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# Q. Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution

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Q. Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2011, 13:39
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Q. Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

A) that they can appeal to when their cases are

B) to which to appeal after their cases have been

C) for appealing if their case has been

D) to which they can appeal if their case is

E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been

Please let me know why the answer is what it is. I am not clear on the reasons.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Good SC Q with multiple things tested [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2011, 14:12
A re-look at the options and having known that the OA is B makes me say that the tense plays a major factor in choosing the right answer.
I ruled out E as 'cases can't appeal'
There is a 2-3 split in terms of tense (is/are vs has been/have been). i can't get further than this ..
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Re: Good SC Q with multiple things tested [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2011, 14:42
The tense matter struck me... "have been" i.e perfect tense is required here as the flow of events suggest 2 events earlier of which is "deciding of the cases in lower court" and hence, perfect tense for the one happening earlier.. but still the tense error did not strike me while attempting it for the first time.. any catch for such questions?
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Re: Good SC Q with multiple things tested [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2011, 20:06
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RohitKalla wrote:
Q. Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

A) that they can appeal to when their cases are

B) to which to appeal after their cases have been

C) for appealing if their case has been

D) to which they can appeal if their case is

E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been

Please let me know why the answer is what it is. I am not clear on the reasons.

The word "that" isn't necessary here. The idiomatic structure "court that they can appeal to" is not preferred on the GMAT. But more telling is the last word in (A): "are" --present tense. You need to present the sentence in such a way that it's clear decisions are made in the lower courts and then afterwards there's some possibility of appeal with higher courts that is suggested in the sentence.

I wasn't so hot on "that" but I did like "to which" in answers (B) and (D).

I actually did not even read the first half of the sentence. I only started reading from the comma:
"plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts."

Between (B) and (D)---(B) uses "have been" while (D) uses "is"---not what we want.

So (B) is what we want. It correctly uses "to which" and also correctly uses "have been."
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Re: Good SC Q with multiple things tested [#permalink]

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A) that they can appeal to when their cases are – that they can appeal is unidiomatic; secondly use of ‘when’ is inappropriate in that it implies a specific point of time of deciding in the lower courts; use of ‘are’ is wrong since the appeal happens after the lower courts have decided the cases

B) to which to appeal after their cases have been – ‘after’ and ‘have been’ are correct usages; correct choice.

C) for appealing if their case has been – ‘their case’ means that all the plaintiffs are collaborating one single case

D) to which they can appeal if their case is – same as in C

E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been – can cases appeal by themselves – distorted meaning
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Re: Good SC Q with multiple things tested [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2011, 20:53
RohitKalla wrote:
The tense matter struck me... "have been" i.e perfect tense is required here as the flow of events suggest 2 events earlier of which is "deciding of the cases in lower court" and hence, perfect tense for the one happening earlier.. but still the tense error did not strike me while attempting it for the first time.. any catch for such questions?

Do you split youur answer choices? If you do, you will see options are divided into ending with is, are or have been. then the tense matter would strike, since you have to decide between these..
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Re: Good SC Q with multiple things tested [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2011, 00:20
Thanks Zeke and Daagh for the explanations, but i have not understood why C is wrong. What if the plaintiffs are indeed collaborating on a single case (absurd but when i answered the question, i only looked at the S-V agreement of 'case' and 'has'),in which case 'C' can also be correct or does it distort the author's intended meaning?
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Re: Good SC Q with multiple things tested [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2011, 04:38
Thanks Daagg and Vivesomnium. Yeah i do split my choices.. Now am wondering what was i doin with my brain while attempting this quest
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Re: Good SC Q with multiple things tested [#permalink]

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Nice question this...

Here is a completely different approach to this problem:

First -- Understand the meaning of the sentence -- What is the author saying? -- The Supreme Court has made some rulings that are not very favorable to the plaintiffs. So the plaintiffs feel that they may not be able to appeal to a higher court.

So which of these choices actually conveys this information properly?

Only Choice B -- why? The key is to understand the meaning of the sentence -- the keyword is "after" --- when do you appeal to a higher court?? -- You appeal to a higher court "after" your case has been decided unfavorably in a lower court.

SC can be tackled without getting bogged down by tenses, voices, tones etc.
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Re: Good SC Q with multiple things tested [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2011, 12:34
daagh wrote:
A) that they can appeal to when their cases are – that they can appeal is unidiomatic; secondly use of ‘when’ is inappropriate in that it implies a specific point of time of deciding in the lower courts; use of ‘are’ is wrong since the appeal happens after the lower courts have decided the cases

B) to which to appeal after their cases have been – ‘after’ and ‘have been’ are correct usages; correct choice.

C) for appealing if their case has been – ‘their case’ means that all the plaintiffs are collaborating one single case

D) to which they can appeal if their case is – same as in C

E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been – can cases appeal by themselves – distorted meaning

Great explanation daagh for dumb people like me.......
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Re: Q. Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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19 Nov 2013, 19:52
D is out because case is singular and we need cases for the sentence to make sense. Hence (B)
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Re: Q. Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2015, 04:23
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Re: Q. Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

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Re: Q. Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2017, 11:58
D) to which they can appeal if their case is

is changed to

D) to which they can appeal if their cases are

will this make option D better than B ?
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Re: Q. Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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15 Mar 2017, 08:57
Hi Expert,
If Choice C were--
to which they can appeal if their cases are

would it be correct choice ?
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Re: Q. Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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17 Mar 2017, 02:31
brs1cob wrote:
D) to which they can appeal if their case is

is changed to

D) to which they can appeal if their cases are

will this make option D better than B ?
AR15J wrote:
Hi Expert,
If Choice C were--
to which they can appeal if their cases are

would it be correct choice ?

Even with "cases are", I think D would still be problematic:
1. Conditional If - then refers to "when ever X happens, then Y will happen" - here, the meaning does not fits well, and B is better with "after". I can even think of A with "when"
2. If their cases are [considering your edited version] decided in lower courts, then they will have no higher court to which they can appeal - The first "they" refer to "their cases". Incorrect. Moreover, the first "they" refers to "their cases" and second "they" refer to "plaintiffs", one more reason to eliminate D.
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Q. Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2017, 09:21
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brs1cob wrote:
D) to which they can appeal if their case is

is changed to

D) to which they can appeal if their cases are

will this make option D better than B ?

AR15J wrote:
Hi Expert,
If Choice C were--
to which they can appeal if their cases are

would it be correct choice ?

Some may argue that that the present perfect "have been decided" is better than "are decided" to depict sequence of the actions "decide" and "appeal". However in option B the word "after" already serves the purpose, and hence simple present would be better.

However in absence of the word "after", present perfect is mandatory. Thus "to which they can appeal if their cases are" is incorrect - perfect tense is required. The following would be correct:
"to which they can appeal AFTER their cases ARE..."
OR
"to which they can appeal IF their cases HAVE BEEN..."
Q. Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution   [#permalink] 18 Mar 2017, 09:21
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