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Of all forms of tyranny, the least attractive and most vulgar is the

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Of all forms of tyranny, the least attractive and most vulgar is the  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 17 Jan 2020, 09:58
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“Of all forms of tyranny, the least attractive and most vulgar is the tyranny of wealth, the tyranny of plutocracy.” It is a statement by US President Theodor Roosevelt, who is one of the most prominent figures in the Western world, regarding the matters of wealth and power. It is a concern that is doomed to continue so long as we maintain the current paradigm of government, however. In The Republic, Plato describes a dynamic by which those who rule a city do so through their ownership of large portions of it, and that this becomes a self-perpetuating cycle in which access to resources is provided to others only by means of debt issued by those with ownership, creating only the illusion of a path to equal opportunities. Criticism of this relationship between wealth and power has existed since the ancient eras, and in most, if not all, nations.

Regardless of the political system in place, in many ways, each nation is plutocratic from the very start, and as time goes by, the plutocratic forces are more strongly exerted. It seems that, invariably, this is the natural progression of governance, with a final outcome of public dissatisfaction in governance so great that the existing system is replaced with something new, causing the cycle to begin again. The only difference, it seems, is the manner in which the new system is implemented.

The bottom line is that those who are able to enforce their claims of ownership over the resources in a nation will use those resources to shape government policy and public opinion in ways that are personally beneficial to them. Having such access to huge volumes of resources allows them to have their opinions be given disproportionate attention, and control the ways in which events are portrayed through public communications mediums. Even more directly, it becomes quite common to see financial contributions to political campaigns or even bribery, offers of high-paying jobs with companies influenced by a politician’s policy decisions, trading in valuable information, and more. By refraining from direct governance, these people are filtered from the same kind of public scrutiny given to politicians, but still run the nation by keeping politicians financially indentured to them.

Q1. In what way does Plato’s description of plutocracy relate to the more indirect methods of governance described in the third paragraph?

A. The wealthy use bribery to illegally influence political decisions.
B. The politically-motivated people are given resources to gain power by indebting them to the wealthy.
C. The wealthy withhold resources from the nation to extort power.
D. The wealthy create large trusts with monopolistic power.
E. Plato’s description of plutocracy does not apply.


Q2. Which of the following political systems has been subject to plutocratic rule, according to the passage?

I. Democracy
II. Theocracy
III. Monarchy
IV. Republic

A. I only
B. I and II only
C. II and III only
D. I, III and IV only
E. I, II, III, and IV


Q3. What is meant by the phrase “the illusion of a path to equal opportunities”, as used in the passage?

A. Opportunities are abstractions that must be pursued individually.
B. Equal opportunities are achieved by creating an illusion of power.
C. No opportunity will be as great as that achieved by those in power.
D. Opportunities made possible only by sustaining a plutocracy are inherently unequal.
E. Opportunities can only be achieved after a transition in the political system.


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Originally posted by lnm87 on 17 Jan 2020, 07:31.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 17 Jan 2020, 09:58, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: Of all forms of tyranny, the least attractive and most vulgar is the  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2020, 09:31
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Re: Of all forms of tyranny, the least attractive and most vulgar is the  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jan 2020, 09:57
1
Q1. In what way does Plato’s description of plutocracy relate to the more indirect methods of governance described in the third paragraph?

From Plato's description of plutocracy: "...access to resources is provided to others only by means of debt issued by those with ownership..."

A. The wealthy use bribery to illegally influence political decisions.
True, but this is a direct method not an indirect as asked in the question.
B. The politically-motivated people are given resources to gain power by indebting them to the wealthy.
"..., these people ... , but still run the nation by keeping politicians financially indentured to them."
C. The wealthy withhold resources from the nation to extort power.
They do not, otherwise they could not profit from their wealth
D. The wealthy create large trusts with monopolistic power.
Out of scope
E. Plato’s description of plutocracy does not apply.
It does apply

Q2. Which of the following political systems has been subject to plutocratic rule, according to the passage?

"Regardless of the political system in place, in many ways, each nation is plutocratic from the very start, and as time goes by, the plutocratic forces are more strongly exerted."

I. Democracy
II. Theocracy
III. Monarchy

A. I only
B. I and II only
C. II and III only
D. I, III and IV only
E. I, II, III, and IV

Q3. What is meant by the phrase “the illusion of a path to equal opportunities”, as used in the passage?

A. Opportunities are abstractions that must be pursued individually.
No
B. Equal opportunities are achieved by creating an illusion of power.
No the power is to create an illusion of equal opportunities
C. No opportunity will be as great as that achieved by those in power.
That would be the opposite
D. Opportunities made possible only by sustaining a plutocracy are inherently unequal.
True
E. Opportunities can only be achieved after a transition in the political system.
If so they would not be illusional
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Re: Of all forms of tyranny, the least attractive and most vulgar is the   [#permalink] 17 Jan 2020, 09:57
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