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# Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc

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Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 15 Jan 2019, 07:20
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Difficulty:

95% (hard)

Question Stats:

31% (01:44) correct 69% (01:49) wrong based on 1975 sessions

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Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

A) that they can appeal to when their cases are
B) to which to appeal after their cases have been
C) for appealing if their case has been
D) to which they can appeal if their case is
E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been

Originally posted by RohitKalla on 06 Jul 2011, 12:39.
Last edited by Bunuel on 15 Jan 2019, 07:20, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2011, 19:45
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A) that they can appeal to when their cases are – that they can appeal is unidiomatic; secondly use of ‘when’ is inappropriate in that it implies a specific point of time of deciding in the lower courts; use of ‘are’ is wrong since the appeal happens after the lower courts have decided the cases

B) to which to appeal after their cases have been – ‘after’ and ‘have been’ are correct usages; correct choice.

C) for appealing if their case has been – ‘their case’ means that all the plaintiffs are collaborating one single case

D) to which they can appeal if their case is – same as in C

E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been – can cases appeal by themselves – distorted meaning
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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08 Jul 2011, 10:45
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Nice question this...

Here is a completely different approach to this problem:

First -- Understand the meaning of the sentence -- What is the author saying? -- The Supreme Court has made some rulings that are not very favorable to the plaintiffs. So the plaintiffs feel that they may not be able to appeal to a higher court.

So which of these choices actually conveys this information properly?

Only Choice B -- why? The key is to understand the meaning of the sentence -- the keyword is "after" --- when do you appeal to a higher court?? -- You appeal to a higher court "after" your case has been decided unfavorably in a lower court.

SC can be tackled without getting bogged down by tenses, voices, tones etc.
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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06 Jul 2011, 19:06
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RohitKalla wrote:
Q. Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

A) that they can appeal to when their cases are

B) to which to appeal after their cases have been

C) for appealing if their case has been

D) to which they can appeal if their case is

E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been

Please let me know why the answer is what it is. I am not clear on the reasons.

The word "that" isn't necessary here. The idiomatic structure "court that they can appeal to" is not preferred on the GMAT. But more telling is the last word in (A): "are" --present tense. You need to present the sentence in such a way that it's clear decisions are made in the lower courts and then afterwards there's some possibility of appeal with higher courts that is suggested in the sentence.

I wasn't so hot on "that" but I did like "to which" in answers (B) and (D).

I actually did not even read the first half of the sentence. I only started reading from the comma:
"plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts."

Between (B) and (D)---(B) uses "have been" while (D) uses "is"---not what we want.

So (B) is what we want. It correctly uses "to which" and also correctly uses "have been."
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Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 25 Feb 2019, 04:17
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First thing to note is that the plaintiffs have cases of their own and not a single common case.

A that they can appeal to when their cases are ------- The use of the present tense ‘are decided’ is not in appropriate since the appeals will be done well after the decision.

(B) to which to appeal after their cases have been ---- the best choice.

(C) for appealing if their case has been --- ‘their case’ is wrong; all of them together do not have one single case.
(D) To which they can appeal if their case is -----‘their case’ is wrong
(E) that their cases can appeal if they have been --- absurd meaning saying that their cases can appeal.

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Originally posted by daagh on 20 Nov 2012, 06:44.
Last edited by daagh on 25 Feb 2019, 04:17, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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16 Jun 2015, 22:17
1
mehulsayani wrote:
Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

that they can appeal to when their cases are
to which to appeal after their cases have been
for appealing if their case has been
to which they can appeal if their case is
that their cases can appeal, if they have been

My take:
the subject 'plaintiffs' is plural and thus should have a plural (object? possessive?) cases, which eliminates C and D (which have the singular case).
[For example, you don't say the children's mother (unless they have the same mother), you say the children's mothers).

Then, E is eliminated since the cases don't appeal, the plaintiffs appeal.

Between A and B, A uses "when their cases are decided" and B uses "after their cases have been decided."
A uses the plain future, which simply indicates that something will occur and gives no indication of progression of events.
B correctly uses a future perfect, showing that this action will occur in the future and will be completed in the future. This, combined with 'after' shows the progression of events: cases decided -> maybe no court to appeal to.
I'm sure I explained that horribly..
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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18 Jun 2015, 19:56
An amazing question.

that they can appeal to when their cases are -context of the sentence suggests that they will fear if the cases are already decided-out

to which to appeal after their cases have been-no visible error.-hold it.

for appealing if their case has been-"cases" which is not underlined has become "case" also has been mathces with "case" and not "cases"-out

to which they can appeal if their case is-"if" is used only as a conditional clasue on GMAT.Also context of the sentence suggests that they will fear if the cases are already decided-out

that their cases can appeal, if they have been-"if" is used only as a conditional clasue on GMAT. "that their cases can appeal" suggets as if the cases will go and appeal.-out.

Regards,
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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29 Jul 2015, 02:52
2
mehulsayani wrote:
Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

that they can appeal to when their cases are
to which to appeal after their cases have been
for appealing if their case has been
to which they can appeal if their case is
that their cases can appeal, if they have been

This question mainly deals with the use of future tense in a series of actions.

The rule is that :

The Future tense is either followed by
1) Present Tense

Ex- She will pay you when you ask her.
The time of will pay = time of asking her

2) Present Perfect-

Ex- She will pay you when you have taken out the garbage.

The time of pay you is later than the future time of have taken.

In the given sentence 'plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher' occurs later than 'cases are decided in lower courts.' Thus 'cases are decided in the lower courts' needs present perfect tense.

Only B and E have present perfect tense. But E introduces another error, the statement 'that their cases can appeal' makes it sound that the 'cases' would appeal and not the plaintiffs.
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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12 May 2016, 15:40
1
D is incorrect because the plaintiffs do not all have the same case. From the way that the sentence is structured, the plaintiffs don't appear to be joined in a class-action lawsuit of some sort, so we require the plural form 'cases.' Seeing this subtle detail, you can eliminate both C and D. E is just awkward because cases can't appeal. I think the fight in this question is btw. A and B. A is incorrect because it doesn't make sense to appeal when a case is being decided. Appealing is meant after a judge or jury reaches a verdict. Therefore, B is the correct answer. Hope this helps.
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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30 May 2016, 04:14
1
dqtuan9627 wrote:
Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

(A) that they can appeal to when their cases are

(B) to which to appeal after their cases have been

(C) for appealing if their case has been

(D) to which they can appeal if their case is

(E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been

let me sumarrize
A,
when is incorrect. we do not need show simultaneousness. after is better.
C
we need plural cases, which is more logic in this sentence. all plaintiffs shouldnt have one case.
one harder thing. "for apealing" is unclear because in this pattern, appealing can not refer to a agent/specific noun in the sentence. we need to understand how "doing" works to find this error. a point of grammar of higher level
D, the same
E.
their case can appeal is not logic. cases can not appeal. using our common sense of this world to see this illogicness.
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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30 May 2016, 10:03
thangvietnam wrote:
dqtuan9627 wrote:
Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

(A) that they can appeal to when their cases are

(B) to which to appeal after their cases have been

(C) for appealing if their case has been

(D) to which they can appeal if their case is

(E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been

let me sumarrize
A,
when is incorrect. we do not need show simultaneousness. after is better.
C
we need plural cases, which is more logic in this sentence. all plaintiffs shouldnt have one case.
one harder thing. "for apealing" is unclear because in this pattern, appealing can not refer to a agent/specific noun in the sentence. we need to understand how "doing" works to find this error. a point of grammar of higher level
D, the same
E.
their case can appeal is not logic. cases can not appeal. using our common sense of this world to see this illogicness.

I chose A as "to which to" in B sounded very awkward. Also is "when" instead of "after" the only problem in A? Please suggest. Thanks!
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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31 May 2016, 06:35
MeghaP wrote:
thangvietnam wrote:
dqtuan9627 wrote:
Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job discrimination case must prove not only that the employer lied about the reasons for dismissal but also that those reasons were discriminatory, plaintiffs in such cases fear that they will have no higher court that they can appeal to when their cases are decided in lower courts.

(A) that they can appeal to when their cases are

(B) to which to appeal after their cases have been

(C) for appealing if their case has been

(D) to which they can appeal if their case is

(E) that their cases can appeal, if they have been

let me sumarrize
A,
when is incorrect. we do not need show simultaneousness. after is better.
C
we need plural cases, which is more logic in this sentence. all plaintiffs shouldnt have one case.
one harder thing. "for apealing" is unclear because in this pattern, appealing can not refer to a agent/specific noun in the sentence. we need to understand how "doing" works to find this error. a point of grammar of higher level
D, the same
E.
their case can appeal is not logic. cases can not appeal. using our common sense of this world to see this illogicness.

I chose A as "to which to" in B sounded very awkward. Also is "when" instead of "after" the only problem in A? Please suggest. Thanks!

Yes, all other usages in option A are acceptable:

1. The usage of simple present tense "are" in option A does not have any issue. The following sentence is correct:

After you finish your homework, you can play.

2. Moreover, the usage of "that" as an object of preposition is also alright.
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2017, 10:58
D) to which they can appeal if their case is

is changed to

D) to which they can appeal if their cases are

will this make option D better than B ?
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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15 Mar 2017, 07:57
Hi Expert,
If Choice C were--
to which they can appeal if their cases are

would it be correct choice ?
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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18 Mar 2017, 08:21
2
brs1cob wrote:
D) to which they can appeal if their case is

is changed to

D) to which they can appeal if their cases are

will this make option D better than B ?

AR15J wrote:
Hi Expert,
If Choice C were--
to which they can appeal if their cases are

would it be correct choice ?

Some may argue that that the present perfect "have been decided" is better than "are decided" to depict sequence of the actions "decide" and "appeal". However in option B the word "after" already serves the purpose, and hence simple present would be better.

However in absence of the word "after", present perfect is mandatory. Thus "to which they can appeal if their cases are" is incorrect - perfect tense is required. The following would be correct:
"to which they can appeal AFTER their cases ARE..."
OR
"to which they can appeal IF their cases HAVE BEEN..."
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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27 Jun 2017, 03:01
The question already exist on Gmatclub forum but I am again posting because there was some error in the earlier shared question stem.

My answer was wrong. I marked option D. Because option B ( OA) sounds weird. If it had been "they will have no higher court to appeal to" , it would have been much better.

But in any case I believe I understand why D is wrong. There is no grammatical mistake but meaning mistake. There are 2 situations-

- first - There lower court has already passed the judgement, and now the plaintiffs wish to appeal to higher court ( obviously they lost the case in lower court). And suddenly the supreme passes a ruling ( as stated in the question). Now these plaintiffs fear they will have no high court to appeal to, or it will become difficult to appeal in higher court.

- Second- The supreme court has passed a ruling, now plaintiffs fear that they will have no higher court to appeal to if their case IS decided in lower court.

The second case is completely false. Why will the plaintiffs fear before the lower court decision is announce? If it is announced in their favor, the plaintiffs will not have to search for any high court. Hence the current ruling has no affect on the cases which are still pending in lower court.

Otherwise, I believe the grammar in option D is correct.

Please help, if you believe the grammar is also wrong. mikemcgarry sir , daagh Sir , egmat. ( sorry for tagging)
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2017, 06:24
Does B alter the meaning 'to which to appeal'?
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2017, 07:22
pra1785 wrote:
Does B alter the meaning 'to which to appeal'?

Hi pra1785 ,

It actually doesn't. It is trying to convey the following

to which --> Means the Higher court

to appeal --> means plaintiffs can appeal.

In short, they dont have higher courts to which they can appeal.

Hence, B is actually providing the correct meaning and hence, is correct.

Let me know in case of any concern.
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2018, 01:15
daagh AjiteshArun
I have a doubt whether their case is singular or plural ?
Here their is plural case is singular
As a whole their case will be singular or plural and why so?
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc  [#permalink]

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14 Nov 2018, 03:26
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'Their' is an adjective and a modifier describing the noun 'case.' Therefore, their case will always be singular.
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Re: Because the Supreme Court has ruled that the prosecution in a job disc   [#permalink] 14 Nov 2018, 03:26

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