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Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier

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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Jul 2013, 06:59
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Hi All,

Here is the detailed solution of this one.

A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

Since the meaning of the sentence is pretty simple to understand, let’s move on to error analysis.

Error Analysis:

1. The paleontologists found some fossils and on the basis of this discovery, they announced these dinosaurs were at least 25 million years older than any other similar type previously found in North America. Hence, these two actions are not independent of each other. There is a causal relationship here. Hence, presenting these two information as two independent entities in a parallel list does not make sense.

2. Although it’s a not a deterministic error, it’s worth mentioning. Comma + and is used to join more than two entities in the list. Here it has been used to join two entities. Since comma lies in the non-underlined portion of the sentence, we do need suitable structure.

3. Also pronoun “they” can refer to “dinosaurs” as well as “fossils”.

Image


PoE:

(A) and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously: Incorrect for the reasons stated above.

(B) and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was: Incorrect.
1. This choice repeats all the errors of Choice A.
2. “those of” now stands for “fossils”. This leads to incorrect comparison. Logically, the comparison should be between two types of “dinosaurs”. But here the comparison is incorrect any way. If “they” refers to “fossils”, then the comparison is between fossils. This is certainly incorrect. If “they” refers to “dinosaurs” then the comparison is illogical because now “dinosaurs” are compared to “fossils”.

(C) and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were: Incorrect. Incorrect. This choice as illogical comparison. Entities compared – “fossils” and “any similar dinosaur types”.

(D) fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously: Correct.

(E) fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously: Incorrect. Same comparison error as in choice C.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
Shraddha
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Oct 2013, 17:16
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gorupruthi wrote:
egmat wrote:
Hi Folks,

Try this official question (OG Verbal 2#100) to aee if you have understood the concept discussed in the article well.

Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark

Thanks.
Shraddha


Hi Shraddha ,
It is a great great article. Note that i have not mistakenly written "great" 2 times :):)
I have 1 doubt in respect to tense in this question.Why we are using Mark in present tense . Acc. to my analysis since that happened 65million years ago.
Also i got confused and assumed "it" in choice D should refer to Event , because original choice structure is like not giving any indication that "marks" should be the verb of extinctiojns.So thats why i chose D as correct one.
Please clarify that how i can avoid such mistakes.

Regards,
Gourav


Hi Shraddha,

Great to read this article. I have question of understanding this sentence correctly. I chose D as correct answer (although base on your analysis, it's wrong). Same with Gourav, think "an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks " is true because "event" refer to "an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America". The event "an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America" leads to two things: 1>plant and animal extinctions and 2>marks the end of the geologic era. It's logical to think that "asteroid slammed into North America" causes the end of the geologic era because this is the end of "GEOLOGIC" not the "LIVES" of plant and animal. That's why D is an option. How do you think?

Best regards,
Lucy
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2014, 04:18
Hi There,



Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks -which has wrong referent
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking -which has wrong referent
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark -Parallelism error- caused
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks -ambigious referent for it
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark- an event + marks should be the verb

Can someone pls advise me that in choice E why the verb is mark not marks

Tks/Brgds

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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier  [#permalink]

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New post 10 Jan 2014, 04:49
anuragd wrote:
Hi There,
Sixty-five million years ago, according to some scientists, an asteroid bigger than Mount Everest slammed into North America, which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks the end of the geologic era known as the Cretaceous Period.

A. which, causing plant and animal extinctions, marks -which has wrong referent
B. which caused the plant and animal extinctions marking -which has wrong referent
C. and causing plant and animal extinctions that mark -Parallelism error- caused
D. an event that caused plant and animal extinctions, and it marks -ambigious referent for it
E. an event that caused the plant and animal extinctions that mark- an event + marks should be the verb

Can someone pls advise me that in choice E why the verb is mark not marks

Tks/Brgds

Anurag

Because mark is modifying extinctions and not event
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier  [#permalink]

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New post 31 May 2018, 05:03
egmat wrote:
Hello everyone,

Try this official question.

A group of paleontologists recently announced that a site in Utah has yielded fossils of some of the biggest armored dinosaurs ever found, and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously found in North America.

(A) and that they were at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur type previously
(B) and they are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type that previously was
(C) and the fossils are at least 25 million years older than any similar dinosaur types that previously were
(D) fossils that are at least 25 million years older than those of any similar dinosaur type previously
(E) fossils at least 25 million years older than similar dinosaur types previously

Looking forward to your detailed analysis. :)


The answer should be D.
In A there is ambiguity about the reference being made to the fossils or the big armoured dinosaurs.
B doesn't describe if the fossils are 25 million years old or the dinosaurs are but compares the fossils in the latter half. So, B is eliminated .
C and E have a similar problem. Altough they describe that the fossils are old , the comaprision is made between the types of dinosaurs and the fossils in the later half. So, I eliminated C and E.
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Re: Noun + Noun Modifiers: The most "versatile" modifier   [#permalink] 31 May 2018, 05:03

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