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# Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much

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Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 19 Jul 2019, 00:34
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Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.

(B) Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.

(C) Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.

(D) People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.

(E) An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

Source: Powerscore CR Bible

Originally posted by laxieqv on 05 Oct 2006, 07:30.
Last edited by Bunuel on 19 Jul 2019, 00:34, edited 4 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2009, 11:03
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4
noboru wrote:
16. Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
Conclusion: Plublicity compaign will not much impact the most important environmental problems.
Now I will use denial method to test if negation of the answer choice undermines the conclusion. If it undermines, the answer choice will be the correct assumtion.
(A) The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
==> The negation of the choice is "The most important environmental problem includes only the large mammals." Now since large mammals evoke sympathy easily, publicity compaign must have impact on the most important environmental problems. This clearly undermines the conclusion and hence it is correct assumption.
(B) Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
==>Irrelevent
(C) Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
==> "the most effective" is too extreme. The conclusion talks about some impact not the most effective way to impact.
(D) People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
==>The negation of the choice is "People do care about environmental problems even if it affect the creature they do not sympathize". This has no effect on the conclusion as we are not sure what the most important environmental problem involves.
(E) An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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05 Oct 2006, 20:12
4
2
A in this case.
"Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems". This campaign is not effective because of its only focus on large mammals which is not the most important part of the environmental problem. So A it is.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2009, 08:03
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1
A directly is mentioned in the passage. If the most important environmental problems involve endangered mammals then the whole argument falls apart. C is close but can't be right because the campaign is not for the environment but endangered species instead. So it's out of scope. D talks about environmental problems in general, not the most important ones, and makes a judgement about the set based upon the characteristics of the subset. So it doesn't make sense.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2009, 06:43
1
evidence 1. large mammal - easy to elicit sympathy
evidence 2. other kinds of organism - difficul to elicit sympathy

Conclusion. Campaign unlikely to have much impact on important environmental problems

Assumption - between evidences and conclusion.
A clearly fills the gap.

Jasonlu1981 wrote:
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2010, 03:33
1
RaviChandra wrote:
Q28)Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?
(A) The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals. >>> Argument talks about ease of attributing feelings to large animals >>> BUT large ecosystems and agriculture depend on soil microorganisms >>> Unsaid premise is : most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals >>> CORRECT
(B) Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings. >>> Out of scope
(C) Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism. >>> There is no discussion regarding the effectiveness of the campaigns.!!
(D) People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize. >>> It is not unsaid assumption >>> Argument talks about ease of attributing feelings to large animals >>> BUT large ecosystems and agriculture depend on soil microorganisms.
(E) An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture. >>> No discussion on organism being environment friendly or not.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2011, 05:37
5
2
This is a challenging problem because two of the wrong answer choices are attractive. The argument itself is not overly complex, but you must pay attention to the language. Consider the conclusion of the argument:

“Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems.”

Ask yourself, why is it that these campaigns are unlikely to have much impact on the most important problems? According to the premises, the reason is that “it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms [than large mammals].” The reasoning shows that the author believes there is a connection between the important problems and organisms that are not large mammals. This Supporter connection is perfectly reflected in

Answer choice (A), the correct answer. Again, when faced with an Assumption question, remember to look for connections between rogue elements in the argument, and then seek that connection in the answer choices.
Answer choice (C): This is a Shell Game answer. The conclusion is specific about “publicity campaigns for endangered species” as they relate to environmental problems. This answer refers to “publicity campaigns” in general—a different concept. It may be that the most effective publicity campaign for the environment has nothing to do with organisms. Consequently, this answer is not an assumption of the argument.

Answer choice (D): This answer choice is worded too strongly and is an Exaggerated answer. “Ignore” goes further than what the author implies. The author indicates that it is “more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms,” but the author does not say it is impossible to get sympathy from individuals if a non-large mammal is involved. Further, the argument is specific about the impact on the “most important” problems, and this answer goes well beyond that domain.

Answer choice (E): The microorganisms discussed at the end of the argument are an example (“such as”);
therefore, the author does not assume this type of relationship must be true in order for the conclusion to be
true.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2012, 01:55
+1 A

Premise - the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend

Conclusion - Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems

Any option which helps justify the conclusion is our answer

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals. (This is our answer, the argument assumes that the most important environmental problems depends on soil microorganisms)
B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings. (Nothing in the argument proves that, they may have emotions, but eliciting to people is difficult)
C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism. (“Most” is very strong, we cannot be sure of that)
D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize. (Again, people do not always ignore, wordings are very strong)
E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture. (“environmentally significant” has not been defined)

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2014, 09:54
1
Do you think option A should be "Most of the environmental problems..."
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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23 Nov 2014, 23:53
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A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
- this is correct, because it fills in the missing link between the premises and the conclusion. The premises discuss the difficulty of eliciting sympathy for types of organisms other than large mammals, which leads the author to conclude that publicity campaigns are unlikely to have an impact on the most important environmental problem. However, it fails to address if the most important environmental problems involve mostly large mammals or not.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
-This is completely outside the scope and has nothing to do with the conclusion.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
-Just because they are most effective when they elicit sympathy doesn't mean that they are not effective when they do not.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
- not really saying anything, because we still don't know if the most important problems involve large mammals or not

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.
-classifying organisms as environmentally significant or not is outside the scope.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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24 Nov 2014, 09:29
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Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.

That is a tricky question, OA is A.

I think the real challenge here is to identify the conclusion, which is that publicity campaigns for endangered species are not likely to work.
Once we know that, let's go through the answers to find something on which this argment relies.

A- CORRECT- if the endangered species in question were actually mammals, then the campaign would be a success as the premise says that it attracts sympathy from the cause... etc (Notice that i've used the negation technique to check out weather the conclusion relies on this assumption. if the contrary of A destroys the conclusion then it must be an assumption on which the conclusion depends)

B- Wrong - This is not relevant as the point is that it is more difficult for anyone to feel sympathy towards these living beings compared to mammals

C- Wrong - this answer is out of scope, it looks like it is trying to tell us that, in order to fight environmental problems, it is better to talk about endangered organism. Yes, it is true but we're looking for something to compare mammals and some microorganism, not both of them and something else.

D- Wrong - the word ignore is too strong, it is not about whether they ignore it but more about which is effective and in this case why it will be uneffective because its hard to elicit sympathy toward microorganism.

E- Wrong- this contradicts the premise that microorganism are important because much of the bigger organism rely on them.

I tried to explain clearly even though it is a tricky one but I Hope it helps.

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2015, 07:44
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

The argument is that even though non-mammals are critical for large ecosystems, they don't elicit sympathy in publicity campaigns. Therefore, these campaigns won't make a significant impact on the most important environmental problems. This argument establishes two categories: other species (affect the most important environmental problems) and mammals (don't affect the most important environmental problems).
Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings. out of scope

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism. The argument doesn't depend on the relative efficacy of campaign strategies.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize. This doesn't affect the argument, which is centered on the two categories of endangered species and their importance to the environment.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.
This is also tangential to the argment.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2015, 09:05
Conclusion: Publicity unlikely to have impact on MOST imp problems
Premise: Publicity gives feelings for large mammals, but hardly any for soil organism on which large ecosystem & agr depend.

Assumption: MOST imp problems are soil organism than large mammals.
(Please note that the argument does NOT say that most imp problems are only soil organism!)

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
Correct based on pre-thinking

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings.
1) Extra info, and does not bridge the gap between premise and conclusion.
2) Also the argument is talking about feelings of people, not micro-organisms.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
"some" organism can be "large mammals" or even small mammals like "soil organism". This assumption can swing in either way.

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.
Please note that people are not ignoring the problems. It is just that the publicity is not effect to provoke any feelings for small organisms.

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture.
This was very tempting for me to choose.
The argument says "unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems".
The choice says "An organism can be environmentally significant". Now where is the problem?
We know for sure that most important env problems are related to the ones that affect large ecosystems or agriculture.
However, we don't know for sure if these are env significant!

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2016, 23:40
Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Assumptions :-

Most environmental problem is because of soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.
soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend are endangered species

We have to prove that Public campaign are influential on most environmental problems.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals.
The most important environmental problems doesn't involve endangered species other than large mammals.

if it is true, Publicity campaigns for endangered species are are going to have effect on people. as it is for large mammals.

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism.
Publicity campaigns for the environment are not the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism. even if it is true we cant reach to the point that "Public campaign are influential on most environmental problems." Also we don't know what "some organism are"

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.

Negate :-

People ignore environmental problems even if they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize. so no matters what, they are going to ignore environmental problem.
It's not what we want. "Public campaign are influential on most environmental problems." we want to prove this.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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23 Apr 2017, 03:34
People only sympathize with large mammals, and thus won't sympathize with other organisms. Thus publicity campaigns are unlikely to impact important env problems.

The assumption is clearly that the important env problems are not in fact restricted to large mammals, since if that were the case, eliciting sympathy wouldn't be a problem at all and the publicity campaigns would be likely to have an impact.

This is clearly stated in A.

As for D, while this may be tempting, remember, an assumption is essential for an argument to be true. This option seems to distort the information in the passage which clearly states, "more difficult to elicit sympathy for other organisms". So to say that people IGNORE them completely is too extreme and is not really an assumption required for the argument.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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17 Dec 2018, 04:49
this one is tough

Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems, for while the ease of attributing feelings to large mammals facilitates evoking sympathy for them, it is more difficult to elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms, such as the soil microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

A. The most important environmental problems involve endangered species other than large mammals. (i can safely assume this information because it is implied in the argument that "Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much impact on the most important environmental problems

...............microorganisms on which large ecosystems and agriculture depend.

B. Microorganisms cannot experience pain or have other feelings. (not concerned with feelings or pain)

C. Publicity campaigns for the environment are the most effective when they elicit sympathy for some organism. (not concerned with publicity)

D. People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize. ( i definately cant assume this, because it means people will not ignore problems ONLY IF these problems effect creatures creatures with which they sympathize, however in the argument it is mentioned that it is simply difficult elicit sympathy for other kinds of organisms )

E. An organism can be environmentally significant only if it affects large ecosystems or agriculture. ( this i cant assume, because large mamals can affect ecosystems too, but may not have the most important impact.. so out of scope
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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04 Feb 2019, 01:41
D is not an assumption, it is stated in the passage. C is too extreme. B is irrelevant, we are talking about getting people to feel sympathy for these microorganisms, not whether or not they can feel pain. E is out of scope and too extreme. A is the correct answer, The passage says that publicity campaigns do not have an impact on the most important environmental problems and its second premise is that it is more difficult to get people to feel sympathy for organisms other than large mammals. The assumption that the most important environmental problems involve large mammals is what bridges the gap.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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04 May 2019, 01:24

Hi,

Could you help me understand how to correctly negate option D? I really dont know how to negate this option. Below are some of what I think. From my understanding, negation should change the main verb/argument of the sentence to the opposite direction....
"People PAY ATTENTION TO environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize"

"People ignore environmental problems EVEN IF they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize"

Or is there other ways to negate it?

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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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04 May 2019, 05:36
duybachhpvn, see here: https://forum.powerscore.com/lsat/viewtopic.php?t=8457

Negation per powerscore: People may not ignore environmental problems even if they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they sympathize.

There are other ways to negate this, but this seems like the easiest way.
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Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much  [#permalink]

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18 Jul 2019, 02:23
CONCLUSION/GOAL: Public campaigns ==DO NOT IMPACT==> the most important environmental problems
Talking about the most important problems so lets negate it
“The most important environmental problems involve only the large mammals” ==> Public campaigns do impact problems (CONCLUSION IS BREAKED)
B. IRRELEVANT --- Pain/Feeling is out of context
C. TOO STRONG/TOO EXTREME : “the most effective “
D. NEGATE IT:
"People ignore environmental problems unless they believe the problems will affect creatures with which they do not sympathize”
Here it didn’t tell how campaigns will impact most important problems ELIMINATED
E. NARROW SCOPE---- Talking only about an organism , not about other animals and environmental problems
Re: Publicity campaigns for endangered species are unlikely to have much   [#permalink] 18 Jul 2019, 02:23
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