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QOTD: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was

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QOTD: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was [#permalink]

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Verbal Question of The Day: Day 182: Critical Reasoning


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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

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QOTD: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was [#permalink]

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The aim of the revamped collection program is "to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total." Let's examine the given information:

  • Last year, ALL refuse collected by city services was incinerated. Make sure you notice key modifiers such as "all" and think about how they impact the meaning. In this case, we know that 100% of the collected refuse was incinerated.
  • The incineration of that refuse generated a large quantity of residual ash. We aren't sure exactly how much residual ash was generated, but we know that it was a large quantity.
  • This year, city services will reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to HALF of last year's number. This information is given, so we don't need to worry about how much trash Shelbyville is going to produce, the proportion that will be recycled, etc. Regardless of those details, we can safely assume that city services will have HALF as many truckloads of refuse to send to the incinerator this year. We just don't know whether reducing the number of truckloads by half will also reduce the ash by half.
  • How will city services achieve this reduction in truckloads? By separating some unknown portion of the refuse for recycling. Again, we don't care about the details of the recycling/separation. All we care about is that the number of truckloads will be cut in half. But will that reduction in truckloads lead to the desired reduction in ash?

Which of the following is required if city services is going to reduce the amount of residual ash to half of last year's total?

Quote:
(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.

Let's say (A) doesn't happen, and some material that COULD have been separated for recycling gets incinerated instead. This would be unfortunate, but it would not change the GIVEN information. We already know that city services WILL reduce the number of truckloads to half of last year's level. That reduction in truckloads will occur even if city services sends some recyclable material to the incinerator. Thus, (A) is not required and can be eliminated.

Quote:
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.

We are not concerned with the COSTS of the program. We are trying to determine whether reducing the number of truckloads by half will also reduce the amount of ash by half. Choice (B) is irrelevant and can be eliminated.

Quote:
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.

Again, we don't care how much refuse is collected or what proportion of that refuse is recyclable. We already know that city services will cut the number of truckloads in half. This will happen regardless of whether this year's refuse contains a larger proportion of recyclable materials. Choice (C) is also irrelevant and can be eliminated.

Quote:
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.

We know that city services will send half as many truckloads to the incinerator, but will that reduce the amount of ash by half? If the refuse incinerated this year generates MORE residual ash per truckload than did the refuse incinerated last year, then reducing the truckloads by half will NOT reduce the amount of ash by half.

In other words, if each truckload generates, on average, more ash this year than it did last year, then we need to reduce the number of truckloads by MORE than half in order to cut the amount of ash in half. Choice (D) IS required if the program is going to achieve its goal, so hang on to this one.

Quote:
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Once again, we don't care how much refuse is collected. Regardless, the number of trucks will be cut in half compared to last year. Choice (E) can be eliminated.

(D) is the best answer.
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Re: QOTD: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2017, 12:01
Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated. -We already know this from the passage. Besides it doesn't help us in reaching our conclusion.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash. -Cost is out of scope
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year. -Larger proportion doesn't mean that the ash generated from the residual waste will be lesser than ash generated last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year. -Correct
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year. -Out of scope
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Re: QOTD: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2017, 15:16
souvik101990 wrote:

Verbal Question of The Day: Day 182: Critical Reasoning


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Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was incinerated. This incineration generated a large quantity of residual ash. In order to reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total, the city has revamped its collection program. This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number.

Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year.
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

Every question of the day will be followed by an expert reply by GMATNinja in 12-15 hours. Stay tuned! Post your answers and explanations to earn kudos.


Summary of statement: Last year all refuse was incinerated but it created a large amount of residual ash. This year the city revamped collection program to reduce amount of ash by half. The city will now separate recycling to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to cut the the amount incinerated in half.


Which of the following is required for the revamped collection program to achieve its aim?

(A) This year, no materials that city services could separate for recycling will be incinerated.eliminate because it does not provide new information
(B) Separating recyclable materials from materials to be incinerated will cost Shelbyville less than half what it cost last year to dispose of the residual ash.out of scope because we are not interested in cost but reducing the amount of ash
(C) Refuse collected by city services will contain a larger proportion of recyclable materials this year than it did last year.Eliminate- we weren't given any information about hte proportion in the prompt
(D) The refuse incinerated this year will generate no more residual ash per truckload incinerated than did the refuse incinerated last year. Keep-this gives us exactly the results we would need for the program to be successful
(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.Eliminate- we don't have this information from the prompt
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Re: QOTD: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2017, 12:56
I can see the logic behind D. D directly addresses the information on the number of truckloads, but why is E not correct?

- All refuse last year was incinerated.
- The aim is to reduce the residual ash to half of last year's total.
- This year, the city will separate some refuse for recycling. This is intended to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse.

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

If the total quantity of refuse collected was doubled this year, then it is possible that even with recycling that the amount of residual ash created could be higher this year.
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QOTD: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was [#permalink]

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New post 20 Dec 2017, 14:50
MEOWSER wrote:
I can see the logic behind D. D directly addresses the information on the number of truckloads, but why is E not correct?

- All refuse last year was incinerated.
- The aim is to reduce the residual ash to half of last year's total.
- This year, the city will separate some refuse for recycling. This is intended to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse.

(E) The total quantity of refuse collected by Shelbyville city service's this year will be no greater than that collected last year.

If the total quantity of refuse collected was doubled this year, then it is possible that even with recycling that the amount of residual ash created could be higher this year.


Hello,

I think the answer to your question relies on the following statement:

"This year city services will separate for recycling enough refuse to reduce the number of truckloads of refuse to be incinerated to half of last year's number"

Note that the aim is "[to] reduce the amount of residual ash Shelbyville generates this year to half of last year's total".

The number of truckloads will be half of the last year, what is not necessarily half of the current year.

Scenario A:
- Last year: 12 truckloads
- Residual Ash: 12 truckloads x ash density

- Current year: 12 truckloads
- Reduction: 6 Truckloads
- Residual Ash reduction: 6 Truckloads x new ash 'density'

Scenario B:
- Last year: 12 truckloads
- Residual Ash: 12 truckloads x ash 'density'

- Current year: 30 truckloads
- Reduction: 6 Truckloads
- Residual Ash reduction: 6 Truckloads x new ash 'density'

On both scenarios, reduction is half the last year's total, although it is not half of the current year. The only premise needed for that is the ash 'density' be the same last year and this year.

Best,
QOTD: Last year all refuse collected by Shelbyville city services was   [#permalink] 20 Dec 2017, 14:50
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