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Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the objective world

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Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the objective world  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 18 Jun 2020, 10:33
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Project RC Butler 2020 - Participate and win GMAT Club Tests.
Passage # 156 Date: 17-Jun-2020
This post is a part of Project RC Butler 2020. Click here for Details


2-1A SECTION B 21-27

Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the objective world and for expressing the singular self. Photographs depict objective realities that already exist, though only the camera can disclose them. And they depict an individual photographer’s temperament, discovering itself through the camera’s cropping of reality. That is, photography has two antithetical ideals: in the first, photography is about the world and the photographer is a mere observe who counts for little; but in the second, photography is the instrument of intrepid, questing subjectivity and the photographer is all.

These conflicting ideals arise from a fundamental uneasiness on the part of both photographers and viewers of photographs toward the aggressive component in “taking” a picture. Accordingly, the ideal of a photographer as observer is attractive because it implicitly denies that picture-taking is an aggressive act. The issue, of course, is not so clear-cut. What photographers do cannot be characterized as simply predatory or as simply, and essentially, benevolent. As a consequence, one ideal of picture-taking or the other is always being rediscovered and championed.

An important result of the coexistence of these two ideals is a recurrent ambivalence toward photography’s means. Whatever the claims that photography might make to be a form of personal expression on a par with painting, its originality is inextricably linked to the powers of a machine. The steady growth of these powers has made possible the extraordinary informativeness and imaginative formal beauty of many photographs, like Harold Edgerton’s high-speed photographs of a bullet hitting its target or of the swirls and eddies of a tennis stroke. But as cameras become more sophisticated, more automated, some photographers are tempted to disarm themselves or to suggest that they are not really armed, preferring to submit themselves to the limits imposed by premodern camera technology because a cruder, less high-powered machine is thought to give more interesting or emotive results, to leave more room for creative accident. For example, it has been virtually a point of honor for many photographers, including Walker Evans and Cartier-Bresson, to refuse to use modern equipment. These photographers have come to doubt the value of the camera as an instrument of “fast seeing.” Cartier-Bresson, in fact, claims that the modern camera may see too fast.

This ambivalence toward photographic means determines trends in taste. The cult of the future (of faster and faster seeing) alternates over time with the wish to return to a purer past—when images had a handmade quality. This nostalgia for some pristine state of the photographic enterprise is currently widespread and underlies the present-day enthusiasm for daguerreotypes and the wok of forgotten nineteenth-century provincial photographers. Photographers and viewers of photographs, it seems, need periodically to resist their own knowingness.


1. ​​According to the passage, interest among photographers in each of photography’s two ideals can be described as

(A) rapidly changing
(B) cyclically recurring
(C) steadily growing
(D) unimportant to the viewers of photographs
(E) unrelated to changes in technology


​2. ​The author is primarily concerned with

(A) establishing new technical standards for contemporary photography
(B) analyzing the influence of photographic ideals on picture-taking
(C) tracing the development of camera technology in the twentieth century
(D) describing how photographers’ individual temperaments are reflected in their work
(E) explaining how the technical limitations imposed by certain photographers on themselves affect their work


3. ​​​​The passage states all of the following about photographs EXCEPT:

(A) They can display a cropped reality.
(B) The can convey information.
(C) They can depict the photographer’s temperament.
(D) They can possess great formal beauty.
(E) They can change the viewer’s sensibilities.


4. ​​​​​​​​The author mentions the work of Harold Edgerton in order to provide an example of

(A) how a controlled ambivalence toward photography’s means can produce outstanding pictures
(B) how the content of photographs has changed from the nineteenth century to the twentieth
(C) the popularity of high-speed photography in the twentieth century
(D) the relationship between photographic originality and technology
(E) the primacy of formal beauty over emotional content


5. ​​​​​The passage suggests that photographers such as Walker Evans prefer old-fashioned techniques and equipment because these photographers

(A) admire instruments of fast seeing
(B) need to feel armed by technology
(C) strive for intense formal beauty in their photographs
(D) like the discipline that comes from self-imposed limitations
(E) dislike the dependence of photographic effectiveness on the powers of a machine


6. ​​​​​​​​According to the passage, the two antithetical ideals of photography differ primarily in the

(A) value that each places on the beauty of the finished product
(B) emphasis that each places on the emotional impact of the finished product
(C) degree of technical knowledge that each requires of the photographer
(D) extent of the power that each requires of the photographer’s equipment
(E) way in which each defines the role of the photographer


7. ​​​​​​Which of the following statements would be most likely to begin the paragraph immediately following the passage?

(A) Photographers, as a result of their heightened awareness of time, are constantly trying to capture events and actions that are fleeting.
(B) Thus the cult of the future, the worship of machines and speed, is firmly established in spite of efforts to the contrary by some photographers.
(C) The rejection of technical knowledge, however, can never be complete and photography cannot for any length of time pretend that it has no weapons.
(D) The point of honor involved in rejecting complex equipment is, however, of no significance to the viewer of a photograph.
(E) Consequently the impulse to return to the past through images that suggest a handwrought quality is nothing more that a passing fad.


Originally posted by pathy on 23 Jan 2020, 09:36.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 18 Jun 2020, 10:33, edited 4 times in total.
Edited the OAs
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Re: Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the objective world  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jan 2020, 21:27
1
pathy
can you post official answer for Question 1 too
Also can some one explai answer for Q5
5. ​​​​​The passage suggests that photographers such as Walker Evans prefer old-fashioned techniques and equipment because these photographers

(A) admire instruments of fast seeing
(B) need to feel armed by technology
(C) strive for intense formal beauty in their photographs
(D) like the discipline that comes from self-imposed limitations
(E) dislike the dependence of photographic effectiveness on the powers of a machine
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Re: Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the objective world  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2020, 07:40
1
globaldesi wrote:
pathy
can you post official answer for Question 1 too
Also can some one explai answer for Q5
5. ​​​​​The passage suggests that photographers such as Walker Evans prefer old-fashioned techniques and equipment because these photographers

(A) admire instruments of fast seeing
(B) need to feel armed by technology
(C) strive for intense formal beauty in their photographs
(D) like the discipline that comes from self-imposed limitations
(E) dislike the dependence of photographic effectiveness on the powers of a machine



Hi globaldesi,
I'll try to answer both of the questions asked here, Let me know if it helps:

1. ​​According to the passage, interest among photographers in each of photography’s two ideals can be described as

(A) rapidly changing
(B) cyclically recurring
(C) steadily growing
(D) unimportant to the viewers of photographs
(E) unrelated to changes in technology

Correct Answer: B.
Explanation: As mentioned in the passage, the 2 ideals of photography are: "photography has two antithetical ideals: in the first, photography is about the world and the photographer is a mere observe who counts for little; but in the second, photography is the instrument of intrepid, questing subjectivity and the photographer is all."
And why the interest among photographers in each ideal can be described as cyclically recurring is as mentioned in the passage: "What photographers do cannot be characterized as simply predatory or as simply, and essentially, benevolent. As a consequence, one ideal of picture-taking or the other is always being rediscovered and championed.", implies that photographers are always switching between the 2 ideals.



5. ​​​​​The passage suggests that photographers such as Walker Evans prefer old-fashioned techniques and equipment because these photographers

(A) admire instruments of fast seeing
(B) need to feel armed by technology
(C) strive for intense formal beauty in their photographs
(D) like the discipline that comes from self-imposed limitations
(E) dislike the dependence of photographic effectiveness on the powers of a machine


Correct Answer : E,
Explanation: as mentioned in the passage: "But as cameras become more sophisticated, more automated, some photographers are tempted to disarm themselves or to suggest that they are not really armed, preferring to submit themselves to the limits imposed by premodern camera technology because a cruder, less high-powered machine is thought to give more interesting or emotive results, to leave more room for creative accident.", and as:
" including Walker Evans and Cartier-Bresson, to refuse to use modern equipment. These photographers have come to doubt the value of the camera as an instrument of “fast seeing.” Cartier-Bresson, in fact, claims that the modern camera may see too fast.",

implying that photographers Walker Evans and Cartier-Bresson, don't prefer the new camera, since the new camera's are more automated, and have more photographic effect, and it doesn't leave much room for creativity of the photographers themselves, as did the less high powered machines.


thanks.
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Re: Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the objective world  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2020, 09:07
1
SajjadAhmad

In Q6, I narrowed down to C, E but then finally chose E as it seems to suggest the role of photographer as an observer (objective) or in the role of self expression(subjective)

In Q2, Isn't the primary focus on how photography is perceived by viewers and photographers

Can you pls help with this!

Also, Pls post OE for Q7

Thanks in advance!
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Re: Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the objective world  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2020, 10:20
1
Are the official answers provided here correct? I'm asking this because there is a same passage at greprepclub and some of the answers posted here are different from the ones posted there (https://greprepclub.com/forum/picture-t ... h-127.html)
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Re: Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the objective world  [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2020, 10:38
GDT wrote:
SajjadAhmad

In Q6, I narrowed down to C, E but then finally chose E as it seems to suggest the role of photographer as an observer (objective) or in the role of self expression(subjective)

In Q2, Isn't the primary focus on how photography is perceived by viewers and photographers

Can you pls help with this!

Also, Pls post OE for Q7

Thanks in advance!


Hello GDT Almost all of the OAs added of this RC were wrong. Thanks to pathy for that. I have edited now please take one more shot on this. Sorry for the trouble.

estherejlee1218 wrote:
Are the official answers provided here correct? I'm asking this because there is a same passage at greprepclub and some of the answers posted here are different from the ones posted there (https://greprepclub.com/forum/picture-t ... h-127.html)


estherejlee1218 thanks for raising the issue +1 to you.
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Re: Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the objective world  [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2020, 23:14
1
Hello everyone,
Got all correct in 11 minutes, including 4:35 minutes to read and 6:25 minutes to answer the questions.

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


P1

In the first paragraph the author introduces the main topic: photography. Then the author proceeds by claiming that there are two sides associated with photography, that is one centered on the machine and the other on the photographer.

Purpose: to present two sides associated with photography



P2

In the second paragraph the author digs more into the contrast of the two ideals discussed in P1. The conclusion is that such ideals are recurring.

Purpose: to claim that the ideals previously discussed always recur



P3

In P3 the author presents the role that technology had and has in taking picture. Then the author proceeds by stating that some photographer don't like to use technological cameras and that that is a point of honor for them.

Purpose: To present the role of technology in taking picture and describe the stand of some photographers toward it




P4

In this paragraph the author claims that many people like pictures taken in the past and that by doing so they try to resist the technological advancements.

Purpose: To claim that people try to resist technological advancements when it comes to photography


Main point

To discuss two contrasting sides of photography, the role of technology and how people react to technological advancements in relation to taking pictures



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



1. ​​According to the passage, interest among photographers in each of photography’s two ideals can be described as

Pre-thinking

Detail Question

We need to evaluate the options


(A) rapidly changing
(B) cyclically recurring
from P2
    As a consequence, one ideal of picture-taking or the other is always being rediscovered and championed.

(C) steadily growing
(D) unimportant to the viewers of photographs
(E) unrelated to changes in technology



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




​2. ​The author is primarily concerned with

Pre-thinking

Purpose Question

    To discuss two contrasting sides of photography, the role of technology and how people react to technological advancements in relation to taking pictures



(A) establishing new technical standards for contemporary photography out of scope
(B) analyzing the influence of photographic ideals on picture-taking
(C) tracing the development of camera technology in the twentieth century partial scope
(D) describing how photographers’ individual temperaments are reflected in their work not broad enough
(E) explaining how the technical limitations imposed by certain photographers on themselves affect their work incorrect



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




3. ​​​​The passage states all of the following about photographs EXCEPT:

Pre-thinking

Detail question




(A) They can display a cropped reality. mentioned in P1
(B) The can convey information. Mentioned in P3
(C) They can depict the photographer’s temperament. mentioned in P1
(D) They can possess great formal beauty. mentioned in P3
(E) They can change the viewer’s sensibilities. correct



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




4. ​​​​​​​​The author mentions the work of Harold Edgerton in order to provide an example of

Pre-thinking

function question

From P3:
    The steady growth of these powers has made possible the extraordinary informativeness and imaginative formal beauty of many photographs, like Harold Edgerton’s high-speed photographs of a bullet hitting its target or of the swirls and eddies of a tennis stroke.



(A) how a controlled ambivalence toward photography’s means can produce outstanding pictures
(B) how the content of photographs has changed from the nineteenth century to the twentieth
(C) the popularity of high-speed photography in the twentieth century
(D) the relationship between photographic originality and technology
(E) the primacy of formal beauty over emotional content




------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



5. ​​​​​The passage suggests that photographers such as Walker Evans prefer old-fashioned techniques and equipment because these photographers

Pre-thinking

Inference question

From P3:
    But as cameras become more sophisticated, more automated, some photographers are tempted to disarm themselves or to suggest that they are not really armed, preferring to submit themselves to the limits imposed by premodern camera technology because a cruder, less high-powered machine is thought to give more interesting or emotive results, to leave more room for creative accident.



(A) admire instruments of fast seeing
(B) need to feel armed by technology
(C) strive for intense formal beauty in their photographs
(D) like the discipline that comes from self-imposed limitations
(E) dislike the dependence of photographic effectiveness on the powers of a machine



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




6. ​​​​​​​​According to the passage, the two antithetical ideals of photography differ primarily in the

Pre-thinking

Detail question

From P1:
    in the first, photography is about the world and the photographer is a mere observe who counts for little; but in the second, photography is the instrument of intrepid, questing subjectivity and the photographer is all.



(A) value that each places on the beauty of the finished product
(B) emphasis that each places on the emotional impact of the finished product
(C) degree of technical knowledge that each requires of the photographer
(D) extent of the power that each requires of the photographer’s equipment
(E) way in which each defines the role of the photographer



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




7. ​​​​​​Which of the following statements would be most likely to begin the paragraph immediately following the passage?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

Let's evaluate the options


(A) Photographers, as a result of their heightened awareness of time, are constantly trying to capture events and actions that are fleeting. out of scope with what is discussed in the passage
(B) Thus the cult of the future, the worship of machines and speed, is firmly established in spite of efforts to the contrary by some photographers. Cannot be inferred from the passage and seems to go into the opposite direction.
(C) The rejection of technical knowledge, however, can never be complete and photography cannot for any length of time pretend that it has no weapons. seems in line with the idea that the two ideals are always recurring and interchanging
(D) The point of honor involved in rejecting complex equipment is, however, of no significance to the viewer of a photograph. cannot be inferred
(E) Consequently the impulse to return to the past through images that suggest a handwrought quality is nothing more that a passing fad. cannot be inferred



------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


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Re: Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the objective world   [#permalink] 26 Jul 2020, 23:14

Picture-taking is a technique both for annexing the objective world

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