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Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier

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Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 25 Jul 2018, 06:30
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NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS


Before we start discussing about the functions of noun + noun modifiers, let’s do a little warm up exercise here. Following are the three sentences. On the basis of the usage of modifier, identify which of the following are correct.

1. James created a magnificent design by using latest graphic design tools, a work acknowledged and appreciated by all investors.
2. James created a magnificent design by using latest graphic design tools, an experiment that many feared to do because of the instability in the output resulting from these tools.
3. James created a magnificent design by using latest graphic design tools, expensive but super helpful devices developed especially for minute detailing and elaboration.

NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS: CONFUSION


All the above mentioned “warm up” sentences are correct. Well, I would not be surprised to know that the answer surprised you. The modifier that all the three sentences have here follows the structure of noun + noun modifier. The usage of this modifier in all the above mentioned sentences is correct.

Image

1. James created a magnificent design by using latest graphic design tools, a work acknowledged and appreciated by all investors.
2. James created a magnificent design by using latest graphic design tools, an experiment that many feared to do because of the instability in the output resulting from these tools.
3. James created a magnificent design by using latest graphic design tools, expensive but super helpful devices developed especially for minute detailing and elaboration.

Noun + Noun modifiers are very versatile modifiers. Unlike the structure of other modifiers, their structure does not restrict their modification to a particular entity in the sentence. For example, verb-ed or verb-ing modifier without a preceding comma can only modify the preceding noun entity.

The noun + noun modifiers are very versatile because despite having a definite structure, they don’t modify an entity in a definite position in the sentence.
The noun + noun modifiers can modify the entire preceding clause, the preceding noun entity, or a noun in the middle of the sentence. The modification done by these modifiers is completely driven by the context of the sentence.

Image
This versatility of noun + noun modifiers to modify any aspect in a sentence makes them very complex and dreaded. The GMAT takers do possess some knowledge of such modifiers and their functions. However, this complex nature of noun + noun modifiers to be able to modify just about any aspect in a sentence leaves them confused as to how to identify which particular entity a noun + noun modifier is referring to in a particular sentence. Hence, they pray not to encounter these scary modifiers.

Another thing to keep in mind is that a noun + noun modifier must refer to only one entity in the sentence. If the modification leads to slightest of ambiguity, then the usage of this modifier will stand incorrect. Let’s understand this point through an example:

Image



In the above sentence, “a gift that was in her wish list from a very long time” is the noun + noun modifier.
a gift = noun
that was in her wish list from a very long time = noun modifier

Now, in this sentence, there are two equally strong contenders for the modification of this noun + noun modifier – iPhone 4S and iPad 3.

Image

Any one of them qualify to be in Kim’s wish list. The noun + noun modifier “a gift that…” will make sense with both the entities. Hence, in this sentence, there is ambiguity about the modification of noun + noun modifier. Hence use of this modifier here is incorrect.

We can rectify this error by saying:

Image

Image


In this sentence, noun + noun modifier has been replaced by relative pronoun clause. Relative pronoun “which” clearly refers to the preceding noun iPad 3, making it clear that this item was in Kim’s wish list for a very long time.
We can interchange the devices to denote which article was in Kim’s wish list for long.

Also, since the modification of noun + noun modifiers is completely context driven, a test taker may find it extremely difficult to identify the entity this modifier modifies in a sentence if he/she is unable to understand the intended logical meaning of the sentence.

PURPOSE OF THIS ARTICLE


This article is aimed at doing away with all the fears and confusions related to the usage of noun + noun modifiers. In this article, we will demonstrate how and in which scenarios, a Noun + Noun Modifier can be used to modify various entities in the preceding clause including the entire preceding clause itself. At the end of the article, we have also included a small quiz for you to check your understanding of this particular modifier.

NOUN + NOUN MODIFIERS: FUNCTION


As already mentioned above, noun + noun modifiers are very versatile modifiers and can modify an entity in the sentence. This entity can be the immediate preceding noun, a noun in the middle of the preceding clause, or the entire preceding clause. The modification of noun + noun modifiers completely depends on the context of the sentence.
Let’s discuss the “warm up” sentences to see how they are correct and the noun + noun modifier in each sentence is modifying which entity in the sentence and why.

1. NOUN + NOUN MODIFIER: MODIFYING PRECEDING NOUN


Noun + Noun modifier can modify the immediate preceding noun entity if the context of the sentence demands so. Sentence 3 of the “warm up” exercise falls into this category.

SIMPLE EXAMPLE:

Noun + Noun modifier can modify the immediate preceding noun entity if the context of the sentence demands so. Sentence 3 of the “warm up” exercise falls into this category.

Image

This sentence means that James created an excellent design by using latest design tools. Then the modifier explains what kind of tool they are. They are expensive but helpful devices that are especially created for certain specific tasks.

In this sentence, “expensive but super helpful devices developed especially for minute detailing and elaboration” is the noun + noun modifier. Here,
expensive but super helpful devices = noun entity
developed especially for minute detailing and elaboration = noun modifier.

Notice that “developed” is the verb-ed modifier here that is modifying the preceding noun entity “expensive but super helpful devices”.

The noun “expensive but super helpful devices” can logically refer to the “latest graphic design tools”, because there is no other noun entity that it will make sense with. Now “design” is another noun in the sentence.
However, “design” cannot be classified as “tools”. Hence, logically this modification will not make sense.

Hence, per the context of the sentence, the noun + noun modifier (expensive but super helpful devices developed especially for minute detailing and elaboration) is modifying the preceding noun entity (latest graphic design tools) in this sentence because that is the only logical referent in the main clause.

Image

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE: OG 12#118 (with correct answer choice C)

Image

In order to understand the modification in this sentence, let us first understand the intended meaning of the sentence. The sentence says that The WWF has declared that global warming will create havoc among migratory birds. It will do so by changing the environment in such ways that will be harmful to their habitats. By the way, global warming is a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by burning of fossil fuels by humans.

In this sentence, “a phenomenon that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels” is the noun + noun modifier.
a phenomenon = noun entity
that most scientists agree is caused by human beings' burning of fossil fuels = noun modifier

The noun modifier in this structure is a relative pronoun “that” clause. Here “that” refers to “a phenomenon”, the preceding noun.

So, logically what can be referred as “a phenomenon…” in this sentence? The WWF can certainly be not classified as “a phenomenon”. So this noun is ruled out.

Again, can “a phenomenon” be attributed to the action of declaring by the WWF? Certainly not because it does not make sense to say that the declaration is a phenomenon that most scientist agree is caused by a certain activity of humans. So this entity is also rejected.

Can “global warming” be called “a phenomenon” that most scientists agree is cause by humans? By all means, yes. It is the phenomenon that has cause by humans’ burning of fossil fuel.

Image


Hence, per the context of the sentence, the noun + noun modifier is actually talking about the preceding noun entity “global warming” in that it is giving additional information about global warming which a phenomenon, an incident. The noun + noun modifier is referring to the immediate preceding noun in this official sentence.

Image

2. NOUN + NOUN MODIFIER: MODIFYING NOUN IN MIDDLE


A noun + noun modifier can easily modify a noun entity in the middle of the preceding clause, provided the context of the sentence demands such modification. The versatility of this modifier allows it zoom into any entity of the preceding clause to modify it. Let’s understand this by examples.

SIMPLE EXAMPLE:
Sentence 2 of the “warm up” exercise falls into this category.

Image

As usual, let’s first get the meaning of this sentence. The sentence says that James created an excellent design, using latest graphic design tools. It was a work that was acknowledged and appreciated by all investors.

In this sentence, “a work acknowledged and appreciated by all investors” is the noun + noun modifier.
a work = noun entity acknowledged and appreciated by all investors = noun modifier (verb-ed modifier) that modifies the preceding noun.

Per the context, the noun entity “a work” must refer to refer to a logical entity. Now, the only logical entity to which “a work acknowledged…” can be logically attributed to is “a magnificent design”. This is the work that James did.

Now let’s ask, is it possible for this noun + noun modifier to refer to the preceding noun “latest graphic design tools”? Logically, no it’s not. “Tools” cannot be called “a work”. Their creation can be classified as work but “tools” themselves are not work.

So, per the logical context of the sentence, “a work acknowledged…” modifies a noun that appears somewhere in the middle of the preceding clause.

Image

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE: OG 12#48 (with correct answer choice B)

Image

Let’s take the first step. Let’s first understand the meaning of this sentence. The sentence says that in 1713, Pope started translating the Iliad. This work of translation took him seven years. Johnson pronounced this work the greatest translation in any language.

So as identified already, “a work... any language” is the noun + noun modifier in this sentence.
a work = noun entity
that took… any language = noun modifier (relative pronoun “that” clause modifier)

Image


There are two nouns before “a work” that this modifier can refer to – “translation” and “Iliad”. Let’s first analyze the modification with “translation”. It makes absolute sense for “a work” to refer to “translation” because translation is the work that Pope did and this is the work that took him seven years too. Also, it is the translation only that Johnson pronounced the greatest in any language.

Now let’s see if “a work” can refer to “Iliad”. Certainly not because Pope did not take seven years to finish Iliad. He took that long to translate Iliad. Also, Johnson did not call the Iliad the greatest translation. He called Iliad’s translation, done by Pope, the greatest in any language.

Hence, logically it makes sense for “a work,,, any language”, a noun + noun modifier to refer to “translation”, a noun entity somewhere in the middle of the preceding clause.

Image

3. NOUN + NOUN MODIFIER: MODIFYING PRECEDING CLAUSE


Another entity that a noun + noun modifier can refer to is the entire preceding clause, if the context demands such modification. In this case, the noun + noun modifier will not refer to any particular entity but to the subject and the verb of the preceding clause. Let’s see how.

SIMPLE EXAMPLE:

Sentence 2 of the “warm up” exercise falls into this classification.

Image

Let’s understand the meaning first. James created an excellent design, using latest graphic design tools. This creation of the design by using latest design tools was an experiment that many were scared to do because the results that were obtained by using these tools were not stable.

As already highlighted in green, “an experiment… these tools” is the noun + noun modifier.
an experiment = noun entity
that may… these tools = noun modifier (relative pronoun “that” clause modifier)

So let’s consider and analyze the possible entities this noun + noun modifier can refer to.

This noun + noun modifier cannot refer to the immediate preceding noun because “latest graphic design tools” are no experiment. They are tools, kind of devices used for certain activities. Hence, this modification is logically impossible.

What about a noun entity in the middle of the preceding clause – “design”? Well, same logic again. “Design” itself is not an experiment that many were afraid to do. Hence, this entity is rejected too.

However, it does make sense to for this modifier to modify the entire preceding clause because James’ creation of the design by using the graphic design tools was an experiment because of the reason stated in the sentence. Hence, per the context of the sentence, this noun + noun modifier refers to the entire preceding clause in this sentence.

Image

OFFICIAL EXAMPLE: OG 12#83 (with correct answer choice B)

Image

Performing the ritual, let’s first understand the meaning of this one. In 2000, just 24 products were responsible for increase in the money spent on prescriptions. There were two reasons for this incident:
a. drugs are becoming more expensive.
b. doctors are prescribing expensive drugs.

The green portion of the sentence is the noun + noun modifier.
a phenomenon = noun
“that is… high-cost drugs” = noun modifier (relative pronoun “that” clause modifier)

Is this modifier modifying the preceding noun? It cannot do so because logically “prescriptions drugs” is no phenomenon. They are products. Moreover, singular “a phenomenon” does not agree in number with plural “prescriptions drugs”.

Can it modify another noun entity “half the increase in spending”? Logically it cannot because this information fails to incorporate the fact that only 24 products are responsible for this increase. This increase is phenomenal because of the fact that it has been happened because of the sale of mere 24 drugs.

Hence, it makes sense for the noun + noun modifier in this sentence that to modify the entire preceding clause. This modification makes it clear why this increase is noteworthy. The noun modifiers present the reasons for this phenomenal increase in spending.

Image

A QUICK LOOK

Image

Image
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Originally posted by egmat on 14 Aug 2012, 14:55.
Last edited by egmat on 25 Jul 2018, 06:30, edited 7 times in total.
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Aug 2012, 09:54
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New post 24 Aug 2012, 11:33
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Hi Folks,

Try this official question (OG Verbal 2#100) to aee if you have understood the concept discussed in the article well.

Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2012, 11:12
egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

Try this official question (OG Verbal 2#100) to aee if you have understood the concept discussed in the article well.

Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

Thanks.
Shraddha


IMO, it should be E.
noun = "an event"
noun-modifier="that caused the plant and animal extinctions"
Here, the noun+noun-modifier is modifying the entire clause - the event of asteroid slamming into north america. Please let me know if I am right here?

Also, A and B uses "which", which makes it modify north america.
C uses "and" but does not have parallelism. D uses wrong tense - "marks".
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2012, 12:18
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egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

Try this official question (OG Verbal 2#100) to aee if you have understood the concept discussed in the article well.

Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks - Which has no clear sensical referent
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking - Which has no clear sensical referent
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark - Slammed ....and causing (Parallelism error)
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks - It has no clear sensical referent.
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark - an event clearly modifies "an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America" + that clearly refers to plant & animal extinctions.

Thanks.
Shraddha


As per the meaning of the sentence - the event (asteroid slammed North America ) led to extinction of plant & animals and the extinction subsequently marked the end of era.
The correct answer in my opinion is E.
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Aug 2012, 06:49
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Thanks Shraddha. Found a question on Noun + Noun Modifier

Astronomers have theorized that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.
persisting
persists
persisted
they persist
are persisting

OA - A
Can you please explain why C is wrong. The explanation talks about parallelism but how is it possible to have present participle parallel to past participle.
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http://gmatclub.com/forum/massive-collection-of-verbal-questions-sc-rc-and-cr-106195.html#p832142
http://gmatclub.com/forum/1001-ds-questions-file-106193.html#p832133
http://gmatclub.com/forum/gmat-prep-critical-reasoning-collection-106783.html
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New post 18 Sep 2012, 19:44
catfreak wrote:
Thanks Shraddha. Found a question on Noun + Noun Modifier

Astronomers have theorized that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.
persisting
persists
persisted
they persist
are persisting

OA - A
Can you please explain why C is wrong. The explanation talks about parallelism but how is it possible to have present participle parallel to past participle.


I am not sure if you still have this doubt. After all you posted this question almost half a month back. In any case, if you still have doubts about this question, then I would suggest you read thisarticle. Pay close attention to the explanation of OG question - extending and spawned. And then come back here and solve this question. I would look forward to your explanation. If you have any other doubts regarding this, feel free to let me know.

Thanks,

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New post 09 Dec 2012, 03:12
This is a solid article e-GMAT.I must say indeed a critical one...at least to me.. :)

It'll be really great if you can come up with some 700+ level qs. related to this as you've done in case of 'Parallelism' article.

Thanks a lot and please keep helping the community by posting more of these.
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New post 12 Dec 2012, 07:25
egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

Try this official question (OG Verbal 2#100) to aee if you have understood the concept discussed in the article well.

Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi Shraddha,
Please let me know whether I got it right.. OA :E
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New post 12 Dec 2012, 15:12
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Hi debayan,
Yes, you chose the correct answer. However, I would love to see a little detailed analysis of how you reach to the correct answer. Good job nonetheless. :)

Here is my analysis of the question:

Meaning

• According to some scientists, 65 million years ago, an asteroid, bigger than Mount Everest, slammed into North America.
• This caused extinction of all the plants and animals.
• So, logically it is the extinction of living entities that marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.
• But the way this sentence is written, it seems that this event of a gigantic asteroid slamming into North America marks the end of this particular geological era. This is not logical.

Error Analysis

• “which” clause is modifying the event of an asteroid slamming the North America. Being a noun modifier, “which” clause can only modify a noun. Modifier error.
• Verb-ing modifier “causing plant and animal extinctions” is neither worded nor placed correctly to suggest that slamming of the asteroid led to the extinction of plants and animals. Modifier error.
• As discussed in the meaning analysis, it is not clear from the sentence that extinction marks the end of the Cretaceous Period. Meaning error.

PoE

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking: Incorrect. Same “which” clause error in A.

C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark: Incorrect. There is no main verb after comma + and, leading to fragment.

D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks: Incorrect. “which” refers to plural “extinctions” that needs plural verb ‘mark’. Singular verb “marks” is incorrect.

E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark: Correct..

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
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New post 02 Apr 2013, 18:17
Thanks for the great article e-gmat team. Such great articles made me sign up for your course. Keep your good work flowing.

Anyways, I have a question on below ---

egmat wrote:
On her birthday, Kim got an iPhone 4S and iPad 3 from her parents, a gift that was in her wish list from a very long time.




My questions ---



1) Why can not "a gift..." refer to the list "an IPhone 4S and IPad 3" ? That is why does this noun + noun modifier clause need to refer to individual item of the list ? My understanding is for most of the cases an item list (such as a, b, and c etc) can be taken as one single entity.

2) This might be perhaps gift is singular here - but again gift is a package - so it can still make sense with a list of items in the gift. I need help here to disambiguate on what basis list should be treated as one single entity and in what cases it needs to be broken down.

3) If possible, please provide examples of both the cases - a) a noun + noun modifier must refer to list as single entity b) and a noun + noun modifier must refer to one of the item of the list.

Thanks !
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New post 09 Apr 2013, 09:58
Hi Shailendra,

On her birthday, Kim got an iPhone 4S and an iPad 3 from her parents, a gift that was in her wish list from a very long time.

Notice the use of “a gift”. This is a singular noun phrase. Now, gift is a countable noun. Even if all the items one is presented with on a special occasion are called gifts, we can count them. Per the context of the sentence, we can say for sure that Kim got two gifts from her parents – one iPhone and one iPad. The gifts that she got are countable.

This is the reason why this sentence is ambiguous because “a gift…” can refer to the any of the gifts.

Whenever we have the noun in the noun + noun modifier in singular person, it must refer to a singular entity.

You can take a look at these official questions: OG 13#47, OG 12#83, OG 12#118

Hope this helps. :)
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New post 26 Apr 2013, 22:47
Awesome article...got many of my doubts clear...thanx a lot egmat..

please help me with this question...(OG-13 SC Q29)

Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering her letters to anyone else.
A. Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering
B. Dickinson were written over a period that begins a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ended shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber
C. Dickinson, written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and that ends shortly before Emily’s death in 1886 and outnumbering
D. Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother, ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, and outnumbering
E. Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber

in option D..WHICH modifies the starting noun phrase??...but which should modify the noun it follows..am i right??
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New post 29 Apr 2013, 11:32
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Hi anish123ster,

Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering her letters to anyone else.

A. Dickinson were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumbering
B. Dickinson were written over a period that begins a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ended shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber
C. Dickinson, written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and that ends shortly before Emily’s death in 1886 and outnumbering
D. Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother, ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, and outnumbering
E. Dickinson, which were written over a period beginning a few years before Susan’s marriage to Emily’s brother and ending shortly before Emily’s death in 1886, outnumber

In choices D and E, the relative pronoun “which” refers to, as in any case, the preceding noun entity. In this sentence, the preceding noun entity is “Emily Dickinson’s letters to Susan Huntington Dickinson”, a noun phrase. So, “which” grammatically and logically refers to “letters” because “letters” is the head of this noun phrase.

Also notice that the prepositional phrase “to Susan Huntington Dickinson” cannot be placed anywhere in the sentence without violating the logic of the sentence. Hence, in this situation, “which” the noun modifier, has the liberty to jump over this prepositional phrase to refer to “letters”.

This a case where a noun modifier can refer to a slightly far away noun. You may review the following article to know the details about such modification:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2013, 19:11
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egmat wrote:
catfreak wrote:
Thanks Shraddha. Found a question on Noun + Noun Modifier

Astronomers have theorized that the Big Bang governs the behavior of interstellar dust, particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.
persisting
persists
persisted
they persist
are persisting

OA - A
Can you please explain why C is wrong. The explanation talks about parallelism but how is it possible to have present participle parallel to past participle.


I am not sure if you still have this doubt. After all you posted this question almost half a month back. In any case, if you still have doubts about this question, then I would suggest you read thisarticle. Pay close attention to the explanation of OG question - extending and spawned. And then come back here and solve this question. I would look forward to your explanation. If you have any other doubts regarding this, feel free to let me know.

Thanks,

Payal


Hi Payal, before I read your advice, I too didn't think A was the right answer (IMO was B ). Do let me know if i got this right this time around.
'particles that comprise the atoms and molecules created in the progenitive explosion and persisting in even the emptiest regions of space.'

Here created is a verb-ed modifier. 'And' is the parallel marker. Only a modifier must parallel the verb-ed modifier. Other than persisting none of the options introduce a modifier. Persisting is a verb-ing modifier that gives more information about particles.
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New post 08 Jul 2013, 20:20
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New post 25 Jul 2013, 06:42
Hello everyone,

Try this official question.

A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

(A) and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously
(B) and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was
(C) and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were
(D) fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously
(E) fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously

Looking forward to your detailed analysis. :)
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New post 25 Jul 2013, 09:03
I think it should be D. And is a parallel marker and its use necessitates repeating that. This eliminates B &C. In A 25million yrs older than other dino types is wrong comparison which also eliminates E. left is D.
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New post 27 Jul 2013, 00:17
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A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

(A) and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously- Incorrect Comparison. Fossils are compared to dinosaur type. @Shraddha could you please confirm whether the usage of 'that' is a must in this type of 'and' parallel marker? if it is must, then why so?
(B) and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was-'was' is incorrect as 'that previously was...' refers to those i.e fossils (plural). @Shraddha: If 'was' in this sentence was 'were', is this sentence correct? This sentence has no 'that'.
(C) and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were-Incorrect. Same error as A
(D) fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously-No errors visible.Correct usage of Absolute Phrase. Absolute phrase modifies 'fossils'
(E) fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously-Incorrect. Same error as A
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier   [#permalink] 27 Jul 2013, 00:17

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