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# Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life

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Manager
Joined: 17 Jul 2008
Posts: 229
Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2008, 15:01
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Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life has been found in bedrock more than five kilometers below the surface of the Earth, and bacteria have been found on the deep ocean floor feeding on hydrogen and other gases rising from the interior of the Earth through vents in the ocean floor.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following as a conclusion?

(A) The location in the bedrock where microbial life
was found was not near a system of volcanic vents through which hydrogen and other gases rose from the interior of the Earth.
(B) Bacteria are able to exist at the molten center of
the Earth.
(C) A thorough survey of a planet's surface is
insufficient to establish beyond a doubt that the planet contains no life.
(D) Life probably exists on Sun-orbiting comets,
which are cold agglomerations of space dust and frozen gases.
(E) Finding bacterial remains in coal and oil would
establish that the bacteria had been feeding on substances that had not been produced from the energy of sunlight.

Can anyone please explain the answer of that question?
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Senior Manager
Joined: 26 Mar 2008
Posts: 296
Location: Washington DC
Re: CR-energy from sunlight [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2008, 15:41
I think its E. Rest all either outside of the scope or not true with the passage.
Director
Joined: 26 Jul 2007
Posts: 520
Schools: Stern, McCombs, Marshall, Wharton
Re: CR-energy from sunlight [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2008, 17:25
I get C.

Life can exist without sunlight (which is only visible on the surface).

Example of life in bedrock (not on surface)

Example of life on ocean floor (not on surface)

Therefore:

Surveying the surface to determine if a planet contains life is insufficient.
Director
Joined: 14 Jan 2007
Posts: 764
Re: CR-energy from sunlight [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2008, 17:52
Should be 'C'.

As the microbial life is under the sea, we can't say by surveying the planet's surface that there is no life.
Current Student
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Location: New York City
Schools: Wharton'11 HBS'12
Re: CR-energy from sunlight [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2008, 18:01
C...you just cant tell from the surface if life exists on a planet..
Senior Manager
Joined: 26 Mar 2008
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Location: Washington DC
Re: CR-energy from sunlight [#permalink]

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17 Jul 2008, 19:07
1
fresinha12 wrote:
C...you just cant tell from the surface if life exists on a planet..

If c is the OA then question must ask for the inference not for the conclusion.
Manager
Joined: 27 Mar 2008
Posts: 77
Re: CR-energy from sunlight [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2008, 22:16
perfectstranger wrote:
Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life has been found in bedrock more than five kilometers below the surface of the Earth, and bacteria have been found on the deep ocean floor feeding on hydrogen and other gases rising from the interior of the Earth through vents in the ocean floor.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following as a conclusion?

(A) The location in the bedrock where microbial life
was found was not near a system of volcanic vents through which hydrogen and other gases rose from the interior of the Earth.
(B) Bacteria are able to exist at the molten center of
the Earth.
(C) A thorough survey of a planet's surface is
insufficient to establish beyond a doubt that the planet contains no life.
(D) Life probably exists on Sun-orbiting comets,
which are cold agglomerations of space dust and frozen gases.
(E) Finding bacterial remains in coal and oil would
establish that the bacteria had been feeding on substances that had not been produced from the energy of sunlight.

Can anyone please explain the answer of that question?

After reading everyone's response I still cannot understand this question. How does C support (or strengthen) the conclusion?

Conclusion = not all life depends on energy from sunlight

Evidence = facts after 1st sentence
Intern
Joined: 01 Aug 2008
Posts: 36
Re: CR-energy from sunlight [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2008, 22:33
This is OG question.
Answer will be D as we need to talk about both microbial life and bacteria
Director
Joined: 12 Jul 2008
Posts: 512
Schools: Wharton
Re: CR-energy from sunlight [#permalink]

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07 Aug 2008, 05:53
perfectstranger wrote:
Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life has been found in bedrock more than five kilometers below the surface of the Earth, and bacteria have been found on the deep ocean floor feeding on hydrogen and other gases rising from the interior of the Earth through vents in the ocean floor.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following as a conclusion?

(A) The location in the bedrock where microbial life
was found was not near a system of volcanic vents through which hydrogen and other gases rose from the interior of the Earth.
(B) Bacteria are able to exist at the molten center of
the Earth.
(C) A thorough survey of a planet's surface is
insufficient to establish beyond a doubt that the planet contains no life.
(D) Life probably exists on Sun-orbiting comets,
which are cold agglomerations of space dust and frozen gases.
(E) Finding bacterial remains in coal and oil would
establish that the bacteria had been feeding on substances that had not been produced from the energy of sunlight.

Can anyone please explain the answer of that question?

Clear C.

A. Don't know anything about volcanic vents
B. Don't know anything about molten center of Earth
C. Correct -- Bacteria has been found well below the surface of the Earth
D. Probably is too strong -- Passage gives no sense of probability
E. The bacteria itself does not need direct sunlight but could be feeding on sunlight-produced substances that trickled down from the Earth's surface
VP
Joined: 17 Jun 2008
Posts: 1289
Re: CR-energy from sunlight [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2008, 20:21
1
1
perfectstranger wrote:
Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life has been found in bedrock more than five kilometers below the surface of the Earth, and bacteria have been found on the deep ocean floor feeding on hydrogen and other gases rising from the interior of the Earth through vents in the ocean floor.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following as a conclusion?

(A) The location in the bedrock where microbial life
was found was not near a system of volcanic vents through which hydrogen and other gases rose from the interior of the Earth. -> this
is incorrect as conclution since it does not present the main point of not all life depends on sunlight

(B) Bacteria are able to exist at the molten center of
the Earth. -> this is just an evidence not a conclution
(C) A thorough survey of a planet's surface is
insufficient to establish beyond a doubt that the planet contains no life. -> this is apt since from the above passage we know main point is not all life depends o sunlight and evidences are of microbes,bacteria.Hence just looking at surface species presence we cannot comment on life on a planet .deep oceans and underneath earth need to be looked into
(D) Life probably exists on Sun-orbiting comets,
which are cold agglomerations of space dust and frozen gases. -> OOS
(E) Finding bacterial remains in coal and oil would
establish that the bacteria had been feeding on substances that had not been produced from the energy of sunlight. -> Just an evidence

Can anyone please explain the answer of that question?

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Its Now Or Never

Senior Manager
Joined: 06 Apr 2008
Posts: 393
Re: CR-energy from sunlight [#permalink]

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08 Aug 2008, 20:27
perfectstranger wrote:
Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life has been found in bedrock more than five kilometers below the surface of the Earth, and bacteria have been found on the deep ocean floor feeding on hydrogen and other gases rising from the interior of the Earth through vents in the ocean floor.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following as a conclusion?

(A) The location in the bedrock where microbial life
was found was not near a system of volcanic vents through which hydrogen and other gases rose from the interior of the Earth.
(B) Bacteria are able to exist at the molten center of
the Earth.
(C) A thorough survey of a planet's surface is
insufficient to establish beyond a doubt that the planet contains no life.
(D) Life probably exists on Sun-orbiting comets,
which are cold agglomerations of space dust and frozen gases.
(E) Finding bacterial remains in coal and oil would
establish that the bacteria had been feeding on substances that had not been produced from the energy of sunlight.

Can anyone please explain the answer of that question?

IMO C)

The para clearly states that life can exist in ocean beds and other places so scanning just surface will not ensure whether life exists or not
Intern
Joined: 03 Feb 2012
Posts: 3
Re: Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life [#permalink]

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28 Feb 2013, 09:04
My take: E

Conclusion is " Not all life depends on energy from sunlight" and as per Powerscore Bible, the answer to this question should be related to the conclusion.
Option E, clearly supports that bacteria's have been found in coal and oil and do not require energy from sunlight...

Please correct me if i am wrong...
Director
Joined: 03 Aug 2012
Posts: 829
Concentration: General Management, General Management
GMAT 1: 630 Q47 V29
GMAT 2: 680 Q50 V32
GPA: 3.7
WE: Information Technology (Investment Banking)
Re: Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life [#permalink]

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18 May 2013, 23:11
OA:C (as per OG11)

Initially I chose (E).However, I was mislead to the answer as choice (C) clearly states that just surveying the surface for existence of life is wrong.Nevertheless, option (C) indirectly states the conclusion that is mentioned in the first line of the given passage.

(C). Some life exists even under the surface => Just surveying surface won't do=> Not all life depends on energy from sunlight.

Hope it helps

Rgds,
TGC !!
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Senior Manager
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Re: Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life [#permalink]

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19 May 2013, 08:43
2
1
jainmay wrote:
My take: E

Conclusion is " Not all life depends on energy from sunlight" and as per Powerscore Bible, the answer to this question should be related to the conclusion.
Option E, clearly supports that bacteria's have been found in coal and oil and do not require energy from sunlight...

Please correct me if i am wrong...

E strengthens the argument. Conclusion should either summarize what is stated in the premises or use the premises as facts to prove a point. E serves as an evidence to support the fact "Not all life depends on energy from sunlight".

C is correct here. It captures the essence of the premises. Since organisms have been found to survive beyond the surface of earth, it could be the case of any other planet as well. Hence, a survey on the surface of any planet is insufficient to ascertain the non-existence of life in that planet.
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Manager
Joined: 04 Apr 2013
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Re: Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2013, 13:36
Initially I thought C but switched to E.

I thought C was little too extreme.

A thorough survey of a planet's surface is insufficient to establish beyond a doubt that the planet contains no life

Shouldnt the answer choice reflect as

A thorough survey of a planet's surface is insufficient to establish beyond a doubt that the planet contains no life that depends on << sun light or food from sunlight>> etc.

Reading C, I interpreted the answer choice as "Survey of planets surface is insufficent to establish that planet do not contain life" which is not specified.

Verbal experts, please let me know in case my argument is incorrect. If so why?
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Intern
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Location: India
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Re: Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life [#permalink]

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29 May 2016, 11:02
perfectstranger wrote:
Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life has been found in bedrock more than five kilometers below the surface of the Earth, and bacteria have been found on the deep ocean floor feeding on hydrogen and other gases rising from the interior of the Earth through vents in the ocean floor.

The statements above, if true, best support which of the following as a conclusion?

(A) The location in the bedrock where microbial life
was found was not near a system of volcanic vents through which hydrogen and other gases rose from the interior of the Earth.
(B) Bacteria are able to exist at the molten center of
the Earth.
(C) A thorough survey of a planet's surface is
insufficient to establish beyond a doubt that the planet contains no life.
(D) Life probably exists on Sun-orbiting comets,
which are cold agglomerations of space dust and frozen gases.
(E) Finding bacterial remains in coal and oil would
establish that the bacteria had been feeding on substances that had not been produced from the energy of sunlight.

Can anyone please explain the answer of that question?

The answer is clearly C.
The problem with E is that it concludes that if bacteria is found anywhere ( coal and oil in this instance), it proves that they had been feeding on substances that had not been produced by sunlight. This is not he conclusion of the argument.
Answer choice C clearly captures the essence of the argument i.e. Not all argument depends on sunlight. For evidence - microbial life and bacteria - both examples given of life forms existing not on the surface of the planet.)
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Ankit Bansal

Intern
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Posts: 1
Re: Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2016, 23:52
Can some one please explain why E is not the correct answer? Thnx!
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Re: Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2016, 13:00
mia90 wrote:
Can some one please explain why E is not the correct answer? Thnx!

There is nothing in the passage that leads to a correlation between finding bacterial remains in coal or oil and feeding on substances produced from sources other than sunlight. If you can explain why you feel that option E can be concluded then we may discuss further.
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Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life [#permalink]

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04 May 2017, 09:17
Hi sayantanc2k

Why can't D be the answer ?
"Life probably exists on Sun orbiting comets, which are cold agglomerations of space dust & frozen gases".

The argument concludes that not all life depends on energy from sunlight. It goes on to give an example of Earth.

Is it because the argument gives info only about a "planet" Earth ? So the conclusion can be extended to generalize "planets" ?
Any other reason ?

If it is, aren't we bringing outside information that Earth is a planet ?

ConnectTheDots wrote:
jainmay wrote:
My take: E

Conclusion is " Not all life depends on energy from sunlight" and as per Powerscore Bible, the answer to this question should be related to the conclusion.
Option E, clearly supports that bacteria's have been found in coal and oil and do not require energy from sunlight...

Please correct me if i am wrong...

E strengthens the argument. Conclusion should either summarize what is stated in the premises or use the premises as facts to prove a point. E serves as an evidence to support the fact "Not all life depends on energy from sunlight".

C is correct here. It captures the essence of the premises. Since organisms have been found to survive beyond the surface of earth, it could be the case of any other planet as well. Hence, a survey on the surface of any planet is insufficient to ascertain the non-existence of life in that planet.
Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life   [#permalink] 04 May 2017, 09:17
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# Not all life depends on energy from sunlight. Microbial life

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