragment - eliminate B.

D now reads: "Municipal governments are beginning to confront [X], leading local politicians throughout the country to become [Y]." Looks good!

The "that" in E creates a number of problems: first, it doesn't have a clear reference; second, "that" almost never follows a comma, since it provides restrictive information that needs to be part of the same clause as its referent; and third, even if "that" does refer back to "their growing pension liabilities", "leads" is singular and we need a plural verb - if you spot any of those issues, eliminate E.

Choose D!
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Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2011, 15:43
1
2
Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing pension liabilities; this leads local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs and limiting services.


A)the growing pension liabilities; this leads
B)their growing pension liabilities; leading
C)the growth in their pension liabilities, which leads
D)their growing pension liabilities, leading
E)their growing pension liabilities, that leads
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2011, 19:07
Straight D.

This does not look like a 700 question.

A and B are out because of ";" => as both clauses in ; usage must be independent.
C and E are out because of Subject verb error.

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Re: Municipal governments are beginning  [#permalink]

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New post 29 Nov 2011, 17:39
1
onedayill wrote:
Why E is incorrect

Plugging in E in the original sentence :

Municipal governments are beginning to confront their growing pension liabilities, that leads local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs and limiting services.

that preceded by comma modifies the noun before it => here that is modifying "pension liabilities", which is plural. However "leads" is a singular verb. Hence there is Subject - Verb agreement error => Eliminate E.

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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 07 Mar 2017, 08:35
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Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing pension liabilities; this leads local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs and limiting services.
A) the growing pension liabilities; this leads
B) their growing pension liabilities; leading
C) the growth in their pension liabilities, which leads
D) their growing pension liabilities, leading
E) their growing pension liabilities, that leads

Hi

Can anyone explain these sentences hovv the adjective, participle etc is or vvorks please

leading - hovv is it applied in the sentence adjective, particple etc and hovv it is vvrong

Thanks

Originally posted by venmic on 10 Jun 2012, 19:45.
Last edited by abhimahna on 07 Mar 2017, 08:35, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2012, 20:09
I think you may have an error in the options. D for instance significantly changes the meaning of the sentence by using "their". Are you sure D isn't "the growing pension liabilities; leading" ?
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New post 10 Jun 2012, 20:13
NO Change


Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing pension liabilities; this leads
local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs
and limiting services.
• the growing pension liabilities; this leads
• their growing pension liabilities; leading
• the growth in their pension liabilities, which leads
• their growing pension liabilities, leading
• their growing pension liabilities, that leads
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jun 2012, 23:56
2
2
The present participle leading that is used after a comma in Chocie D is an adverbial modifier that modifies the entire previous clause or specifically the verb of the Municipals namely beginning to confront.

A is wrong because there is no specie noun that the bare demonstrative pronoun this can fall back on.
B is using a semicolon to join an aloof phrase, a grave grammar mistake
C changes the meaning. The municipals are confronting the liabilities and not the growth of their liabilities. In addition liabilities, which, leads, has SV problem.
D okay
E. liabilities, that leads: comma and SV agreement are two problems.
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2012, 01:30
1
1
Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing pension liabilities; this leads
local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs
and limiting services.
the growing pension liabilities; this leads
their growing pension liabilities; leading
the growth in their pension liabilities, which leads
their growing pension liabilities, leading
their growing pension liabilities, that leads
Soln
Meaning Analysis:
Cause & Effect
Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing pension liabilities->-> local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs and limiting services.

Error analysis :

Two clauses:
1)Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing pension liabilities
2)this leads local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs
and limiting services.

Here pronoun "This refer to Municipal governments , leads to be lead , even though its meaning is nonsensical .
Separation by semicolon says two IC . But intended meaning is 2nd clause is the effect og first one , so Verb+Ing Modified is reqd to show the effect .
So it has two error Pronoun reference and use of ";".
POE:
a) is out because of pronoun error , Leads to lead and it does not say cause and effect meaning
B) is out because " use of verb +ing modifier after semicolon and secong clause is not IC , its fragment
c) is out as discussed in error analysis . it changes the intended meaning
D) Correct , precised intended meaning
E) Is out , use of Use and its refer to Municipal governments (plural subject) , so leads to be lead .
It also changes the intended meaning of author.
HENCE IMO:D
C
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2012, 01:32
1
Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing pension liabilities; this leads
local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs
and limiting services.
the growing pension liabilities; this leads
their growing pension liabilities; leading
the growth in their pension liabilities, which leads
their growing pension liabilities, leading
their growing pension liabilities, that leads
Soln
Meaning Analysis:
Cause & Effect
Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing pension liabilities->-> local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs and limiting services.

Error analysis :

Two clauses:
1)Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing pension liabilities
2)this leads local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs
and limiting services.

Here pronoun "This refer to Municipal governments , leads to be lead , even though its meaning is nonsensical .
Separation by semicolon says two IC . But intended meaning is 2nd clause is the effect og first one , so Verb+Ing Modified is reqd to show the effect .
So it has two error Pronoun reference and use of ";".
POE:
a) is out because of pronoun error , Leads to lead and it does not say cause and effect meaning
B) is out because " use of verb +ing modifier after semicolon and secong clause is not IC , its fragment
c) is out as discussed in error analysis . it changes the intended meaning
D) Correct , precised intended meaning
E) Is out , use of Use and its refer to Municipal governments (plural subject) , so leads to be lead .
It also changes the intended meaning of author.
HENCE IMO:D
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2012, 01:44
1
venmic wrote:
Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing pension liabilities; this leads
local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs
and limiting services.
the growing pension liabilities; this leads
their growing pension liabilities; leading
the growth in their pension liabilities, which leads
their growing pension liabilities, leading
their growing pension liabilities, that leads

Hi

Can anyone explain these sentences hovv the adjective, participle etc is or vvorks please

leading - hovv is it applied in the sentence adjective, particple etc and hovv it is vvrong

Thanks

"leading" is used as it is parallel to "begining" ", " has to be used as ";" is not relevant here

the growing pension liabilities; this leads
This is wrong. This is a pronoun and can not refer to "growing" , which is a verb.

their growing pension liabilities; leading
if Verb+ing is to be used ";" is redundant.

the growth in their pension liabilities, which leads
grammatically, sentence is wrong but meaning clarity is important.
Sentence is checking your concept of cause and effect logical relationship. (Cause, verb+ing to indicate the effect)is preferred .
so choice D is right which tells the logical relationship correctly.
their growing pension liabilities, leading

their growing pension liabilities, that leads
that growth leads not liabilities
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 11 Jun 2012, 02:07
1
Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing pension liabilities; this leads
local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs
and limiting services.
the growing pension liabilities; this leads
their growing pension liabilities; leading
the growth in their pension liabilities, which leads
their growing pension liabilities, leading
their growing pension liabilities, that leads

My understanding ,

lets make a split : A,C,E n B,D

A,C,E : Pension Liabilities (Plural ) & Leads (Singular) = SV disagreement = Eliminated

Of B n D :

B : the portion after semicolon ie ......Leading ............. is not an independent clause = Eliminated

Leading to D : Leading corectly modifies the preceeding clause.
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Mar 2015, 21:29
Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing pension liabilities; this leads
local politicians throughout the country to become increasingly vocal about restraining costs
and limiting services.

the growing pension liabilities; this leads
ineffective pronoun "this"

their growing pension liabilities; leading
use wrong puntuation

the growth in their pension liabilities, which leads
the action of "governments" (not the "pension liabilities" ) leads to "vocal situation among politicans",

their growing pension liabilities, leading

their growing pension liabilities, that leads
wrong for reason mention in choice B and C
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jun 2015, 03:56
mikemcgarry:
carcass
In Option D: Leading is a ing modifier which modifies the subject of the earlier clause ie (municipal governments) , but it's intented meaning is to modify the Growing pension liabilities. Right?.This is not the intended meaning of the sentence right??
Then still hws this correct.
Am i missing anyhting??
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 19 May 2016, 08:09
A and B are out because of ";" => as both clauses in ; usage must be independent.
C and E are out because of Subject verb error.



Why C is wrong, E understand.
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jul 2016, 07:41
There are 2 things wrong in C.
1. Incorrect Usage: Which clause always refers to a Noun. Therefore, if the which clause is referring to "growth in their pension liabilities", you would change the meaning as local politicians got vocal due to the confrontation rather than growth in pension liabilities, but if you argue that which clause is referring to confrontation itself, then that is wrong usage because "Confront" is a verb and which clause can not refer to it.
2. Wordiness: Even though this is not a strong error type, "growth in their pension liabilities" IS wordier than "growing pension liabilities".

I hope this helps. Please mention grammatical mistakes in my comments. I'll try not to repeat them.
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Feb 2017, 12:38
daagh wrote:
The present participle leading that is used after a comma in Chocie D is an adverbial modifier that modifies the entire previous clause or specifically the verb of the Municipals namely beginning to confront.

A is wrong because there is no specie noun that the bare demonstrative pronoun this can fall back on.
B is using a semicolon to join an aloof phrase, a grave grammar mistake
C changes the meaning. The municipals are confronting the liabilities and not the growth of their liabilities. In addition liabilities, which, leads, has SV problem.
D okay
E. liabilities, that leads: comma and SV agreement are two problems.



Hi daagh,

could you help me out ?
Is it generally wrong to have a comma before that ? Since normally we use comma just before "which" and not before "that" but I am unsure whether that is a rule
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Feb 2017, 13:39
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Yes. It is a rule. 'that' can never be non-restrictive.
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2017, 08:38
Shree9975 wrote:
mikemcgarry:
carcass
In Option D: Leading is a ing modifier which modifies the subject of the earlier clause ie (municipal governments) , but it's intented meaning is to modify the Growing pension liabilities. Right?.This is not the intended meaning of the sentence right??
Then still hws this correct.
Am i missing anyhting??


As per the original sentence, the intended meaning is that once it begins to confront something, it would lead to ....

hence, D clearly maintains the meaning and this is the correct answer.
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Re: Municipal governments are beginning to confront the growing   [#permalink] 07 Mar 2017, 08:38

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